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ECOL1000 test 1, study guide

by: Jennifer Veliz

ECOL1000 test 1, study guide ECOL 1000

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Jennifer Veliz

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This is a study for the first test!
Environmental Issues
Dr. Scott Connelly
Study Guide
Ecol 1000
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Veliz on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ECOL 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Scott Connelly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 01/30/16
Ecology  1000  (Dr.  Connelly)  Exam  1  Study  Guide     Definitions            Topics        Case  studies        Other  Important     Ecology-­‐  Scientific  study  of  interactions  between  organisms  and  their  environment  (abiotic   and  biotic).   Environmental  Science-­‐  Study  of  all  aspects  of  the  environment  (physical,  chemical,  and   biological)  and  how  these  affect  humans  and  vice  versa.       Ø Population  Growth   • The  first  period  of  population  growth  was  caused  by  global  migration     • The  second  period  was  initiated  by  the  introduction  of  agriculture   • The  third  commenced  with  the  Industrial  Revolution     • Changes  in  a  population  are  caused  by  births,  immigration,  deaths,  and  emigration.     (ΔN= B+I+D+E) Two  models  of  population  growth:   • Exponential  (logistic)  growth-­‐  Used  for  populations  with  continuous  (not   seasonally)  reproduction  and/or  overlapping  generations.     Assumptions-­‐     Essential  resources  (such  as  space  and  food)  are  unlimited.   Environment  doesn’t  have  seasonal  or  annual  variation     • Geometric  Growth-­‐  Used  for  populations  with  reproduction  at  specific  periods.       v Rate  of  change  in  population  is  calculated  with:     dN/dt=  rN   N=Population  size   t=time   r=  per-­‐capita  growth  rate   • Population  growth  is  rapid  (exponential)  and  doesn’t  depend  on  density.   • Growth  rate  decreases  and  eventually  becomes  zero  when  the  resources  are   unavailable.   • Populations  with  lower  birth  rates  have  higher  wealth.       • Life  tables-­‐  Statistics relating to the age-specific schedules of survival and reproduction. • Cohort-­‐  Group  of  same-­‐age  people.     • Carrying  capacity  (K)-­‐  Number  of  individuals  an  environment  can  support  without   being  destroyed.   v Logistic  model  of  population  growth:   dN/dt=  rN  (1-­‐  N/K)     • This  decreases  population  growth  as  population  size  approaches  carrying   capacity.   • Once  carrying  capacity  is  reached,  a  die-­‐off  happens  due  to  lack  of  resources.       • Density-­‐dependent  factors-­‐  Factors  that  control  the  population  by  influencing  the   growth  according  with  population  size.     -­‐    Resource  Availability   -­‐    Competition   -­‐    Disease     • Density-­‐independent  factors-­‐  Affect  population  growth  regardless  of  population   size.   -­‐ Temperature   -­‐ Precipitation   -­‐ Catastrophic  disturbances     • Regulation-­‐  Tendency  of  a  population  to  decrease  in  size  when  it’s  above  a  certain   level,  and  increase  if  it’s  below  that  level.     -­‐ Population  can  only  be  regulated  by  density-­‐dependent  factors.         Ø Ecosystem  Services  &  Environmental  Economics     o Case  Study-­‐  Interface  Carpet  Company   • Leading  seller  of  carpet  tiles  in  1994.   • Led  by  Ray  Anderson   • Over  $1  billion/year  sales   • Significant  amounts  of  air  and  water   • Although  they  would  have  up  to  6  tops  of  landfill  waste  per  day,  they  complied   with  environmental  laws   • After  Anderson  read  “The  Ecology  of  Commerce”  by  Paul  Hawken,  he  realized  we   can’t  keep  consuming  more  than  the  environment  is  able  to  renew.       Ecological  Footprint-­‐  Land  needed  to  provide  resources  and  assimilate  waste.   • Determined  by  population’s  size  and  amount  of  resources  used  per  person.       Natural  capital-­‐  range  of  natural  resources  provided  by  ecosystems.     • Anderson’s  goal:  build  a  sustainable  environmental  sound  business,   -­‐ Not  only  minimize  our  impact  on  nature,  but  also  understand  that  our   resources  come  form  nature.     -­‐ Interface  started  using  “bio  mimicry”  (products  imitate  nature).   They  replaced  glues  from  carpets  with  “gecko”  lizard  tech.       -­‐ Interface  carpets  declined  fossil  fuel  use  by  55%  and  total  energy  by  43%   between  1994-­‐2006.     -­‐ Costumers  could  also  replace  small  pieces  of  damaged  carpet  with   TacTiles  adhesive.           Anderson’s  pathway  to  sustainability:   1. Eliminate  waste   2. Benign  emissions   3. Renewable  energy   4. Close  the  loop   5. Efficient  transportation   6. Sensitize  stakeholders  (educated/train)   7. Redesigning  commerce  (chance  traditional  way  of  doing  business)     • Ecosystem  services-­‐  conditions  and  processes  of  natural  ecosystems  and  species  that   provide  some  value  to  humans.     One  example:  services  of  honeybees   • Colony  collapse  disorder  (CCD)-­‐  when  the  majority  of  worker  bees  disappear  and   leave  behind  the  queen,  plenty  of  food  and  a  few  nurse  bees  to  care  for  the  remaining   immature  bees  and  the  queen.     o Case  Study:  Aral  Sea   • Decline  in  water  resources   • Limited  water  use  for  local  crops   • Sea  has  potential  to  disappear  by  2020   • Fishing  has  decreased   • Water  quality  declined   • Increase  of  toxins  and  diseases.       o Case  study:  Lake  Victoria   • New  species  can  cause  loss  of  ecosystem  services   • Ex:  Nile  perch  was  introduced  in  Lake  Victoria  in  1950s   • Caused  extinction  or  near  extinctions  of  native  fish   • Ex:  Cichlids  made  up  80%  of  biomass  up  until  1970s,  but  by  1980s,  it  only  made   up  1%   • Large  commercial  operations  pushed  out  local  fishermen.       • Bycatch:  fish  or  other  marine  species  that  is  caught  unintentionally  while  catching   certain  target  species  and  target  sizes  of  fish,  crabs  etc.   • Worldwide  fisheries  throw  away  25%  of  their  catch.       • Bycatch  is  an  example  of  how  we  destroy  some  part  of  the  ecosystem  to  take    advantage  of  another.       • New  technology  has  been  created  to  decrease  bycatch,  one  which  is  the  Turtle    Excluder  Device  (TEDs).  -­‐This  means  that  if  a  turtle  has  been  caught   unintentionally,  it  can  break  the  net  and  be  free.     -­‐There  are  cons  to  this:     1.The  cost  comes  out  of  the  fisherman’s  pocket.       2.Fishermen  can  lose  part  of  their  targeted  animals  once  the  net  gets  broken    in  an   area.       • Externalities-­‐  cost  that  businesses  do  not  pay  directly,  and  therefor  are  not  reflected  in   the  price  the  consumer  pays  for  the  product.  Externalities  are  costs  without  any  benefits.       v Total  Economic  value  is  divided  into  two  parts:  Use  value  and  Nonuse  value.       • Use  value  consist  of:  Direct  and  Indirect       • Nonuse  value  consist  of:  Bequest  and  Existence       • In  between  is  an  Option  value  classification.     1. Direct  use  value-­‐  directly  using  a  resource.  For  example:  catching  a  fish  and   eating  it.       2. Indirect  use  value-­‐  Indirectly  using  a  resource  as  long  as  we  keep  it  in  good   shape.  (Using  a  resource  that  probably  wasn’t  meant  to  be  used  the  way  it  is)  EX:   Villagers  in  India  planted  mangrove  saplings  to  set  a  world  record,  but    when  a   tsunami  struck,  those  mangroves  protected  the  village  from  major  damage.     3. Option  Value-­‐  Not  using  a  resource,  but  knowing  that  it  will  have  value  in  the    future,  therefor  it  is  valuable  today.  (Protecting  a  resource  for  future  use)       4. Bequest  value-­‐  Protecting  resources  for  future  generations,  although  they  are    not  useful  today.       5. Existence  value-­‐  the  right  for  something  to  exist  whether  we  use  it  or  not.    Ex:   Blue  whales  and  uninhabited  lands.         • Sustainable  development-­‐  meeting  the  needs  of  the  present  population  without   compromising  the  ability  of  future  generations  to  meet  their  own  needs.     Ø Ecosystem  Services:  Water  Resources     • 10%  of  Earth’s  population  does  not  have  enough  water.   • Nearly  40%  must  drink  and  do  other  activities  (such  as  bathing)  using  the  same   water,  which    doesn’t  meet  even  the  most  minimal  standards  of  sanitation.       • Freshwater  is  a  limited  resource  and  is  being  used  up  faster  than  it  can   be  replenished.     • 97%  of  the  water  is  salt  water  (found  in  oceans),  while  the  other  3%  is  freshwater.     87%  of  freshwater  is  in  glaciers  and  ice  caps.  12%  is  in  groundwater,  and  1%  is   found  in  river,  lakes,  and  other  organisms.         • Hydrological  cycle-­‐  Linkage  of  all  marine  &  freshwater  aquatic  environments;   process  of  water  travel  from  atmosphere  to  the  earth  and  back  to  the  atmosphere.     -­‐  The  rising  and  falling  of  gases  yield  the  stages  of  this  cycle.   -­‐At  each  state  within  this  cycle,  bonds  are  made  and  broken.   -­‐Toxins  can  be  picked  up,  transported,  or  eliminated.     • Watershed-­‐  Land  area  surrounding  a  body  of  water  over  which  water  could  flow   and  potentially  enter  that  body  of  water.     World  Health  Organization  estimates:   • 1  in  3  people  lack  access  to  clean  water.   • 3,000  people  die  from  water-­‐borne  illnesses  in  Africa  daily   • It  is  predicted  that  2  out  of  3  people  will  face  water  shortages  by  2025   • Nearby  surface  waters  (without  proper  sanitation)  are  used  by  many  developing   countries.       • Water  is  one  of  the  most  ubiquitous,  yet  scare  resources  on  Earth!     • Aquifer-­‐  An  underground  region  of  soil  or  porous  rock  which  is  saturated  with   water   • Infiltration-­‐  The  process  of  water  soaking  into  the  ground.     (Hopefully  recharging  the  aquifer)     • Water  Table-­‐  The  top  of  the  underground  water-­‐saturated  region   • Saltwater  Intrusion-­‐  infiltration  of  saltwater  in  freshwater.       • GA  gets  most  of  its  water  from  the  ACT  &  ACF  River  Basins.   • To  solve  the  water  shortages,  rivers  are  dammed  and  reservoirs  are  created.  (Lake   Lanier  in  GA  is  a  result  from  this).   • Benefits  from  damming  rivers  and  creating  reservoirs:   -­‐ Source  of  freshwater   -­‐ Flood  control   -­‐ Electricity  production   -­‐ Boating,  fishing  &  other  recreation   • Downsides:   -­‐ Higher  potential  for  evaporation  during  hot  seasons.     -­‐ Others  live  downstream     o Case  Study:  Tri  State  War   • Apalachicola-­‐Chattahoochee-­‐Flint  (ACF)  and  Alabama-­‐Coosa-­‐Tallapoosa  (ACT)  are   the  two  river  basins  giving  GA  its  water.   • GA,  Alabama,  and  Florida  are  involved.   • Each  state  has  its  own  concerns  about  the  allocation  of  water.   • GA  (upstream  user)  wants  enough  water  to  continue  growing,  specially  the  Atlanta   area.   • Alabama  (downstream  user)  is  concerned  that  GA’s  use  of  water  will  limit  the  use  of   it  for  power  generation  and  fisheries.   • Florida  (downstream  user)  wants  enough  water  to  support  its  shellfish  industry  in   the  Apalachicola  Bay.     • Has  lasted  for  two  decades       o Case  Study:  Three  Gorges  Dam   • Massive  hydroelectric  dam  that  spans  the  Yangtze  River  in  China   • World’s  largest  power  station   • Became  fully  functional  in  2012   • Benefits:   -­‐ Produces  electricity   -­‐ Increased  Yangtze  River’s  shipping  capacity   -­‐ Reduced  potential  for  floods  downstream  by  providing  water  storage  space.   • Downsides:   -­‐ Chinese  government  relocated  1.2  million  residents  to  obtain  space  for  the   dam.   -­‐ Around  1,300  archaeological  sites  were  moved  or  lost  as  water  level  rose   over  300  ft.     -­‐ Has  Earthquake  potential  due  to  its  location  on  a  seismic  fault.   -­‐ Sediment  settles  upstream  instead  of  downstream.       • Conservation  is  needed  to  protect  our  water  resource.     • Behavior  change  is  needed,  along  with  new  technology  use.   • What  to  do  to  balance  water  budget?   1. Increase  reserves   2. Reduce  withdrawals   -­‐ Conservation   -­‐ Recycling  water   -­‐ Landscape  architecture     • Cuyahoga  River   -­‐ In  1969,  laws  regulating  what  could  be  discharged  into  waterways  didn’t    exist.       -­‐ So  much  pollution  had  contaminated  the  Cuyahoga  River  that  it  was  set  on    fire.       -­‐ Unlike  point  source  pollution  (ex:  pollution  from  wastewater  treatment   plants),  nonpoint  pollution  is  hard  to  pinpoint.         -­‐ Passage  of  the  Clean  Water  Act  (1972)  established  pollution  standards  and   management.     • Point  source-­‐  Discharging  pollutants  directly  into  a  body  of  water   • Nonpoint  sources-­‐  Pollution  entering  the  body  of  water  from  run  off,  air,  etc.  (not  a   specific  location).   • The  first  step  is  to  identify  the  types  and  sources  of  pollution.                  


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