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UNM / Engineering / NURS 239 / It is a movement of water to disperse particles. what is it?

It is a movement of water to disperse particles. what is it?

It is a movement of water to disperse particles. what is it?


School: University of New Mexico
Department: Engineering
Course: Pathophysiology I
Professor: Drexler
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: pathophysiology, patho, Nursing, cells, and Immunity
Cost: 25
Name: Pathophysiology Weeks 1-2 Notes Revised
Description: These notes cover cell structure, immunity, and adaptation. They are revised from the previous set I posted, so get these instead!
Uploaded: 01/31/2016
9 Pages 75 Views 1 Unlocks

• Patho Exam 1 Notes (part 1)

It is a movement of water to disperse particles. what is it?

• Chapter 1

• Cell Components and Functions

◦ Cytoplasm

◦ Organelles

▪ Endoplasmic Reticulum: smooth and rough variety;  synthesizes proteins (protein metabolism)

▪ Golgi apparatus: packages proteins and sorts them

▪ Lysosome: gets rid of waste

▪ Peroxisome: like peroxide; bubbles and then neutralizes free  radicals

▪ Proteasome: breaks down proteins

▪ Mitochondria: produce ATP (ENERGY!!)

What are the causes of cell injury and death?

◦ Nucleus: stores DNA

◦ Cytoskeleton: made of tubules, filaments;  

▪ Allows for movement and transfer;  

▪ Its shape = its function in the body

• Functions of Cells

◦ Movement: cells are mobile and travel

▪ Cytoskeleton

◦ Conductivity: cells have electric potential

▪ Heart

▪ Brain

◦ Metabolism: cells use nutrients for activity

◦ Secretion: cells synthesize substances  

▪ Hormones

◦ Excretion: get rid of waste

Acromegaly is caused by?

We also discuss several other topics like T3 and t4 synthesized from what?

◦ Respiration: exchange of O2 to CO2

▪ This is DIFFERENT from ventilation: the act of taking in air and  exhaling

◦ Reproduction: cells make new tissue

◦ Communication: cells direct signals throughout the body ▪ Hormones

▪ Neurotransmitters

• Passive Movement

◦ Diffusion: movement of particles

▪ Particles are doing the moving Don't forget about the age old question of What is hydrogen peroxide used for?

◦ Osmosis: movement of water to disperse particles  

▪ Water is doing the moving

• Active Transport

◦ Uses channels and energy (ATP)

▪ Sodium-potassium pump

• Facilitated Diffusion

◦ Channel is opening bigger to compensate for large particle ◦ The channel pulls the large particle inside We also discuss several other topics like What is psychological egoism theory about?

• Types of Ingestion

◦ Endocytosis: type of active transport where cell engulfs the particle ◦ Pinocytosis: cellular drinking

◦ Phagocytosis: cellular eating

◦ Exocytosis: transport out of cell with particle packaged into a  vesicle

• Respiration

◦ Anaerobic

▪ Fermentation occurs in cytosol


▪ 2 ATP

◦ Aerobic  

▪ Uses oxygen to produce energy

▪ Occurs in mitochondrion

▪ 32 ATP Don't forget about the age old question of What puts people at risk for risk?

• Communication

◦ Receptor-ligand binding: on and off mechanism of communication ◦ Feedback mechanisms: a loop system to maintain homeostasis  ▪ Positive: enhances effects of stimulus

▪ Negative: loop that increases and then decreases effects of  stimulus =0  

• Reproduction

◦ Proliferation: cells are actively dividing

▪ Mitosis

▪ Meiosis

◦ Differentiation: cells have already divided and are changing into a  specific functional cell

• Chapter 3

• Atrophy: cells shrink

◦ Neural atrophy: brain cells shrink

▪ Brain is not “exercise” and connections fade, causing cells to  shrink

▪ Older people need stimulation: Sudoku, crosswords If you want to learn more check out List the six major causes of infectious diseases.

◦ Muscular atrophy: muscle cells shrink

▪ A broken arm is atrophied from no use while in cast

• Hypertrophy: cells increase in size  

◦ Overuse  

▪ Muscles increase size when weight training because stress  signals are sent to the cells to increase size to accommodate for  the increased load of the weights

• Hyperplasia: an increase in the number of cells  

◦ Damage; occurs in inhospitable environments  

◦ Smoking: cells in lungs change type black lung ◊

• Metaplasia: change in the structure and number of cells ▪ Menstruation: Female hormones cause the uterus to shed it’s  lining when the cells have been damaged from ovulation,  intercourse, etc.

▪ GERD: acid reflux destroys cells in digestive system

• Calcium based products reduce acid

• Dysplasia: disorganized change in number, size and structure of  cells

◦ Cancer: cells proliferate rapidly in a disorganized fashion ◦ Autocrine hormones  

• Cell Injury

◦ Stress is induced

▪ Increased demand placed on cells adaptation ◊ ◊

• Hypertrophy ◊

• Hyperplasia◊ Don't forget about the age old question of What is a type of individual value that is concerned with power and prestige, often at a cost to others, and incorporates a critical and power-oriented view?

• Atrophy◊

• Metaplasia◊

• Dysplasia ◊

• Storage◊

◦ Normal cell

▪ Reversible cell injury (mild) normal cell ◊

▪ Reversible cell injury (severe) cell death ◊

• Causes of Cell Injury and Death

◦ Hypoxia: cells have no oxygen

◦ Oxidative stress: continuous “poking” (damage points) of cell to  cause breakage and stress

▪ Free radicals are unbound oxygen particles that hit (poke) the  cell and cause pain (damage)

◦ Accumulations: pimples, sunburns, blisters

▪ Fluid build up

◦ Mechanical: stabs, gunshots, direct impact

◦ Thermal: frostbite, fever

▪ Freezing cells: hypothermia: preserves cell function by slowing  down cellular processes

▪ Fever: vasodilation releases heat ◊

◦ Apoptosis: programmed cellular death

• Cerebral Atrophy

◦ Neuron cells in cerebrum shrink

◦ Why:

▪ Not enough stimulation

▪ Injury

▪ Hypoxia

◦ Focal: localized section of the brain

◦ Global: affects whole brain

▪ Frontal lobe: judgment, memory, personality

▪ Hippocampus and cortex: memory, comprehension

▪ Basal ganglia: movement

◦ Diagnostic

▪ Find loss of function early

▪ Neuro exam

▪ Physical

▪ Brain Imaging  

◦ Treatment

▪ Prevention  

▪ Interrupt process of injury

• Keep mind active

▪ Slow disease

• Cardiac Hypertrophy: increase in cardiac muscle mass ◦ Caused by:

▪ Excessive cardiac workload

▪ Increased functional demand

▪ Genetics

◦ Primary: genetic non-sex linked trait

◦ Secondary: condition increases the left ventricle’s workload ◊ increase in myocardial cell size

◦ Symptoms

▪ Shortness of breath

▪ Syncope: pass out due to low O2

▪ Impaired cardiac function  

◦ Diagnostic

▪ Genetic tests

▪ Hypertension

▪ Low exercise tolerance

▪ Arrhythmia (irregular beat)

▪ Altered cell signals

▪ Heart murmur

◦ Treatment

▪ Surgical: new heart or device

▪ Medication

• Ventricle relaxation

• Workload reducers

▪ Decrease pressure

▪ Physical Activity restriction

• Acromegaly

◦ Caused by:  

▪ Hyperplasia

▪ Excessive pituitary growth hormone and liver insulin-like  growth factor stimulation

◦ Excessive growth of bones, cartilage, soft tissues, organs ◦ Hormones release after epiphyseal plate closes

◦ Appearance

▪ Soft tissue swelling

▪ Altered face features

▪ Pain/numbness in hands

▪ Skin changes: darkening

◦ Other symptoms

▪ Snoring

▪ Voice deepening

▪ Sterility

▪ Hyperplasia of heart

◦ Diagnostic

▪ Medical history

▪ Physical

▪ Lab test

▪ Glucose tolerance test

▪ Excess growth hormone

◦ Treatment

▪ Supportive care

▪ Medicine

• Cervical Metaplasia and Dysplasia

◦ Epithelial cells of the transformation zone in the cervix adapt in one  of two ways

▪ Metaplasia

▪ Dysplasia

◦ Manifestations

▪ No signs or symptoms

▪ Early sex: longer time frame for something to be acquired ▪ More than 3 partners

▪ Smoking


◦ Diagnostic

▪ Medical History

▪ Physical

▪ Screening tests

▪ Micro exam of the transformation zone

▪ HPV screening  

▪ Biopsy of cervical tissues

• Cone biopsy: go into layers of cells to see how far the cells  have changed

◦ Treatment

▪ Reduce sexual activity

▪ Eliminate damaged cells

▪ Freeze cells

▪ Surgery

• Environmental Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease ◦ Environmental chemicals cardiovascular cell injury ◊

◦ Free radicals cause cell damage

◦ Normal Mild atherosclerosis (hardening of fats) severe ◊ ◊ atherosclerosis

◦ Manifestations

▪ Aortic aneurysm

▪ Chronic lung disease

▪ Cancer  

▪ Pneumonia

▪ Chronic lung disease

▪ Coronary

▪ Stroke

◦ Thrombus: blockage in artery  

▪ Blockage in carotid artery

▪ Blockage in cerebral artery

◦ Cardiovascular and Respiratory Complications ▪ Low exercise tolerance

▪ Difficulty breathing

▪ Blood clot

▪ Hypertension

▪ Increased heart rate

▪ Lower cardiac output

▪ High LDL levels

▪ Sclerosis

◦ Diagnostic

▪ Medical history

▪ Physical

▪ Lab tests

◦ Treatment:

▪ Reduce risks: less smoking or change environments ▪ Manage symptoms

▪ Drugs that lower blood pressure

▪ Drugs assisting with smoking management

• Chapter 5

• Lines of Defense

◦ Skin and mucous membranes

◦ Inflammation: triggered by tissue injury

◦ Immune Response

▪ Edema: leakage of plasma proteins

• Goals of Inflammation

◦ Get more blood flow to site of injury

◦ Bring more healing cells to site

◦ Get tissue ready for repair

▪ Mast cell releases IGE inflammation allergies ◊ ◊ ▪ Itis= inflammation

• Vascular Response: blood and veins

◦ Chemical mediators help vascular response be faster ◦ Vasodilation makes capillaries more permeable

◦ Goal: increase blood flow at injured area

• Inflammatory Mediators: cells that help inflammation process ◦ Cell variety mediators

▪ WBCs (white blood cells)

▪ Platelets  

▪ Endothelial or damaged tissue

◦ Plasma variety mediators

▪ Complement system: helps vasodilation  

• Complement proteins: create hole (pore) in plasma  membrane for inrushing fluids  

▪ Kinin system: helps vasodilation

• Bradykinin: stimulates nerve endings and vasodilates  ▪ Clotting system

• Intrinsic Pathway of coagulation  

• Extrinsic Pathway of coagulation

◦ Antibodies:  

▪ Antibodies attach to antigens to prevent the pathogen from  entering the cell

▪ Antibodies make pathogens clump together: larger size= less  room for pathogen to get in

▪ Antibodies activate complement proteins

▪ Complement proteins cause pathogen to burst

• Order of Events in Inflammation

◦ Erythma: redness, warmth due to increased blood flow ◦ Edema: increased vascular permeability and leakage of fluid ◦ Cellular inflammation: pus

◦ Thrombosis: formation of blood clots

◦ Stimulation of nerve endings: pain

▪ Vasocontriction= decreased blood flow and decreased  stimulation of nerve endings

• Cellular components of inflammation

◦ Key cell players: B cells, T cells, Natural Killer cells (lymphocytes) ▪ 70% neutrophils

▪ 30% Natural killer cells

◦ Receptors: receive signals and incoming cells

◦ Products: Cytokines, chemokines, interleukins, interferon ◦ Mast Cells  

▪ Release histamine, constrict smooth muscle, dilate venules ▪ Degranulation: releases antimicrobial cytotoxic particles to  impare pathogens

◦ Basophils

▪ Leukotrienes: have smooth muscle constriction (slower than  mast cells)  

• Increase vascular permeability

▪ Prostaglandins: more vascular permeability

• Clean up neutrophils (chemotaxis: responding to chemical  signals and moving)

• Cause pain

• Cellular Response  

◦ Chemotaxis: clean up of cell (help call)

◦ Cellular adherance: cells attach to the endothelial lining of another  cell

◦ Cellular migration: cells slip through a gap to help

◦ Diapedesis: cellular walking

▪ cells use diapedesis to migrate

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