PSY 101 Exam #1 (Ch. 1 and 3)
PSY 101 Exam #1 (Ch. 1 and 3) PSY 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ju Lee on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Heather Cate in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 291 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Psychology Exam #1 Study Guide- Professor Cate’s Class Highlight = Important People Highlight = Important Idea Highlight = Key Term CHAPTER 1: THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Four “BIG” words: PREDICT CONTROL ADAPTIVE CHANGE We survive to reproduce Survival Cate told us humans ask themselves: “Can we eat it, or have sex with it?” To see if anything is dangerous. Shifting definitions of “Psychology” (made up of three words in one definition) SCIENCE: “The science of mental life” (1900) Wilhelm Wundt Edward Titchener BEHAVIORISM: “The scientific study of observable behavior” (1920s) John B. Watson (behaviorist) Study and experiment with observable behavior Experimented with conditioned responses (an automatic response established by training to an ordinarily neutral stimulus ex: ring a bell and a dog knows it’s dinner time) B.F. Skinner (behaviorist) Studied the way consequences shape behavior Saw little value in introspection (informally reflect on our thoughts, emotions, memories, etc.to examine what they mean) MENTAL PROCESSES: Internal mental processes/ neuroscience (1960s) Sigmund Freud Founder of psychoanalysis (Freudian/Psychoanalytic Psychology) Studied ad helped people with bunch of mental disorders Study personality and therapy Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers (humanists) Studied people who were thriving rather than those who had psychological problems. Developed theories and treatments to help people feel accepted and to reach their full potential. Psychology: Science of behavior and mental processes. Science: a way of asking and answering questions; filter opinions and evaluate ideas with careful observation and rigorous analysis. Behavior: anything an organism does Mental Processes: internal, subjective… sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, feelings. Big Issue in Psychology: Nature vs. Nurture NATURE (our traits already set in place at birth): Plato: Ideas such as “the good” and “beauty” are inborn. Descartes: Some ideas are innate. Charles Darwin: Some traits become part of our nature through natural selection: they help us survive long enough to pass the traits to the next generation. NURTURE (our traits develop in response to our environment/experience): Aristotle: All knowledge come through the senses. John Locke: The mind is a blank slate (blank chalkboard or screen) “written on” by experience. Biology Plus Environment Part of psychology’s three “biopsychosocial” levels of analysis: The deep level Biology: genes, brain, neuro-transmitters, survival, reflexes, sensation (biologically prepared; automatic) In the middle Psychology: thoughts, emotions, moods, choices, behaviors, traits, motivations, knowledge, perceptions The outer level Environment: social influences, culture, education, relationships (bond with other people) 3 Levels has influences on some psychological phenomenon (Déjà vu- feeling that the event has already happened or is repeating itself) Biological Influences: Natural selection of adaptive traits Genetic predispositions (a vulnerability to forming a disorder or illness; if parents have it, likely the child will have it too) responding to environment Brain mechanisms Hormonal influences Psychological influences: Learned fears and other learned expectations Emotional responses Cognitive processing (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) and perceptual interpretations ( interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment) Social- cultural influences: Presence of others Cultural, societal, and family expectations Peer and other group influences Compelling models (such as in the media) There are many perspectives for describing psychological phenomena: Cognitive Perspective: How reliable is memory? How can we improve our thinking? Social-cultural: Could our behavior, skills, and attitudes be “downloads” from our culture? You can’t have humor without thinking and culture. Behavioral genetics: Could our behavior, skills, and attitudes be genetically programmed instincts? Biological thing to flirt Neuroscience: What role do our bodies and brains play in emotions? How is pain inhibited? Can we trust our senses? Using our right frontal lobes, we know the social rules Psychodynamic: Do inner childhood conflicts still plague me and affect my behavior? Behaviorist: How are our problematic behaviors reinforced? How do our fears become conditioned? What can we do to change these fears? Evolutionary: Why are humans prone to panic, anger, and making irrational judgement? Psychology’s Subfields Basic research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Biological Developmental Cognitive Personality Social Positive Psychology (the scientific study of human functioning with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive) Applied Research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Clinical Psychology (studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders) Counseling Psychology (assist with people with problems in living (often related with school, work, or relationships and in achieving greater well-being) Educational Psychology Industrial- organizational Community Psychology Psychology Professions Psychiatrists are physicians, M.D. s or D.O.s. They can prescribe medication. Social work, counseling, and marriage and family therapy, master’s degree who can diagnose or treat mental disorders, may be trained to do psychotherapy. Need for Psychological Science: Overview Typical error in hindsight, overconfidence, and coincidence (saying “I knew that would happen” but in reality you know there were many possibilities) The scientific attitude and critical thinking (science= critical thinking= question everything) The scientific method: theories and hypotheses Gathering psychological data: description, correlation, and experimentation/causation Describing data: significant differences Issues in psychology: laboratory vs. life, culture and gender, values and ethics “Think critically” with psychological science… does this mean criticize? Critical thinking: refers to a more careful style of forming and evaluating knowledge than simply using intuition (instinct). Along with the scientific method, critical thinking will help develop more effective and accurate way to figure out what makes people do, think, and feel the things they do. Although our personal experiences give us many ideas about the people around us, psychological science will help us evaluate and test those ideas in order to have more accurate knowledge about mind, feelings, and behavior. 5 details to consider when you are critically thinking: See if there was a flaw in how the information was collected Consider if there are other possible explanations for the facts or results Look for hidden assumptions and decide if you agree. Look for hidden bias, politics, values or personal connections. Put aside your own assumptions and biases, and look at the evidence. How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions: The Scientific Method The scientific method is the process of testing our ideas about the world by 1. Turning our theories into testable predictions. (If the data doesn’t fit our idea, then we modify our hypotheses, set up a study or experiment, and ty again to see if the world fits our predictions) 2. Gather information related to our predictions. 3. Analyzing whether the data fits with our ideas. Scientific method: Tools and Goals The basics: Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Operational Definitions: a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example: human intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures.” Replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Research goals/types: Description Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. Prediction Causation Experiment: a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables- manipulated; whose effect is being studied) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable- outcome factor; may change in the response to manipulations of independent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. CHAPTER 3: CONCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND Brain States and Consciousness: Topics to be aware of: Defining Consciousness Having a “Dual-Track” Mind Selective Attention/Inattention Consciousness is… Alertness; being awake vs. being unconscious Self-awareness; the ability to think about self Having free will; being able to make a “conscious” decision A person’s mental content, thoughts, and imaginings Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment. Psychology’s Relationship to this Topic: Psychology was once defined as “the description and explanation of states of consciousness now consciousness is just one topic among many Cognitive neuroscience: allows us to revisit this topic and see how the brain is involved. (ex: when there’s fog, we automatically squint our eyes to see) Conscious vs. Unconscious Activity: THE DUAL-TRACK MIND Conscious “high” track: our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing Ex: problem solving, naming the object, defining a word Unconscious “low” track: our minds perform automatic actions, often without being aware of them Ex: walking, acquiring phobias, processing sensory details into perceptions and memories Example of dual Processing: Sensation and Perception Automatic processing: Conscious track says “I saw a bird!” but the unconscious track see color, motion, form, and depth. Selective Attention and Selective Inattention: Selective Attention: what we focus on, what we notice When driving, chewing gum, walking, talking, there’s a limit to how much we can pay attention to simultaneously bunch of information coming at our sense every second. So, we have selective attention (our brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice) Good thing about it: can focus our mental spotlight on a conversation even when there’s other conversations going around (cocktail party effect) Bad thing about it: hyper focus on a conversation while driving is putting driver at risk. Selective Inattention: what we are not focused on, what we do not notice Refers to our failure to notice part of our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere. When we have this and people talk to us we go “huh?” Inattentional blindness: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere. Some magic tricks take advantage of this phenomenon Change blindness: failing to notice changes in the environment. In a movie the director changed actors and clothes for the scene but students only said the clothes changed because this was another activity of selective inattention but those who admitted not noticing were showing their ability to resist hindsight bias and the overconfidence error they learned about the previous chapter. Sleep and Dreams: Topics to Dream About: Biological rhythms and sleep Theories of why we need sleep Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders Why and what we dream Daily Rhythms and Sleep: The circadian (“about a day”) rhythm refers to the body’s natural 24- hour cycle, roughly matched to the day/night cycle of light and dark. Light affects this rhythm through a process involving the brain. What changes during the 24 hours? Over the 24 hour cycle, the following factors carry, rising and falling over the course of day and night: Body temperature Arousal/energy Mental sharpness “Larks” and “Owls” Daily rhythms vary from person to person and with age Evening peak- 20 year old “owls” Morning peak- 50 year old “larks” Sleep Stages and Sleep Cycles: What is measured? Sleep Stages: we “cycle” through all the sleep stage in about 90 minutes on avg. There are 4 types of sleep: REM: Beta and Alpha waves NREM-1 NREM-2: theta waves (sleep spindle: bursts of activity) NREM-3: delta waves; when dreams usually occur (deep sleep) Eye movements EMG (muscle tension) EEG (brain waves) Not yet asleep: Beta and Alpha waves Beta: awake Alpha: beginning to fall asleep; the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state. Falling asleep: yawing so you can have a brief boost in alertness as brain metabolism is slowing Breathing slows Brain waves- slower and irregular Hypnagogic (while falling asleep) hallucinations Brain waves change from alpha waves to NREM-1 REM Sleep: Eugene Aserinsky’s discovery (1953): dreams occurred during periods of wild brain activity and rapid eye movements (REM Sleep) What happens during REM sleep? Heart rate rises and breathing becomes rapid “Sleep paralysis” occurs when the brain stem blocks the motor cortex’s messages and the muscles don’t move. This is sometimes known as “paradoxical sleep”; the brain is active but the body is immobile. Genitals are aroused (not caused by dream content) Why do we sleep? What determines the quantity ad rhythm of sleep? Age: newborns – 16 hours of sleep, adults – 8 hours or less Individual (genetic) variation: 6 to 9 hours or more considered normal Culture: north Americans sleep less than others, and less than they used to, perhaps because of the use of light bulbs (rhythm can be affected by light, which suppresses the relaxing hormone melatonin) Jet lag: circadian rhythm is hard to shift when gone to another country Why do we sleep? What does sleep do for us? Restores and repairs the brain and body (keeps body healthy) Builds and strengthens memories Facilitates creative problem solving (ex: when you don’t understand a math problem but when you solve it the next day it works) The time when growth hormones are active (important for little kids) Sleep Loss/Deprivation= Accident Risk Sleep loss results in more accidents, probably caused by impaired attention and slower reaction. Sleep loss effects body system: Brain: diminished attentional focus and memory consolidation, and increased risk of depression Immune System: suppression of immune cell production and increased risk of viral infections, such as colds Fat cells: increased production and greater risk of obesity Joints: increased inflammation and arthritis Heart: increased risk of high blood pressure Stomach: Increased hunger- arousing ghrelin and decreased hunger-suppressing leptin Muscles: reduced strength, and slower reaction time and motor learning Sleep Disorders Insomnia: persistent inability to fall asleep or stay asleep Narcolepsy (“numb seizure”): sleep attacks, even a collapse into REM/paralyzed sleep, at inopportune times usually stress makes the attack more likely; always exhausted Sleep apnea (“with no breath”): repeated awakening after breathing stops; time in bed is not restorative because keep waking up not just snoring Night terrors: refer to sudden scared- looking behavior, with rapid heartbeat and breathing (have eyes wide open but is asleep) Sleepwalking and sleep talking: run in families, so genetic basis mostly affect children and occur in NREM-3 sleep. This is not dreaming. Dreams: the stream of images, actions, and feelings, experienced while in REM sleep but later has difficulty remembering. What we dream about: Include negative event or emotion, especially failure dreams (being pursed, attacked, rejected, or having bad luck) ex: dream about going to school and then you are naked Do not include sexuality Incorporate real-world sounds and other stimuli Include images from recent, traumatic, or frequent experiences. Theories about Functions of Dreams: come from random firing Wish fulfillment (Freud’s psychoanalytic theory): dreams provide a “psychic safety valve”; they often express unacceptable feelings, and contain both manifest (remembered) content and a latent content (hidden meaning). (Lacks any specific support; dreams may be interpreted in many different ways) Information- processing: dreams help us sort out the day’s events and consolidate our memories. (But why do we sometimes dream about things we have not experienced) Physiological function: regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways. (This may be true, but it does not explain why we experience meaningful dreams) Activation- synthesis: REM sleep triggers impulses that evoke random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories. (But the individual’s brain is weaving the stories, which still tells us something about the dreamer) Cognitive- developmental theory: dream content reflects the dreamers’ cognitive development—his or her knowledge and understanding. (But does not address the neuroscience of dreams)
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