Study Guide Test One
Study Guide Test One KNES 2169
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanavia Bates on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KNES 2169 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Mike Turner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 282 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Kinesiology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Anatomy & Physiology Study Guide Exam One Endocrine System 1. Chemicals communicate with tissues/cells a. A large variety of hormones are produced nearly all of them can be classified chemically as either amino acid based or steroids. i. Amino acids: molecular sizes varies widely in this group; from simple amino acid derivatives, to peptides, to proteins. ii. Steroids: are synthesized from cholesterol hormones produced by the major endocrine organs only gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are steroids. 2. Describe gland and a hormone a. A gland is an organ in the human or animal body that secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings i. Sweat glands ii. Prostate glands iii. Gastric glands iv. Bile producing glands of the liver v. Salivary glands b. Hormones is a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as: i. Blood or sap to stimulate cells or tissues into action ii. Move through the bloodstream 3. Similar and differences of endocrine and nervous system a. Similar i. Both systems associated with the brain ii. May use same chemical messenger as neurotransmitter and hormone iii. Systems are cooperative b. Differences i. Mode of transport ii. Speed of response iii. Duration of response 4. Discuss how hormone works a. Characteristics i. Stability-half life ii. Communication-interaction with target iii. Distribution iv. Hormones dissolve in blood plasma and are transported in unbound or are reversibly bound to plasma proteins v. Hormones are disturbed quickly because they circulate in the blood vi. The hormones epinephrine binds to certain smooth muscles cells in blood vessel walls. b. Pattern of action i. Chronic hormone regulation ii. Acute hormone regulation iii. Episodic (cyclic) hormone regulation c. Control i. Negative feedback system: 1. As levels of a hormone rise, it causes target organ effects, which then feedback to inhibit further hormone release. Blood level of many hormones vary only within a narrow range ii. Humoral: 1. Some endocrine glands secrete their hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of certain critical ions and nutrients. 2. Humoral stimuli are the simplest endocrine controls 3. Blood borne chemicals iii. Neural: 1. nerve fibers stimulate hormones release iv. Hormonal: 1. many endocrine glands release their hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine glands 2. as blood levels of the hormones produced by the final target glands increase, they inhibit the release of anterior pituitary hormones and thus their own release 5. How do receptors work a. Specificity i. Binding site : by prompting the cell to perform, or turn on, some gene determined preprogrammed function ii. Receptor site : by contrast, thyroxine is the principal hormone stimulating cellular metabolism and nearly all body cells have thyroxine receptors iii. Receptors are dynamic structures b. Number i. Down regulation insulin receptors (ex. Type 2 Diabetes) : desensitizes the target cells, so they respond less vigorously to hormonal stimulation, preventing them from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels ii. Up-regulation: FSH stimuli of the ovary causes an increase of LH receptors – prolonged exposure to high hormone concentrations can decrease the number of receptors for that hormone iii. Hormones influence not only the number of their own receptors but also the number of receptors that respond to other hormones c. Classes i. Lipid soluble hormones: (steroid and thyroid hormones) act on receptors inside the cell, which directly activate genes. ii. Water soluble hormones: (all amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormone) act on receptors in the plasma membrane. These receptors are usually coupled via regulatory molecules called G proteins to one or more intracellularsecond messengers which mediate the target cell’s response. 6. Responsibilities of the endocrine system a. Influences every cellular function within the body b. Instrument in regulating mood, growth, and development, tissue function, metabolism and reproduction c. In charge of the body processes (cell growth) 7. Discuss hypothalamus a. Structure: i. Regulates secretions of anterior pituitary 1. It has been dethroned by the hypothalamus, which is now known to control the activity of the anterior pituitary 2. Sex anterior pituitary hormones, all of them of proteins: a. Growth hormones b. Thyroid-stimulating c. Adrenocorticotropic d. Follicle-stimulating e. Luteinizing f. Prolactin 3. When the anterior pituitary receives an appropriate chemical stimulus from the hypothalamus, it releases one or more of its hormones. b. Hormones secreted: i. Growth hormone 1. GH is regulated chiefly by two hypothalamic hormones with antagonistic effects 2. GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) stimulates GH release, while GHIH (growth hormone inhibiting hormone) also called somatostatin inhibits it 3. GHIH release is triggered by the feedback of GH and IGFs. ii. Stimulated by GHRH release, which is triggered by low blood levels of GH as well as by a number of secondary triggers including hypoglycemia, increases in blood levels of amino acids, low levels of fatty acids, exercise, and other type of stressors iii. Thyroid stimulating iv. Adrenocorticotropic v. Follicle stimulating vi. Luteinizing vii. Prolactin c. Actions of hormones: i. Produce growth hormone inhibiting hormone d. Target organs: i. Liver ii. Muscle iii. Bone iv. Cartilage v. Other tissues vi. Thyroid gland vii. Adrenal cortex viii. Ovaries and testes ix. Breast secretory tissue 8. Discuss pituitary gland a. Structure: i. Neurohormones (posterior): receive ready made from the hypothalamus. It stores a hormone storage area and not a true endocrine gland that manufactures hormones. Neurohypophysis: a term commonly used incorrectly to indicate the posterior lobe alone ii. Adenohypophysis (anterior): composed of glandular tissues, and it manufactures and releases a number of hormones. The veins leaving the pituitary drain into the Dural sinuses iii. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & Oxytocin are both made by hypothalamic neurons and stored in posterior pituitary b. Hormones secreted: i. Neuropeptides (posterior) c. Actions of hormones: i. d. Target organs: i. Uterus ii. Breast iii. Kidneys 9. Discuss thyroid gland a. Structure: i. The largest pure endocrine gland in the body ii. Only gland that store hormone composed of follicles and parafollicular cells iii. The parafollicular cells lie in the follicular epithelium but protrude into the soft connective tissue that separates and surrounds the thyroid follicles. b. Hormones secreted: i. Iodine enters follicular by active transport ii. Secretion triggered by high Ca 2+concentration in blood; acts to decrease Ca 2+concentration c. Actions of hormones: i. Tri-iodothyronine ii. Tetra iodothyronine iii. Thyroxine iv. Transport in blood bound to thyroxine binding globulin from the liver v. Increase rate of glucose, fat, protein metabolism in many tissues thus increasingly body temperature d. Target organs: i. Bone 1. Decreases osteoclast activity, lengthens life span of osteoblasts. 10.Discuss parathyroid gland a. Structure: i. embedded in thyroid b. Hormones secreted: i. PTH (Parathyroid gland): the protein hormone of these glands, is the single most important hormone controlling calcium balance in the blood c. Action of hormones: i. stimulates osteoclasts ii. increase blood calcium and phosphate levels iii. increase synthesis of vitamin D iv. promotes calcium reabsorption v. PTH stimulates this transformation d. Target organs: i. The skeleton (which contains considerable amounts of calcium salts in its matrix) ii. Kidneys iii. The intestine 11.Discuss adrenal gland a. Structure: i. effects short-lived ii. hormones rapidly metabolized b. Hormones secreted: i. Hormones of adrenal medulla – Catecholamine 1. Epinephrine a. Increase blood levels of glucose b. Increases fat breakdown in adipose tissue c. Causes dilation of blood vessels in skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles 2. Norepinephrine a. Secretes of hormones b. Prepare body for physical activity ii. Hormones of Adrenal Cortex 1. Mineralocorticoids – Zona glomerulosa a. Stimulated by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism, elevated blood K+ levels, and ACTH 2. Glucocorticoids a. Stimulated by ACTH 3. Gonadocorticoids a. Stimulated by ACTH, mechanism of inhibition incompletely understood, but feedback inhibition not seen c. Actions of hormones: i. d. Target organs: i. Muscles 12. Discuss the pancreas a. Structure: i. Exocrine glands ii. Endocrine glands b. Hormones secreted: i. Alpha cells – glucagon > hyperglycemic hormone ii. Beta cells – insulin > hypoglycemic hormone iii. Delta cells – somatostatin c. Actions of hormones: i. Alpha cells 1. Breakdown of glycogen to glucose 2. Synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and from non- carbohydrate molecules 3. Release of glucose to the blood by liver cells, causing blood glucose levels to rise 4. Glucagon release is suppressed by rising blood glucose levels, insulin, and somatostatin ii. Beta cells 1. Its main effect is to lower blood glucose levels but it also influences protein and fat metabolism 2. Enhances membrane transport of glucose into most body cells, especially muscle and fat cells 3. Inhibits the breakdown of glycogen to glucose 4. Inhibits the conversion of amino acids or fats to glucose. These inhibiting effects counter any metabolic activity that would increase plasma levels of glucose d. Target organs: i. Stomach ii. Intestines 13.Indigestion of meal a. Hormones secreted: i. Parasympathetic stimulation ii. Increasing blood glucose levels caused increased insulin secretion from the process, increased insulin secretion iii. Glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids b. Influence nutrient utilization i. Cause insulin secretion to decline ii. Cause elevated glucagon secreted iii. Lowered blood nutrient levels promote GH secretion iv. Promote GH secretion v. Promote cortisol secretion 14.During exercise a. Hormones secreted: i. Short term exercise 1. Glucagon – secretes from the pancreas 2. Epinephrine – secretes from adrenal medulla ii. Prolonged exercise 1. ATCH – stimulates increased cortisol secretion from the adrenal cortex b. Influence nutrient utilization i. Epinephrine increase the rate at which glycogen in muscle cells is broken down to glucose ii. Epinephrine and glucagon increases glycogen breakdown to glucose molecules in the liver iii. Cortisol increases the breakdown of lipids and the use of fatty acids by muscle cells as an energy source. iv. Cortisol increases protein breakdown in muscle and the liver to amino acids and increases glucose synthesis from amino acids and from some components of fat, such as glycerol. 15.Discuss ovaries and testes a. Structure: i. Male and females gonads produce steroid sex hormones; produced by adrenal cortical cells ii. Gonadotropins regulate the release of gonadal hormones b. Hormones secreted: i. Estrogen and progesterone ii. Produce sperm and male sex hormones, primarily testosterone c. Actions of hormones: i. The estrogens are responsible for maturation of the reproductive organs and the appearance of the secondary sex characteristics of females at puberty ii. During puberty, testosterone initiates the maturation of the male reproductive organs and the appearance of secondary se characteristics and sex drive d. Target organs: i. Ovary ii. Human chronic gonadotropin 16.Discuss the pineal gland a. Structure: i. Calcium salts: these salts are radiopaque, making the pineal gland a handy landmark for determining brain orientation in X rays b. Hormones secreted: i. Melatonin: amine hormone derived from serotonin ii. Pinealocytes: are arranged in compact cords and clusters c. Action of hormones: i. Melatonin 1. Concentrations in the blood in the blood rise and fall in a diurnal cycle 2. Melatonin also controls the production of protective antioxidant and detoxification molecules within cells ii. Produces melatonin and arginine vasotocin (helps us sleep) d. Target organs: i. Brain 17.Discuss thymus gland a. Structure: i. White blood cells b. Hormones secreted: i. Thymosin ii. GI tract c. Actions of hormones: i. Thymosin: development of the immune system ii. GI tract: several hormones regulate digestion and enzyme secretion d. Target organs: Blood 1. Functions of blood a. Distribution, Regulation, Protection i. Transport gases, nutrients waste products ii. Transport of processed molecules iii. Transport of regulatory molecules iv. Regulation of pH and osmosis v. Maintenance of body temperature vi. Protection against foreign substance vii. Clot formation 2. Composition of blood a. Iron required for oxygen transport b. Four globin molecules c. Heme molecules, each containing one iron atom 3. Red blood cells produced, their functions, structure a. Produced: stem cells > proerythroblasts > early erythroblasts > intermediate erythroblasts > late erythroblasts > reticulocytes b. Structure: erythropoietin (produced by kidney) in response to low blood O2 levels – hormone stimulates RBC production; last 120 days in circulation (red blood cells) c. Function: erythrocytes; oxygen from lungs to tissue, carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs 4. Explain erythropoiesis a. Production of red blood cells b. Last 120 days in circulation (RBCs) c. Erythropoietin: hormone stimulates RBC product. Produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels 5. White blood cells a. Produced: b. Function: protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris c. Structure: leukocytes, granulocytes, leukocytes with granules in cytoplasm, a granulocytes, mononucle arleukocytes 6. Explain hemostasis a. Arrest of bleeding b. Events preventing excessive blood loss i. Vascular spasm ii. Platelet plug iii. Coagulation or blood clotting 7. Blood Types a. How many blood types: i. Type A ii. Type B iii. Type AB iv. Type O 8. Rh Factor a. Hemolytic disease of newborn b. First studied in rhesus monkeys c. Rh factor positive (85% of people d. Rh factor negative
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