ECOL1000 test 1, study guide
ECOL1000 test 1, study guide ECOL 1000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Veliz on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ECOL 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Scott Connelly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Ecology 1000 (Dr. Connelly) Exam 1 Study Guide Definitions Topics Case studies Other Important Ecology-‐ Scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment (abiotic and biotic). Environmental Science-‐ Study of all aspects of the environment (physical, chemical, and biological) and how these affect humans and vice versa. Ø Population Growth • The first period of population growth was caused by global migration • The second period was initiated by the introduction of agriculture • The third commenced with the Industrial Revolution • Changes in a population are caused by births, immigration, deaths, and emigration. (ΔN= B+I+D+E) Two models of population growth: • Exponential (logistic) growth-‐ Used for populations with continuous (not seasonally) reproduction and/or overlapping generations. Assumptions-‐ Essential resources (such as space and food) are unlimited. Environment doesn’t have seasonal or annual variation • Geometric Growth-‐ Used for populations with reproduction at specific periods. v Rate of change in population is calculated with: dN/dt= rN N=Population size t=time r= per-‐capita growth rate • Population growth is rapid (exponential) and doesn’t depend on density. • Growth rate decreases and eventually becomes zero when the resources are unavailable. • Populations with lower birth rates have higher wealth. • Life tables-‐ Statistics relating to the age-specific schedules of survival and reproduction. • Cohort-‐ Group of same-‐age people. • Carrying capacity (K)-‐ Number of individuals an environment can support without being destroyed. v Logistic model of population growth: dN/dt= rN (1-‐ N/K) • This decreases population growth as population size approaches carrying capacity. • Once carrying capacity is reached, a die-‐off happens due to lack of resources. • Density-‐dependent factors-‐ Factors that control the population by influencing the growth according with population size. -‐ Resource Availability -‐ Competition -‐ Disease • Density-‐independent factors-‐ Affect population growth regardless of population size. -‐ Temperature -‐ Precipitation -‐ Catastrophic disturbances • Regulation-‐ Tendency of a population to decrease in size when it’s above a certain level, and increase if it’s below that level. -‐ Population can only be regulated by density-‐dependent factors. Ø Ecosystem Services & Environmental Economics o Case Study-‐ Interface Carpet Company • Leading seller of carpet tiles in 1994. • Led by Ray Anderson • Over $1 billion/year sales • Significant amounts of air and water • Although they would have up to 6 tops of landfill waste per day, they complied with environmental laws • After Anderson read “The Ecology of Commerce” by Paul Hawken, he realized we can’t keep consuming more than the environment is able to renew. Ecological Footprint-‐ Land needed to provide resources and assimilate waste. • Determined by population’s size and amount of resources used per person. Natural capital-‐ range of natural resources provided by ecosystems. • Anderson’s goal: build a sustainable environmental sound business, -‐ Not only minimize our impact on nature, but also understand that our resources come form nature. -‐ Interface started using “bio mimicry” (products imitate nature). They replaced glues from carpets with “gecko” lizard tech. -‐ Interface carpets declined fossil fuel use by 55% and total energy by 43% between 1994-‐2006. -‐ Costumers could also replace small pieces of damaged carpet with TacTiles adhesive. Anderson’s pathway to sustainability: 1. Eliminate waste 2. Benign emissions 3. Renewable energy 4. Close the loop 5. Efficient transportation 6. Sensitize stakeholders (educated/train) 7. Redesigning commerce (chance traditional way of doing business) • Ecosystem services-‐ conditions and processes of natural ecosystems and species that provide some value to humans. One example: services of honeybees • Colony collapse disorder (CCD)-‐ when the majority of worker bees disappear and leave behind the queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees and the queen. o Case Study: Aral Sea • Decline in water resources • Limited water use for local crops • Sea has potential to disappear by 2020 • Fishing has decreased • Water quality declined • Increase of toxins and diseases. o Case study: Lake Victoria • New species can cause loss of ecosystem services • Ex: Nile perch was introduced in Lake Victoria in 1950s • Caused extinction or near extinctions of native fish • Ex: Cichlids made up 80% of biomass up until 1970s, but by 1980s, it only made up 1% • Large commercial operations pushed out local fishermen. • Bycatch: fish or other marine species that is caught unintentionally while catching certain target species and target sizes of fish, crabs etc. • Worldwide fisheries throw away 25% of their catch. • Bycatch is an example of how we destroy some part of the ecosystem to take advantage of another. • New technology has been created to decrease bycatch, one which is the Turtle Excluder Device (TEDs). -‐This means that if a turtle has been caught unintentionally, it can break the net and be free. -‐There are cons to this: 1.The cost comes out of the fisherman’s pocket. 2.Fishermen can lose part of their targeted animals once the net gets broken in an area. • Externalities-‐ cost that businesses do not pay directly, and therefor are not reflected in the price the consumer pays for the product. Externalities are costs without any benefits. v Total Economic value is divided into two parts: Use value and Nonuse value. • Use value consist of: Direct and Indirect • Nonuse value consist of: Bequest and Existence • In between is an Option value classification. 1. Direct use value-‐ directly using a resource. For example: catching a fish and eating it. 2. Indirect use value-‐ Indirectly using a resource as long as we keep it in good shape. (Using a resource that probably wasn’t meant to be used the way it is) EX: Villagers in India planted mangrove saplings to set a world record, but when a tsunami struck, those mangroves protected the village from major damage. 3. Option Value-‐ Not using a resource, but knowing that it will have value in the future, therefor it is valuable today. (Protecting a resource for future use) 4. Bequest value-‐ Protecting resources for future generations, although they are not useful today. 5. Existence value-‐ the right for something to exist whether we use it or not. Ex: Blue whales and uninhabited lands. • Sustainable development-‐ meeting the needs of the present population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Ø Ecosystem Services: Water Resources • 10% of Earth’s population does not have enough water. • Nearly 40% must drink and do other activities (such as bathing) using the same water, which doesn’t meet even the most minimal standards of sanitation. • Freshwater is a limited resource and is being used up faster than it can be replenished. • 97% of the water is salt water (found in oceans), while the other 3% is freshwater. 87% of freshwater is in glaciers and ice caps. 12% is in groundwater, and 1% is found in river, lakes, and other organisms. • Hydrological cycle-‐ Linkage of all marine & freshwater aquatic environments; process of water travel from atmosphere to the earth and back to the atmosphere. -‐ The rising and falling of gases yield the stages of this cycle. -‐At each state within this cycle, bonds are made and broken. -‐Toxins can be picked up, transported, or eliminated. • Watershed-‐ Land area surrounding a body of water over which water could flow and potentially enter that body of water. World Health Organization estimates: • 1 in 3 people lack access to clean water. • 3,000 people die from water-‐borne illnesses in Africa daily • It is predicted that 2 out of 3 people will face water shortages by 2025 • Nearby surface waters (without proper sanitation) are used by many developing countries. • Water is one of the most ubiquitous, yet scare resources on Earth! • Aquifer-‐ An underground region of soil or porous rock which is saturated with water • Infiltration-‐ The process of water soaking into the ground. (Hopefully recharging the aquifer) • Water Table-‐ The top of the underground water-‐saturated region • Saltwater Intrusion-‐ infiltration of saltwater in freshwater. • GA gets most of its water from the ACT & ACF River Basins. • To solve the water shortages, rivers are dammed and reservoirs are created. (Lake Lanier in GA is a result from this). • Benefits from damming rivers and creating reservoirs: -‐ Source of freshwater -‐ Flood control -‐ Electricity production -‐ Boating, fishing & other recreation • Downsides: -‐ Higher potential for evaporation during hot seasons. -‐ Others live downstream o Case Study: Tri State War • Apalachicola-‐Chattahoochee-‐Flint (ACF) and Alabama-‐Coosa-‐Tallapoosa (ACT) are the two river basins giving GA its water. • GA, Alabama, and Florida are involved. • Each state has its own concerns about the allocation of water. • GA (upstream user) wants enough water to continue growing, specially the Atlanta area. • Alabama (downstream user) is concerned that GA’s use of water will limit the use of it for power generation and fisheries. • Florida (downstream user) wants enough water to support its shellfish industry in the Apalachicola Bay. • Has lasted for two decades o Case Study: Three Gorges Dam • Massive hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River in China • World’s largest power station • Became fully functional in 2012 • Benefits: -‐ Produces electricity -‐ Increased Yangtze River’s shipping capacity -‐ Reduced potential for floods downstream by providing water storage space. • Downsides: -‐ Chinese government relocated 1.2 million residents to obtain space for the dam. -‐ Around 1,300 archaeological sites were moved or lost as water level rose over 300 ft. -‐ Has Earthquake potential due to its location on a seismic fault. -‐ Sediment settles upstream instead of downstream. • Conservation is needed to protect our water resource. • Behavior change is needed, along with new technology use. • What to do to balance water budget? 1. Increase reserves 2. Reduce withdrawals -‐ Conservation -‐ Recycling water -‐ Landscape architecture • Cuyahoga River -‐ In 1969, laws regulating what could be discharged into waterways didn’t exist. -‐ So much pollution had contaminated the Cuyahoga River that it was set on fire. -‐ Unlike point source pollution (ex: pollution from wastewater treatment plants), nonpoint pollution is hard to pinpoint. -‐ Passage of the Clean Water Act (1972) established pollution standards and management. • Point source-‐ Discharging pollutants directly into a body of water • Nonpoint sources-‐ Pollution entering the body of water from run off, air, etc. (not a specific location). • The first step is to identify the types and sources of pollution.
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