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Study Guide Exam 1

by: Dalia Szkolnik

Study Guide Exam 1 BTE 210

Dalia Szkolnik
GPA 3.8

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Chapters 1,5,6 and Technology Guide 1,2 Notes and Cass Discussions
Fundamentals of Business Technology & Innovation
Geraldine Perez
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dalia Szkolnik on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BTE 210 at University of Miami taught by Geraldine Perez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 262 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Business Technology & Innovation in Information System at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 (CHAPTERS 1,5,6 AND TECHNOLOGY GUIDE 1,2) Digital Native vs. Digital Immigrant - Digital native practically means the generation of people who are born during or after the rise of digital technologies - Digital immigrant are those who are born before the start of digital technology What the benefits of being an informed user? - Providing valuable input to others - Recommend and help IT applications - Become aware of new technology - Understand how IT improves performance - Knowing IT benefits entrepreneurs - Vital to the modern business world Career Opportunities in the IT Field - Programmers, business analysts, system analysts, and designers o Business analysts: focuses on designing solutions for business problems and interfaces closely with users to show them how IT can be used innovatively - Chief Information Officer (CIO) – executive in charge of the IS function o Highest ranking IS manager o Responsible for all strategic planning in an organization What are some of the top job rankings in terms of money? - #1 Software Architect - #8 Database Administrator - #11 Clinical Applications Specialists Information Technology (IT) vs. Information System (IS) - IT: computer-based tool to support data-processing (it is an Industry) - IS: utilizes IT to collect, process, store, analyze, and disseminate information for a specific purpose Managing Information Resources - Information systems are extremely expensive to acquire, operate, and maintain o Provide strategic value to organizations - Functions of the Managing Information Resources Department o Initiating and designing strategic information systems o Incorporating the Internet and e-commerce into business organizations o Educating organizations about IT o Proactively using knowledge to innovate IT ideas Data vs. Information vs. Knowledge - Data: raw facts that are collected but not yet organized - Information: data organized in a meaningful way - Knowledge: information organized to convey understanding, experiences, accumulated learning, or expertise  for example applying past purchases to make recommendations on a website What is a computer-based information system? - It is an information system that uses computer and telecommunications technology to perform its intended tasks o It consists of a combination of hardware, software, database, network, procedures, and people - It is essentially an information system that is developed to provide a solution to a business problem - What are its major capacities? o Store huge amounts of information in an easy-to-access, small place o Perform high-speed and high-volume numerical computations o Quick and inexpensive access to information worldwide o Automate most semiautomatic business processes and manual tasks - Example: having to swipe ones school ID to enter the dorm rooms Hardware: devices that accept, Software: program or process, and display data and collection of programs that information (processors, enable hardware to process monitors, keyboard) data Computer Based Information System Database: collection of related Network: connecting system files or tables containing data (wireline or wireless) that allows different computers to share resources - Procedures: the instructions that combine all of the above components to process information and generate the desired output - People are those who use, interface with, or utilize the output of the hardware and software What does the IT Infrastructure consists of? - IT services: the activities of the components - IT personnel: those who use the components t develop information systems, those who oversee security and risk, and those who manage data - IT components: the IT platform which consists of hardware, software, networks, and databases IT personnel + IT platform = IT services What are the two information systems that support the entire organization? These two function primarily within a single organization - Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP) o Provide communication among functional areas - Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) o Support the “real time” monitoring, collection, storage, and processing of data from organization day to day operations This one connects two or more organizations - Interorganizational information systems (IOSs) o Supports many interorganizational operations o Examples: supply chain management and electronic commerce systems MACY’S EXAMPLE: Information Systems that function among multiple organizations Business-to-business electronic commerce (B2B): supply chain management - Delivery of products from other organizations (suppliers) to Macy’s - Delivery of products of the Macy’s brand to the Macy’s stores Business-to-consumer electronic commerce (B2C): customer relationship management allows the organization to meet the demands of the individuals o Customers place online orders and payments, receiving digital or physical products from the organization What supports organizational employees? - Office automation systems (OASs) o Develop documents (such as word processing) o Schedule resources (electronic calendars) o Support communication (e-mail, videoconferencing, voice mail) - Business intelligence systems (BI) o Support complex, non-routing, decisions (support lower level managers, but to a lesser exent) o Typically used with a data warehouse and enable users to peform their own analysis - Expert systems (ESs) o Try to duplicate work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge, and expertise with specific domain - Dashboards (digital dashboards) o Provide fast access to information for decision making Will IT eliminate jobs? - Competitive advantage of replacing people with IT and machines is rapidly increasing - The Increase of IT use also creates new job categories o These new jobs require more IT knowledge and skills o It also creates opportunities for people with disabilities due to speech- recognition (physical impairment) and audible screen tips (visually impaired) abilities How does IT affect the manager’s job? - The most important managerial task is decision making - IT changes the way decisions are made o Near-real-time information o Less time to make decisions o Provides tool for analysis to assist in the decision making Quality of Life - Constant access to information and communication - There is no longer a line between time at work and leisure time at home o People are constantly working or communicating with work, even when they are in vacation o There is no longer the idea of “disconnecting” since we can always have access to the internet Robot Evolution - Robots are being used in manufacturing, distribution, healthcare, farming operations and many other fields o Distribution: Kiva Robots  Amazon fired many employees at the end of the last year because such robots replaced them. These new robots can locate products and move them to their designated areas, allowing for the process of storage in the warehouse to be facilitated. o Drones will help the farming operations in the future by monitoring the fields at all times which will eliminate the need for people to be in the fields How is IT improving the healthcare industry? - Better/faster diagnoses - Monitor ill patients more accurately - Streamline process of researching and developing new drugs - Virtually plan and perform surgeries How is IT used in other the business world? - Accounting and Finance o Forecasting, determining best sources and uses of funds, and auditing - Marketing o Performs various analysts regarding product, price, site, and promotion - Production/Operations Management o Design and manufacture products, process customer orders, develop schedules, control inventory, monitor product quality Difficulties in managing data - Data: o Increases exponentially with time o Scattered in organizations o Security, quality, and integrity  degradation o Government regulation  IRS requires organizations to keep data from a certain number of years o Data rot  cutting the magnetic strip of a credit card when it expires in order to make the data inaccessible (the banks asks individuals to do so in order to protect information/security)  One must keep back up of information o Multiple sources  Internal sources  corporate databases, company documents  Personal sources  personal thoughts, opinions, experiences  External sources  commercial databases, government reports, and corporate Web sites Data governance - An approach to managing information across an entire organization - Master data: set of core data, such as customer, product, employee, vendor, geographic location and so on, that span the enterprise information systems o Used by different departments/ entities in order to create database with accurate information o Example of master data in University of Miami: C numbers, last name, first name, date of birth, what school, address  information that doesn’t change constantly  It differs from transactional data which is day to day data collection such as how many times a student goes to the gym, how many they swipe their card in the dining hall, ect. - Master data management: process that spans all organizational business processes and applications o It gives companies the ability to store, maintain, exchange and synchronize a consistent, accurate, and timely “single version of the truth” for the company’s master data - High quality data is: o Accurate o Complete o Timely  have it at the right time, right place, and right person to make a decision o Accessible o Relevant Main uses of databases - Minimizes three main problems o Data redundancy: the same data are stored in many places o Data isolation: applications cannot access data associated with other applications o Data inconsistency: various copies do not agree - Maximizes the following o Data security: keeping the data of a company safe from theft, modification or destruction o Data integrity: data must meet the company’s constraints (example: all of the student IDs in UM start with a C)  If a student has a negative GPA it would be a data integrity problem since negative GPAs don’t exist o Data independence: data is independent of the applications Example: In a college, the registrar’s office data, accounting department data, and athletics department data, all make up the database management systems - First step to creating a database  creating a data model o Data model: defines how data will be stored - Transaction data o Record of the activities of the business - Business rules: rules to change the data in databases o Example: In the University of Miami, the C number is unique to each individual for life - Structure Query Languages (SQL): a question that uses many databases to reach an answer to a question o Used to search in databases - Data dictionary: describes characteristics of data elements Data hierarchy - Field: logical grouping of characters into a word, small group of words, or identification number (example: student name in a university database with appear in the “name” field) - Record (instance): made up of the logical grouping of related fields, such as student’s name, courses taken, grade - Data File or Table: logical grouping of related records (grouping of records of a particular course, which consists of the course number, professor, grades) - Database: consists of a logical groping of related files Relational Database Model - Database management system: set of programs that provide users with the tools to create and manage a database - Relational database model: two-dimensional tables o Entity: person, place, thing or event about which information is maintained o Record/Instance: each row in a relational database  unique representation of the entity o Attribute: each characteristic or quality of an entity o Field: intersection between a record and an attribute o Primary key: identifier field (attribute) o Secondary key: identifies information but doesn’t identify the record with complete accuracy Excel Spreadsheet: Student Information Student Name Student ID Major GPA Graduation Data John Jones C10538542 Finance 3.6 5/12/2004 - Entity: Students o Each row of the table corresponds to one student record - Attributes: student name, major, GPA, graduation data (categories) - The primary key would be the ID number because it is the only unique identifier (no one can have the same one) What defines big data? - Volume: large sets of data - Variety: structured, unstructured, semi-structured data - Velocity: generated at high speed with an un uncertain pattern - Veracity - Doesn’t fit into structured/relational databases  multidimensional What does big data consist of? - Traditional enterprise data: - Machine-generated/sensor data - Social data - Images captured by billions of devices around the world o Digital cameras, camera phones, medical scanners, security cameras Web site data - Clickstream data: data that visitors and customers produce when they visit a webb site and click the hyperlinks o Tracks users’ activities  user behavior and browsing patterns  Google type in one word and it automatically suggests other words that relate to it (auto-complete) ** PREDICTIONS (PREDICTIONS ARE PUT INTO THE PROCESSES OF A BUSINESS) Importance of big data - Valuable patterns and information once it is analyzed - Enables organizations to conduct experiments - Microsegmentation of customers (profiling) - Creating new business models - Analyze large quantities of data Data Warehouses - Source of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers - Not instantly updated Data Mart - Low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse - Designed for end-use reeds in a strategic business unit or individual department - Not generated by operational systems Characteristics of data warehouses/mart - Organized by business dimension or subject - Use online analytical processing (OLAP) o OLTP (online transaction processing) : everyday business, two dimensional, databases - Integrated - Time variant - Nonvolatile - Multidimensional Data warehouse environment - Source systems - Data integration (through ETL) o ETL (extract transform load): from the transactional into the data warehouse - Storing the data - Metadata: Data about data - Data quality - Data governance - Users FRAMEWORK Source systems  data integration  storing data  users - From source systems to data integration: use of ETL - Data integration: enterprise data warehouse - Storing data: data marts Knowledge Management - Knowledge: information in action o It is contextual, relevant and useful - Knowledge management (KM) o Process that helps manipulate important knowledge that comprises part of the organization’s memory, usually in an unstructured format  Explicit knowledge: objective, rational, technical • Reports, books, strategies, guides, policies  Tacit knowledge: cumulative store of subjective and experiential learning • Personal, imprecise, and costly to transfer • Experiences, insights, expertise, understanding, skill sets, learning - Knowledge management systems (KMS) o Use of modern information technologies (internet, databases) to systematize, enhance, and expedite intra-firm and inter-firm knowledge management What is a computer network? - System that connects computers and other devices via communications media so that data can be transmitted among them o For example: the connection between computers and printers Network speeds - Bandwidth o Transmission capacity of a network o Rate of data transfer o Unit: bits per second - Broadband o Network transmission capacity o Telecommunication signal of greater bandwidth o Based on FCC definition Types of Networks - Personal Area Networks (PANs) o Computer network used for communication among compute devices (phones, tables, games) o Short range  close to user - Local Area Networks (LANs) o Connects two or more devices in a limited geographical region o Every device on the network can communicate with ever other device o Use Ethernet (wired) o Uses a network server - Wide Area Networks (WANs)  internet o Network that covers large geographical areas o Connects many LANs o Large capacity  provided by common carriers o Contain Routers  Communication processor that routes messages from a PAN or LAN to the Internet, across many LANS, or across wide area network - Enterprise Networks  corporate, software ** Many LANs connect to a WAN Communications Media and Channels - Communication channels are made up of two types of media  cable and broadcast o Cable media/wireline media: physical wires or cables to transmit data and information  Twisted-pair wire • Advantages: Inexpensive, available, easy to work with • Disadvantages: slow low(low bandwidth), low security  Coaxial cable • Advantages: higher bandwidth, less subject to interference • Disadvantages: expensive, inflexible, medium security, difficult to work with  Fiber-optic cable • Advantages: high bandwidth, inexpensive, good security • Disadvantages: difficult to work with o Broadcast media/wireless media Network Protocols - Protocol: set of rules and procedures governing transmission across a network - Internet protocol: set of rules responsible for disassembling, delivering, and reassembling packets over internet o Ethernet: common local area network protocol  Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: file transfer protocol that can send large files of information across unreliable networks with assurance that the information will not be corrupted Network Processing - Distributed processing: divides processing works among two or more computers - Client/server computing (CLOUD) o Server computers: provide computing services o Client computers: end users access client computers to use services - Peer-to-peer processing: each computer acts as both a server and a client Internet backbone: primary network connections and telecommunications lines that link the nodes (fiber-optic network  operated by large telecommunications companies) - Internet technologies are used within and among organizations o Intranet: support discovery, communication, and collaboration inside a single organization o Extranet: connects parts of the intranets of different organization Accessing the Internet Connecting via Online Service - Internet Service Provider (ISP): a company that provides internet communication for a fee (Comcast) Connecting via Other Means - DSL: broadband access via telephone companies - Cable modem: access over TV coaxial cable - Satellite: access where cable and DSL are not available - Wireless: most convenient Addresses on the Internet - Internet Protocol Address: unique address to each computer on the Internet that distinguishes it from all other companies - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names: coordinates unique IP address assignments globally - Domain Name System: easy to remember names for some IP addresses ( World Wide Web (WWW) - Internet functions as a TRANSPORT mechanism connecting participants - WWW: system of universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information (connects information) o A user access a web site through browsers by specifying a uniform resource locator (URL) Network Applications Discovery - Allows users to browse and search data sources on the Web (all topic areas) - Portals: Web-based, personalized gateway of information and knowledge that provides relevant information from different systems and the Internet using advanced search and indexing techniques Communication - Electronic mail (email) o Largest volume application over the Internet o The basis of most business transactions - Web-based call centers o Services that provide effective personalize customer contact (customer support) - Electronic chat room (live chat) o Virtual meeting place for groups o Immediate customer service (Apple online support) - Voice over IP o Digitizes analog voice signals, sections them into packets, and sends them over internet (Skype) - Telecommuting o Process in which highly prized workers are able to work anywhere anytime o Knowledge workers Collaboration - Work group, virtual team, virtual collaboration, crowdsourcing, teleconferencing, video conferencing o Google Docs Educational - E-Leaning: learning supported by the Web - Distance Learning: any learning situation in which teachers and students don’t meet face-to-face (Virtual School, Online Classes) HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE What does hardware consist of? - Physical equipment used for the input, processing, output, and storage activities of a computer system - Three important factors: task, speed, and cost o Central processing unit (CPU) o Primary storage (main memory) o Secondary storage o Input Technologies o Output Technologies o Communication Technologies Types of Computers (Order from most powerful to least powerful) - Supercomputers o Doesn’t refer to a specific technology but rather the fastest computer atany given time o Used by large organizations, such as banks, to execute demanding tasks that involve large sets of data - Mainframe Computers o Airline reservation systems, corporate payroll programs, web site transaction processing systems (Amazon and eBay) - Microcomputers (PC) o Desktop PC o Thin-Client / Thick-Client Systems  Thin-client: low processing power (iphone)  Thick-client: pc/computer o Laptop and Notebook Computers o Tablet Computers - Wearable Computers o Constant interaction between the user and the computer o Allows for multitasking  Apple Watch, Google Glass Augmented Reality - Live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are enhanced by computer-generated sensory input like sound, video, graphics, or GPS data o Healthcare  vein viewer Multimedia Technology - Computer-based integration of text, sound, still images, animation, and digitized motion video - Collection of various input and output technologies - Merges capabilities of computers with televisions, CD players, video and audio recording equipment, gaming technologies, etc. - Requires powerful microprocessors and extensive memory capacity for high quality Input Devices - Human Data-Entry Devices o Keyboards, microphone, touch screen, touchpad, mouse - Gesture-Based Input o Wii  gesture recognition - Sour-Data Automation Input Devices o Magnetic strip reader  ATM o Barcode Scanners o Scantrons used in exams o Cameras Output Devices - Monitors - Printers - Voice output (speakers) Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Also known as microprocessor - It is the hardware that performs the actual computation inside any computer o Computer Memory  Memory capacity • bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte, petabyte, Exabyte, zettabyte (just try to remember the order, not necessarily how much each one is)  Primary storage (main memory) • High-speed storage that is located on the motherboard that stores programs and data that will be processed by the CPU • An example would be RAM (Random Access Memory) • NOT FOR FUTURE USE  Secondary storage • Magnetic tape (costly), magnetic discs, flash memory What is software? - Set of computer programs that enable hardware to process data - Set of machine-readable instructions that directs a computer’s processor (CPU) to perform specific operations Application Development - Documentation: written description of the functions of a software program - Independent Software Vendor (ISV) - Programming: the process of writing or coding programs Software Issues - Defects o Software bug: error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system  causes incorrect or unexpected result or for the program to behave in unintended ways  Most are caused by mistakes and errors by the people rather than the source code or design - Licensing o Must comply with copyright laws o Proof of purchase (compliance concerns) o Software can NEVER be resold o Software acquisition cost is constantly increasing Types of Software - Proprietary Software o Developed by a company and has restrictions on its use, copying, and modification o Usually this source code is not available and modifications are only contracted with the company that developed it o It is usually joined to a particular hardware platform  For example: iTunes is tied to Apple platform o Most expensive software - Open-System Software o Opposite of proprietary o Competing products can work together o A combination of interoperability, portability, and open software standards  Unix and Unix-like systems - Open-Source Software o Made available in a source-code form at no cost for developers and users o Always available to the public o No copyright restrictions o NO COST o Developed in a public and collaborative manner Proprietary Open Source Microsoft Office Google Docs, OpenOffice Adobe Photoshop , Google Picasa Operating System - Main system control program - Supervises overall operations of computer - This is what allocated the CPU time and main memory to programs - Interface between user and hardware - Application programs usually require this to function o Examples: iOS system for Apple, Android, Microsoft Windows, IBM Graphical User Interface (GUI) - System software that allows users to have direct control of hardware by manipulating visible objects and action, which replace command syntax o Virtual reality, pen and gesture recognition, animation, wireless communication capabilities Application Software - Set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specific application - Computer instructions that directs a computer system to perform specific processing activities and provide functionality for users - DEPENDENT ON A SYSTEM SOFTWARE IN ORDER TO WORK Personal Application Software - Off-the-shelf application programs that support general types of processing, rather than being linked to any specific business function o Spreadsheets  Excel o Word processing  Microsoft Word o Desktop Publishing  Adobe Acrobat ** Hardware and software require each other and realistically cannot be used without the other ** Overtime, the hardware costs are decreasing and the software costs are increasing. Software still needs to be done by humans, while hardware can now be duplicated much easier through automation


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