PSY202, Midterm #1 Study Guide
PSY202, Midterm #1 Study Guide PSY 202
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This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 400 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Chapter 1 What is Psychology? -the study of the mind, brain, and behavior. -mind: mental activities (thoughts, beliefs, experiences) -behavior: observable actions Seven Themes of Psychological Science: 1. Psychology is an empirical science The scientiﬁc method: objective, systematic procedures used to understand what is being studied. Understanding how science is conducted makes it possible to tell which studies are credible and which studies are not. 2. Nature and nurture are inextricably entwined Psychological characteristics are a product of biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. Psychologists now widely recognize both nature and nurture as important in the shaping of characteristics. 3. The brain and mind are inseparable Rene Descartes’ theory of dualism Maintained the distinction between mind and body Assigned the body many mental functions previously considered the mind’s domain 4. A new biological revolution is energizing research Growth in understanding mental activities biological bases growing interest in how biology permeates psychological science 5. The mind is adaptive The brain has evolved over millions of years to solve problems related to survival and reproduction The mind is adaptive in biological and cultural terms (i.e. genetic mutations) Theory of Evolution determining whether human mechanisms are adaptive need to be aware of the challenges of our ancestors in order to understand our current behavior (ex. sweet and fatty foods) Mating Preferences males look for youthful appearing females in order to pass their genes into the future. Females look for maturity, dominance, aﬄuence and boldness in males. (Good genes surviving) Solving Adaptive Problems humans have “cheater detectors" visual cliﬀ: infants won’t crawl over the cliﬀ, even if their mothers are standing on the other side encouraging them to do it. Adaptive mechanisms enhance our chances of survival. Culture provides adaptive solutions: Dependency on group culture Cultural evolution has been much faster than biological evolution There is evidence that people from diﬀerent cultures possess diﬀerent minds 6. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis Four levels of analysis reﬂect the most common research methods for studying behavior: Biological The psychical body contributes to mind and body Neurochemical and genetic processes Individual Social Group contexts aﬀects people’s way of interacting and inﬂuencing each other Cultural Diﬀerent culture shape thoughts, feelings, and actions of the people in them 7. We are often unaware of the multiple inﬂuences on how we think, feel, and act. Reﬂections on Development Biological inﬂuences: Shared human genome Individual genetic variations Prenatal environment Sex-related genes, hormones, and physiology Psychological inﬂuences: Gene-environment interaction Neurological eﬀect of early experiences Responses evoked by our own temperament, gender, etc. Beliefs, feelings, and expectations Social-cultural inﬂuences: Parental inﬂuences Peer inﬂuences Cultural individualism or collectivism Cultural gender norms these things all lead to personal development Code of Ethics The American Psychological Association publishes a code of ethics that all its members must respect. This code includes being respectful to all people, treating them with dignity, and protecting them from potential harm. Prevents ethical dilemmas Important People in Psychological History Rene Descartes developed the theory of dualism William Wundt developed the method of introspection Edward Kitchener pioneered structuralism William James critiqued structuralism and coined the term “stream of consciousness" Sigmund Freud is a key ﬁgure in the history of psychology because he discovered the unconscious. John B Watson challenged the focus of psychology on the conscious and unconscious mental processes and proposed the idea of behaviorism, an approach the emphasizes environmental eﬀects on behavior. George A. Miller deﬁned the ﬁeld of cognitive psychology. Mary Whiton Calkins studied with William James at Harvard and although they denied her a Ph.D, she became the ﬁrst woman president of the American Psychological Association Margaret Floy Washburn studied with Edward Titchener at Cornell. She was the ﬁrst woman to be granted a Ph.D., and the second woman president of the American Psychological Association Bernadette Park was a social psychologist who studied many things like stereotyping, prejudice, perceptions of our groups, memory and judgement, power, gender and work, and impression formation. Chapter 2 Scientiﬁc Inquiry: Scientiﬁc inquiry is a way of ﬁnding answers to empirical questions (questions that can be answered through observation and measurement) The Scientiﬁc Method Depends on Theories, Hypothesis, and Research: The four goals of psychological science are: 1. describe (what) 2. predict (when) 3. control (what causes) 4. explain (why) Steps of the Scientiﬁc Method (HOMER): Hypothesize Operationalize Measure Evaluate Replicate/Revise/Report Theory: A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. Ex: low self-esteem contributes to depression Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject, or revise a theory. Ex: People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed Types of Studies: Descriptive research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or animals to provide systematic and objective analysis of the behavior Naturalistic observation: observing behavior in its natural setting Ex: developmental studies of children Ex: watching ﬂirting behavior in a bar Case study: an in-depth study of one individual or group Ex: Simonton (UC Davis) study of famous people like eminent scientists to study cognitive ability, or proliﬁc painter to study creativity Ex: Buglioli & Gentry (1974) study of Charles Manson to understand murder Pros of Descriptive Method: hypothesis generation no bias of self report Cons of Descriptive Method: low generalizability observer bias Correlational The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them (i.e., how much one can be predicted from the other) is assessed. Expressed with a mathematical expression called a correlation coeﬃcient (r); a standardized measure of association that ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 positive correlation means that as one variable goes up, the other variable goes up Ex: height and weight are positively correlated; the taller people are, the more they tend to weight. negative correlation means as one variable goes up, the other variable goes down Ex: vaccination rate correlate negatively with disease rates: the more often people get vaccinated, the less disease there is. Scatterplot: a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction. Correlation is not causation. Survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people. Random sampling: each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample (unbiased selection of people) Pros: ask what you want, pick the population Cons: people might lie, wording eﬀects, representativeness of the sample Illusory Correlation: The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Ex: Parents conceive children after adoption. Experimental: Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their eﬀects. Exploring Cause and Eﬀect: Many factors inﬂuence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control. Eﬀects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and eﬀect relationships. Laboratory Experiments: Independent variable: the variable manipulated by the experimenters; the cause. Dependent variable: the variable measured by the experimenter; the eﬀect. Zimbardo (1970) Noticed a relationship between anonymity and antisocial behavior Does anonymity cause antisocial behavior? Brought participation into lab, told them they were going to deliver electric shock to other participants. Half wore their own clothes and wore name tags Half were dressed in white coats and hoods that covered their faces. Result: those who were anonymous delivered TWICE as many shocks. Independent variable: whether participants were anonymous Dependent variable: number of shocks delivered Random Assignment: Assigning participants to experimental (breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing diﬀerences between the two groups. Data Analysis Reliability The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent. Validity: The extent to which the experimenter can make conﬁdent statements about cause and eﬀect. Accuracy: The extent to which an experimental measure is free from error. Random Error: value of error diﬀers each time. Systematic Error: value of error is constant. Describing Data: A meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions. Descriptive Statistics Central Tendency: measures that represents the typical response Mean: the arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together. Median: middle number in a rank-ordered distribution. (if even amount of numbers a set, add the two middle numbers together and divide by two) Mode: most frequently occurring number Variability: In a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and the mean. Range: The diﬀerence between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics: Procedures used to make judgements about whether diﬀerences actually exist between two sets of numbers When is an Observed Diﬀerence reliable? 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples 2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones 3. More cases are better than fewer cases. Chapter 9 Stages of Development Physically, each human grows and matures at about the same periods of life. Prenatal period: begins with conception and ends with birth Infancy: begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months Childhood: begins at the end of infancy and lasts until somewhere between ages 11 and 14 Adolescence: beings at the end of childhood and lasts until somewhere between 18 and 21 Adulthood: begins at the end of adolescence and lasts until death Development starts in the Womb: The process beings at the moment of conception, when sperm unites with the egg to create the zygote, the ﬁrst cell of a new life 2 weeks: Zygote is ﬁrmly implanted in the uterine wall; the next stage of development beings 2 weeks to 2 months: Developing human is known as an embryo; organs and internal systems begin to form After 2 months: Growing human is called a fetus; no new structures emerge after prenatal month 2; the fetus simply grows larger, stronger, and fatter, as the organs mature. Most healthy full-term pregnancies end with the birth of the baby between 38 and 42 weeks. Attachment: A strong emotions connection that persists over time and across circumstances. These emotional bonds are the building blocks of a successful life later on. Attachment is important in survival of many animals as well as humans. Secure Attachment: The attachment style for a majority of infants; the infant is conﬁdent enough to play in an unfamiliar environment as long as the caregiver is present and is readily comforted by the caregiver during times of distress. Insecure Attachment: The attachment style for a minority of infants; the infant may exhibit insecure attachment through various behaviors, such as avoiding contact with the caregiver, or by alternating between approach and avoidance behaviors. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: 1. Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years): Diﬀerentiates self from objects Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally. For example, the child pulls a string to set a mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise. Achieves object permanence: realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the senses. 2. Preoperational (2-7 years): Learns to use language and to present objects by images and words Thinking is still egocentric: has diﬃculty taking the viewpoint of others. Classiﬁes objects by a single feature; for example, groups togethers all the red blocks regardless of shape, or groups together all the square blocks regardless of color. 3. Concrete Operational (7-12): Can think logically about objects and events Achieves conservation of number (age 7), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) Classiﬁes objects by several features and can order them in a series along a single dimension such as size. 4. Formal Operational (12 years and up): Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically. Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and the ideological problems. Piaget’s Marble Test: Piaget concluded with this test that very young children don’t understand quantity in term of number but instead in terms of length. For example, if there were 2 rows of 6 marbles, the row where the marbles were more spread out and appeared longer would be the one the children say has the most marbles. Moral Development: Preconventional level: Earliest level of moral development; at this level, self-interest and vent outcomes determine what is moral. Conventional level: Middle stage of moral development; at this level, strict adherence to societal rules and the approval of others determine what is moral. Postconventional level: Highest stage of moral development; at this level, decisions about morality depend on abstract principles and the value of life. Social Institutionalist Model: The idea that moral judgements reﬂect people’s initial and automatic responses. Chapter 10 How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior? Motivation is deﬁned as the area of psychological science concerned with the factors that energize, or stimulate, behavior. Emotions play a prominent role in motivation Multiple Factors Motivate Behavior Biological and social needs are deﬁned as a state of deﬁciency Maslow’s needs hierarchy Popular in eduction and business, but lacks empirical support. Self-actualization, esteem, belonging and love, safety, and physiological (in order of priority) Drives: Drives are psychological states that encourage behaviors that satisfy needs Needs create arousal that motivates behavior. Homeostasis: describers the tendency for body functions to maintain equilibrium. Incentives: External objects or external goals, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviors. Arousal and Performance: The Yerkes-Dodson law dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousal. Pleasure: Sigmund Freud and the pleasure principle From an evolutionary perspective, behaviors associated with pleasure often promote the animals’ survival and reproduction, whereas behaviors associated with pain interfere with survival and reproduction. Animals prefer to eat sweets; sweetness usually indicates that food is safe to eat. Most poisons and toxins taste bitter, so it’s not surprising that animals avoid bitter tastes. Some Behaviors Are Motivated for Their Own Sake Extrinsic motivation: Emphasizes the external goals an activity is directed toward, such as reducing drive or obtaining a reward. Intrinsic motivation Refers to the value or pleasure that is associated with an activity but has no apparent biological goal People Have a Need to Belong The need to belong theory state that the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes Lack of social contact causes feelings of emptiness and despair. Anxiety and Aﬃliation: Schachter’s study Misery loves miserable company other people provide information that helps us evaluate whether we are acting appropriately Festinger’s Social Comparison Theory We are motivated to have accurate information so we can compare ourselves with those around us to test and validate personal beliefs and emotional responses. How We Experience Emotion Emotions have a: Physiological component Arousal– Physiological activation such as increased brain activity or increased awareness of environment or self Increased autonomic responses such as sweating, increased heart rate, muscle tension, dilated pupils. Subjective component Emotions are subjective – WE feel them Emotions can range from intense (mood disorders) or nonexistent (alexithymic) Cognitive component Two-factory theory of emotion A situation evokes a physiological response, such as arousal, and a cognitive interpretation or emotion label When people experience arousal, they initiate a search for its source. People can misattribute the source of emotional states When people misidentify the source of their arousal, it is called misattribution of arousal Emotions regulate our moods Emotions: Emotions are immediate, speciﬁc responses to environmental events Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs. Two most important brain structures for emotion: amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal Cortex: Right side: negative aﬀect activation Left side: positive aﬀect activation Types of Emotions Distinguishing among types of emotions: Basic or primary emotions are evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures, and associated with speciﬁc biological and physical states. (fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, anger) Chapter 11 Stress: Stress, deﬁned as a pattern of behavioral and physiological responses that match or exceed a person’s abilities to respond in a healthy way. Stress can occur as a result of happy events such as getting married (eustress) or negative events such as getting ﬁred (distress) There are sex diﬀerences in responses to stressors: Fight-or-ﬂight response Including increased heart rate, redistribution of the blood supply from skin and digestive organs to muscles and brain, deeper breathing, dilation of pupils, inhibitions of gastric secretions, and an increase in glucose released from liver. Most of the early research on the ﬁght-or-ﬂight response was a conducted on males. For women, the tend-and-befriend response has been proposed as a response to stress: Women respond to stress by protecting and caring for their oﬀspring, as well as by forming alliances with social groups to reduce individual risk. Oxytocin The general adaptation syndrome is a bodily response to stress. Hans Selye identiﬁed the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome: 1. alarm stage 2. resistance stage 3. exhaustion Stress aﬀects health. Immune system: The ﬁeld of psychoneuroimmunology investigates how stress impacts the immune system In research, more desirable events experienced by subjects lead to more antibodies being produced. Stress has psychological components. Excessive or long-term stress can: Negatively impact internal organs Interfere with the neural processes needed to create long-lasting memories Cause damage to neurons in the hippocampus (less likely to remember things) Overwhelming evidence indicates that chronic stress, especially psychosocial stress, is associated with the initiation and progression of a wide variety of diseases, from cancer to AIDS to cardiac disease. Many people cope with stress by engaging in damaging behavior. Psychological Factors and Health The biopsychosocial model of health incorporates multiple perspectives for understanding and improving health. Health psychologists utilize the biopsychosocial model in their investigations into what leads to health and well-being Biological factors Genetic predispositions Behavioral Factors Lifestyle, stress, and health beneﬁts Social conditions Cultural inﬂuences, family relationships, and social support Behavior contributes to the leading causes of death The leading cause of death in the U.S. is heart disease. Obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, stress, and personality variables cause this Accidents – another leading cause of death – may be reduced by changing our behaviors, such as wearing seat belts. Critical thinking skill: identifying regression to the mean Placebos can be powerful medicine The placebo eﬀect Believe that you will get better can lead to improved health even if the treatment is inert Functional MRI results indicate that when patients have a positive expectation about a placebo, the neural processes involved are the same ones that are activated in a response to a biologically active treatment. Critical thinking skill: recognizing placebo eﬀects when evaluating treatment claims Coping: Coping is a process: To deal eﬀectively with stressors, we use cognitive appraisals that link feelings with thoughts. Lazarus’ two-part cognitive appraisal process: Primary appraisals: we decide whether stimuli are stressful, benign, or Secondary appraisals: involve feelings related to dealing with the stressor or the stress it produces Types of Coping: Emotion-focused coping Person tries to prevent an emotional response Avoidance, minimizing the problem, eating, drinking, so on Problem-focused strategies Involve taking direct steps to solve the problem Generating solutions, weighing costs and beneﬁts Tend to be used more when the stressor is perceived as controllable Behaviors and Health: What behaviors aﬀect mental and physical health? Exercise, smoking, obesity, etc. Before the twentieth century, most people died from infections and from diseases transmitted person to person. Today, all of the leading causes of death are at least partially outcomes of lifestyle. The increase in obesity is from the increase in serving sizes (in 1950, the only soda you could get was 7oz. Now the smallest is usually 12oz)
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