Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!
Cross-Cultural Comparisons- Culturally Learned Responses
• Western culture
o “thin is in”
o men find breasts to be attractive
o kissing is viewed as a positive activity
• Other cultures
o “larger” women are more attractive than thin
o kissing is seen as disgusting - “exchanging spit”
Most Repressive About Sex
• Inis Baeg- fictitious name for group of white people living on an island off the coast of Ireland.
o Wear full underwear all the time- including during bathing and sexual intercourse
o Menstruation and pregnancy are feared
o Only engage in sex to have children, regard sex as bad to their health Most Permissive About Sex
• Mangaians: people living on a south pacific island
o Families all live in one room
o Boys and girls are separated at a young age and are taught about sex o When boys reach puberty, they undergo a superincision. After the wound heals, they are given to an older woman who teaches them about all aspects about sex o At night they are encouraged to have sex with as many girls as possible (in the one room huts in front of the families). Boys will have sex between 16-20 girls a week. If you want to learn more check out What are the benefits of being an informed user?
American’s Stance on Sex
• Americans fall in the middle between the Inis Baeg and the Mangaians. We are behaviorally permissive, but repressive in attitude. We also discuss several other topics like What is acuity?
Major Influences on Western Culture’s Sexual Views (2)
1. Attitudes that originated in Biblical Hebrew times
a. Infant mortality rate was high, so they had as many children as possible b. Purpose of sex was to procreate children of God- “Be fruitful and multiply” c. Pleasures of sex were not denied, so sex was viewed as positive
d. Males were only allowed to ejaculate in the vagina. If not, it was considered “spillage of seed”.
2. Attitudes that originated from the Victorian Era
a. Extreme public anti-sexuality Don't forget about the age old question of What is human paleontology?
Don't forget about the age old question of How can we determine how many sig figs there are without a decimal?
b. Pleasure was not an appropriate reason to have sex
c. No sex when pregnant, no sex after menopause ???? sex was only allowed for procreation
d. Human body was viewed as negative, so extreme that ankles are considered provocative.
e. Medical findings in this time influenced attitudes on sex
i. Loss of semen was thought to be worse than the loss of blood
ii. Dr. Kellog made Kellog’s cereal as an anti-masturbation food
iii. Circumcision would stop boys from masturbating
Other Influences on Western Culture’s Sexual Views
• Attitudes that originated in the Greek Era
o Dualism: the body and soul are separate
o Depriving oneself of bodily pleasures enhanced spirituality If you want to learn more check out how has psychology shifted between the study of cognition and the study of behavior?
• Attitudes that originated from Christianity
o St. Augustine: argued that Christians should not find sex pleasurable ▪ Christians should only have sex to have children
▪ Regarded sex as an unpleasant necessity
▪ One should feel guilty about having sexual desires
▪ Women were to be viewed as evil temptresses We also discuss several other topics like What is gross anatomy about?
• Attitudes that originated from the Reformation
o Puritans came to the western world to escape persecution
▪ Had positive attitude about sex within the marriage
▪ Had little influence on sex views today
• Caused by a combination of four things
o Free time
o STD’s were less feared
o Birth control
Male External Anatomy
• Penis: three internal parts- male organ for sexual intercourse and the passageway for sperm and urine
▪ Circumcision- the removal of all or part of the foreskin of the penis
o Shaft (body): visible, consists of three parallel cylinders of spongy tissues ▪ Corpora carvernosa: two in the top of the penis, become engorged with blood during arousal to cause an erection
▪ Corpus spongiosum: one on the bottom of the penis, contains the urethra • Urethra: runs through the corpus spongiosum- passageway for
sperm and urine
o Glans: visible, extended end of the corpus spongiosum that forms the head of the penis
▪ Corona: raised rim of the glans where it meets the shaft of the penis o Roots: consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form crura (attached to the pubic bone), and the expanded end of the spongy body (bulb)
• Scrotum: holds the testicles outside of the body cavity
o Testicles: male gonads that produce sperm and testosterone
o Bulbocavernosus muscle: a ring of sphincter muscles that surround the root of the penis
Male Internal Anatomy
▪ Testicles: produce sperm and testosterone
o Seminiferous tubles: produce sperm
o Interstitial cells of Leydig: produce testosterone
o Spermatic cord: tube-like structure that helps raise and lower testicles in response to environmental temperature change and level of sexual arousal o Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer in men ages 15-34 ▪ Transferring sperm out of the body: 4-part system
o Epididymis: elongated cord-like structure on the back of a testicle. It is the first part of the duct system that transports sperm out of a man’s body
o Vas deferens: the second part of the system
o Ejaculatory ducts: one-inch long paired tubes that pass through the prostate gland. The third part of the duct system
o Urethra: passes through spongy part of the penis, final stage of passing sperm through a man’s body
▪ Seminal vesicles: two structures that contribute many substances to the seminal fluid ▪ Prostate gland: surrounds the origins of the urethra and the neck of the bladder, also contributes many substances to the seminal fluid.
o Seminal fluid: a base. Sperm is destroyed by acid (found inside the vagina), so the base fluid helps protect the sperm
▪ Cowper’s glands (CG): creates a fluid well before orgasm (“precum”). This fluid neutralizes the acidity of the urethra to allow sperm to pass through safely Female External Anatomy
▪ Vulva: all-encompassing term for the external genitalia, including the mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal opening, and urethral opening o Mons veneris: soft layer of fatty tissue that overlays the pubic bone. It becomes covered with pubic hair during puberty.
o Labia majora: two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum in women. Its outer surface becomes covered with pubic hair during puberty
o Labia minora: two hairless elongated folds of skin located between the labia majora. They meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood. Become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation.
▪ Bartholin’s glands: glands located at the base of the labia minora that contribute a small amount of an alkaline fluid to their inner surfaces
during sexual arousal.
o Clitoris: a small, elongated erectile structure in women that develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis. It has no function other than to focus sexual sensations.
o Vaginal opening: only visible when the labia minora are parted
▪ Vestibular area: a term used to refer to the area between the two labia minora
▪ Bulbocavernosus muscle: a ring of sphincter muscles that surrounds the vaginal opening in women or the root of the penis in men
▪ Vestibular bulbs: structures surrounding the vaginal opening that fill with blood during sexual arousal, resulting in swelling of the tissues and a
narrowing of the vaginal opening.
▪ Hymen: the thin membrane that partially convers the vaginal opening in sexually inexperienced women. Its presence, however, is a really a very
poor indicator of prior sexual experience.
▪ Urethra: the passageway from the bladder to the exterior of the body. ▪ Breasts: considered to be highly erotic in western culture, so they must be considered as part of a woman’s sexual anatomy. They develop at puberty as a result of increasing levels of estrogen. Breast size is determined by the amount of fatty tissue present o Mammary glands: milk-producing glands of the breast. Each breast has 15-20 mammary glands that connect to the nipple
o Mammogram: low-radiation x-rays used to detect breast tumors. Breast cancer is very common- 1/8 women will get it.
o Areola: darkened area around the nipple
o Breast implants: insertion of silicone pouches under each breast. Complications: scar tissue forms when the body rejects the silicone- 20-25% of women have these complications.
Female Internal Anatomy
• Vagina: the sheath like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix and receives the penis during intercourse. The vagina is a self-cleansing organism
o Vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal results from the walls of the vagina becoming filled with blood, with the resulting pressure causing a fluid to be secreted from the mucosal lining.
o Vaginal wall has three layers:
▪ Inner layer has a soft mucosal surface similar to that of the inside of the mouth
o Pubococcygeus muscle- PC Muscle: the major muscle in the pelvic region. In women, voluntary control of this muscle (to help prevent urinary incontinence or to enhance physical sensations during sex) is gained through Kegel exercises.
o Uterus: the womb. The hollow, muscular organ in women where the fertilized egg normally implants.
▪ Endometrium: the inner mucous membrane of the uterus where
fertilized egg implants. Its thickness varies with the phase of the
o Fallopian tubes: the passageways that eggs follow on their way to the uterus o Ovary: the female gonad in which ova are produced. Also produces the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.
o Primary follicle: an immature ovum enclosed by a single layer of cells o Cervix: protrudes in the back of the vagina. Cervical cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. It is caused by HPV- a sexually transmitted virus. It is a very slow-developing cancer, so a pap smear test is needed to see if you have the virus in order for early treatment.
. Chemical substances that are secreted by ductless glands into the bloodstream. They are carried in the blood to other parts of the body, where they exert their effects on other glands or target organs.
. A network of ductless glands that secrete their chemical substances, called hormones, directly into the bloodstream, where they are carried to other parts of the body to exert their effects.
o Testicles created testosterone and small amounts of estrogen
o Ovaries create estrogen and progesterone, as well as small amounts of testosterone
The Pituitary Gland
. Causes the testicles and ovaries to produce hormones
o Releases eight different hormones into the bloodstream- 2 gonadotropins ▪ First gonadotropic: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)- stimulates the maturation of a follicle (immature egg) in one of the ovaries, and
stimulates the production of sperm in men
▪ Second gonadotropic: luteinizing hormone (LH)- causes ovulation (release of egg) in women and stimulates testicles to produce male hormones
The Menstrual Cycle: the monthly cycle of hormonal events in a woman that leads to ovulation and menstruation
. Average length of a menstrual cycle is 28 days
. Preovuatory phase
o Pituitary gland secretes high levels of FSH, which stimulates the development of a follicle in the ovary.
o The growing follicle becomes a temporary endocrine gland and secretes higher levels of estrogen
o Estrogen is carried in the bloodstream back to the brain where it inhibits the further release of FSH.
o Estrogen also stimulates the release of LH (LH surge)
. Ovulation: the expulsion of an egg in one of the ovaries
o LH surge signals the onset of ovulation within 12-24 hours
o Mature follicle has moved to surface of the ovary
o At ovulation, the follicle ruptures and the ripe ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity, where it is soon picked up by a fallopian tube
o The cells that had surround the ovum in the follicle remain in the ovary and now are called Corpus Luteum
▪ Corpus luteum begin to secrete progesterone in large quantities in the postovulatory stage
o For a woman to get pregnant, an egg and sperm must be present. An egg remains ripe for only 24 hours, but sperm can live in a fallopian tube for up to five days. Thus, the fertile period for women is 5 days before ovulation and 1 day afterwards
. Postovulatory Phase
o Corpus luteum secrete large levels of progesterone and estrogen
▪ Progesterone inhibits further release of LH from pituitary and further prepares the thickened endometrium in case the egg is fertilized
▪ If the egg is fertilized by a sperm, it continues its trip through the
fallopian tube and implants itself in the endometrium
o Most of the time, fertilization does not occur, and in the absence of implantation, the corpus luteum degenerates. When this happens, there is a sharp decline in estrogen and progesterone
. Menstruation: the discharge of sloughed off endometrial tissue, cervical mucus, and blood
o With decline of levels of estrogen and progesterone, there is loss of the hormones that were responsible for the development and maintenance of the endometrium.
o The endometrium is sloughed off and shed over a 3-6-day period
o The loss of estrogen (which was inhibiting the release of FSH), also results in the pituitary gland once again secreting FSH, and a new cycle begins.
Are there periods in the menstrual cycle when women are more interested in sex? At the time of ovulation, but no dramatic increase.
Historical Perspectives about Menstruation
. Biblical Hebrews regarded a menstruating woman as “unclean”
. Roman Empire regarded touching a woman who was menstruating as very negative, “contact with it turns new wine sour”
Views today about Menstruation
. Most men and women do not have sex while the woman is on her period . Men particularly have very negative views about menstruation
. Most men will not even buy tampons for their girlfriend
Amenorrhea: the absence of menstruation for 3 months or longer
PMS: premenstrual syndrome
. 2-14 days before menstruation starts
. interaction between serotonin (chemical in the brain) and estrogen and progesterone . caffeine makes it worse
. large majority of mood changes in women are not due to PMS
o if it is PMS, the mood changes end with the start of menstruation
. pain during menstruation
. caused by prostaglandins- substances that cause contractions of the uterus Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
. caused by toxins produced by a bacterium.
. The bacterium needs oxygen to multiply, and the air pockets in tampons contain oxygen
. Pituitary releases FSH- stimulates the production of sperm sine men don’t have eggs . LH stimulates the production of testosterone
. Older men can take testosterone to increase sex drive
o Women need some testosterone in their bodies to have sex drive, however they cannot take more testosterone to boost sex drive
o When women lose sex drive, it is due to relationship problems, not loss of testosterone
Which hormone is most important for women’s sexual desire: testosterone
. Very dangerous- leads to loss of emotion control ('roid rage)
Sex in the News
. First person to do a survey on sex: Alfred Tinsey. After publishing his work, he was attacked for his studies, and died a bitter man
. Masterson and Johnson: conducted studies on how people respond when they are sexually aroused. Results were not received well at first, so they waited until all of their research was finished to create a book called Human Sexual Response in 1966. Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response (4 phases excluding desire)
. Desire –preliminary and assumed phase
. Excitement (Arousal)
o Men: tissue of the penis become engorged in blood (vasocongestion) seconds after arousal. Scrotum skin thickens, nipple erection occurs in 25% of men, testicles are filled with blood, 25% of men get a rash
o Women: vaginal walls undergo vasocongestion which causes pressure to result in a fluid. This occurs seconds after arousal as well, however many women will not realize this lubrication until minutes after arousal. Vaginal walls pull apart, labia majora spread, erect nipples, clitoris swells, 50% of women break out into a rash called sex tension flush
o Men: penis gets slightly larger in diameter, testicles swell with blood and increase in size. If a man stays in plateau too long without orgasm, it results in “blue balls”. Calpers glands secrete clear fluid to create a base in the naturally acidic urethra to help keep sperm alive.
o Women: tissues around the vaginal opening undergo vasocongestion, which causes the vaginal opening to actually get smaller. Breasts fill with blood and increase in size to 20-25% which causes nipples to be less erect. Clitoris pulls back behind the clitoral hood, labia minora increase in thickness with blood.
o Men: ejaculation, rhythmic muscle contractions in specific tissues initially 8/10ths of a second apart.
o Two phases
▪ 1st –Emission: Muscular contractions- causes sensation of “coming”
▪ 2nd- Expulsion: Original contractions are joined by contractions in the penis which forces the semen out.
▪ Prior to puberty, boys can orgasm without ejaculation
o Women: have same muscle contractions
▪ 10% of adult women have never had an orgasm
▪ 25% of women have had a vaginal orgasm
▪ Are some women incapable of reaching orgasm? Some can learn how to orgasm
▪ Two types of female orgasms according to Freud and Masters and
• Clitoral: majority of women experience clitoral orgasm
• Vaginal: some women experience vaginal orgasm, it is less
common than clitoral because of the lack of nerves inside the
o G-spot- located on the front wall of the vagina. When it is
stimulated, it can lead to orgasm. Not all women have the
g-spot (only 10% of women have it)
▪ Do women ejaculate with orgasm?
• Large majority of women do not
• The fluid actually comes from the urethra, not the vaginal
• inside the fluid is a chemical identical to the fluid in a man’s fluid
o Resolution: return to base line
▪ Refractory period: time after orgasm when a man drops below plateau and cannot orgasm. Once he builds back up to plateau, he can orgasm
again. Length of refractory period differs from person to person. After
second orgasm, refractory period is even longer
▪ Some women after orgasm: responses do not dip below plateau, which allows them to achieve multiple orgasms
The happier a woman is in her relationship, the more she enjoys sex. Happiness in the relationship is more important to women than penis size
. READ the chapter
. Focus heavily on the end of chapter study guide
. Study the diagrams
. one question on grading/attendance policy
. Don’t disregard chapter 1- equal number of questions from chapters 1-4 . Create flashcards on terms that are difficult