BIOL 244 Anatomy and Physiology II Study Guide
BIOL 244 Anatomy and Physiology II Study Guide BIOL 244
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 244 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Anil Datt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Endocrine System (Chapter 16) Regulate internal environment Regulate metabolism and energy balance Regulate muscular contraction and secretion by glands Maintain homeostasis Play vital role in: growth, development, and reproduction Hormones mainly amines, peptides, proteins, or glycoproteins that are synthesized from => amino acids Hormones are steroids or steroid-like substances synthesized from => cholesterol Target cells (have specific receptors for hormone molecule) restrict physiological action of a particular hormone Circulation of hormones: 1. Endocrines (circulating hormone) => act on distant target 2. Paracrine (local hormone) => act on close target 3. Autocrine (local hormone) => act on same cell Pancreatic Hormones 1. Alpha Cells (Glucagon) a. Raise blood glucose levels b. Promotes glucose synthesis c. Glycogenolysis (Glycogen --> Glucose 2. Beta Cells (Insulin) a. Lowers blood glucose levels b. Facilitates uptake of glucose by cells c. Stimulates glycogen formation and storage d. Glycogenesis (Glucose --> Glycogen) Testes Hormones 1. Interstitial Cells => Androgens 1 of 14 2. Sustenacular Cells => Inhibin 3. Located: in seminiferous tubules Ovaries Hormones 1. Follicular Cells => Estrogens and Inhibin 2. Corpus Luteum => Progestins and Relaxin (loosens pubic symphysis, relaxes uterine (cervical) muscles, stimulates mammary gland development => during child birth) The Thyroid Gland Right lateral lobe and left lateral lobe = isthmus 1. Follicular Cells => synthesize 3 and T 4 a. cavities filled with colloid => glycoprotein that stores 3 and T4 2. Parafollicular Cells (clear cells) => synthesize calcitonin T3and T 4ynthesized from iodine and tyrosine (within thyroglobulin (TGB)) --> transported in body by plasma proteins (mainly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) Triiodothyronin (T 3 and Thyroxine (T )4 Effect every body cell EXCEPT for: o Adult brain o Spleen o Testes o Uterus o Thyroid gland Function o 1. Regulate metabolism of lipids (catabolism -> breakdown) and proteins (anabolism -> build up) o 2. Increase rate of protein synthesis o 3. Increase rate at which energy is released from carbohydrates o 4. Accelerate growth and development o 5. Stimulate activity of Nervous System 2 of 14 TRH (hypothalamus) -> TSH (Ant. Pit. Gland) -> T3, 4 in response to: 1. Decreased TH level in blood 2. Decreased metabolic rate 3. Pregnancy 4. Increased sea level 5. Decreased body temperature Anterior Pituitary Gland (Adenohypophysis) (75%) Enclosed by a capsule of dense collagenous connective tissue and consists of epithelial tissues Production of hormones => Releasing Hormone and Inhibitory Hormone => Negative feedback form target gland hormone 5 Secretory Cells: 1. Somatotrophs => HGH 2. Lactotrophs => PRL 3. Corticotrophs => ACTH and MSH 4. Thyrotrophs => TSH 5. Gonadotrophs => FSH and LH Somatotrophs and Lactotrophs => effect non-endocrine targets Corticotrophs, Thyrotrophs, and Gonadotrophs => tropins (influence other endocrine glands) Posterior Pituitary Gland (Neurohypophysis) (25%) Acts as storage area for hormones by => hypothalamic neurons 2 hormones: o 1. Oxytocin (OT) During child birth 3 of 14 Nursing Ejection of milk (let down reflex) o 2. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Increase renal absorption of water Decrease urinary output Increase blood volume Increase BP => causing constriction of arterioles Inhibited by alcohol Pineal Gland Melatonin (synthesized from seratonin) o Decreased in day time (light) o Increased at night (no light) Functions: o Regulation of cardiac rhythms o Inhibit secretion of gonadotropins o Inhibit reproductive system in females before puberty o Regulate (help) menstrual cycle Thymus Gland Large in children, but diminishes in size with age o 1. Thymosin o 2. Thymopoietin The effects of these are the production of T-Cells (lymphocyte) which has an important role in immune system o Thymosin -> evidence of retarding the aging process Hyperthyroidism (By T 3nd T )4 Graves disease o Increased metabolic rate o Restlessness o Overeating o Increased temperature 4 of 14 o Increased heart rate o Exophthalamus (edema behind eyes) o Rx: cut out portion of thyroid out Hypothyroidism (By T a3d T ) 4 1. In child => Cretinism a. abnormal bone formation b. Retarded mental development c. Decreased temperature d. Rx: Iodine 2. In adult => Myxedema (5:1 female to male ratio) a. Sensitivity to cold b. Muscular weakness c. Rx: Iodine Calcitonin Lowers blood calcium and phosphate levels o 1. Inhibiting release of Ca and P ions from bones o 2. Increasing excretion by the kidneys o 3. Less absorption of Calcium from Digestive System Made by Chief Cells Antagonist (against) of PTH (Calcium) Important in childhood => bone growth 5 of 14 Blood (Chapter 17) Hemoglobin (97% content of RBC) 14-20 g/100 mL in infants 13-18 g/100 mL in adult males 12-16 g/100 mL in adult females Iron and protein: Alpha = 2 polypeptide chains Beta = 2 polypeptide chains 1. Oxyhemoglobin (97% O ) 2 2. Deoxyhemoglobin 3. Carbaminohemoglobin (23% of transported CO on2y) Hemoglobinopathy 1. Sickle Cell Anemia a. Cause: defective gene b. Defect: abnormally shape RBC => deformed and rupture easily 2. Thalassemia: a. Cause: defective gene b. Defect: low Hb and RBC short-lived 3 i. Decrease 2 million RBC/mm Hematocrit => % of WBC or RBC or Platelets or Plasma in total volume of a blood sample Blood 1. Plasma (55%) 2. Buffy Coat (<1%) 3. Erythrocytes (45%) a. hematocrit 6 of 14 pH --> 7.35-7.45 Temp. --> slightly higher than body temperature (98.89) Volume --> 5-6 L Plasma 1. Water (90%) 2. Solutes a. Electrolytes b. Plasma proteins (8%) (F=> transport (hormones and immune function), enzymatic, etc.) i. Albumin (60%) ii. Globulins (36%) 1. alpha 2. beta 3. gamma => antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response iii. Fibrinogen (4%) => forms fibrin threads of blood clot c. Nonprotein nitrogenous substances (such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and ammonium salts) Erythrocytes Biconcave with depressed center; anucleate 97% Hb (97% O a2d 23% CO ) 2 7.5 μm in diameter Contains fibrous proteins (spectrin => giver RBC flexibility) Erythropoiesis (formation of RBC) Stem Cell --> Committed Cell --> Developmental Pathway (Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3) Phase 1 => Ribosome Synthesis Phase 2 => Hb accumulation 7 of 14 Phase 3 => Ejection of nucleus Hemocytoblast => Proerythroblast => Basophilic => Polychromatic => Orthochromatic => Reticulocyte => RBC Leukocytes in Normal Blood 4,000-11,000 Granulocytes: o Neutrophils (50-70%) Multilobed nucleus 10-12 μm Function => phagocytize bacteria o Eosinophils (2-4%) Bilobed nucleus 10-14 μm F => kill parasitic worms, role in allergy and asthma o Basophils (0.5-1%) Bilobed nucleus 10-14 μm F => release histamine and other mediations of inflammation; contain heparin, an anticoagulant Agranulocytes: o Lymphocytes (25-45%) Spherical or indented nucleus 5-17 μm F => mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antiboies (B cells) T-Lymphocytes Effector T-cells (C and TH) (key cells in immunity) B-Lymphocytes Plasma cells o Monocytes (3-8%) U- or kidney-shaped nucleus 14-24 μm F => phagocytosis Macrophages (tissues) Thrombocytes Discoid cytoplasmic fragments containing granules 2-4 μm 150,000-400,000 8 of 14 Development: 4-5 days Life span: 5-10 days F => seal small tears in blood vessels; blood clotting (coagulation) Formation of Platelets Thrombopoietin hormone (produced from kidney) and kidney hormone) Stem Cell --> Stage --> Stage II/III --> Stage IV --> Platelets Megakaryoblast => Megakaryocyte => Megakarocyte => Cytoplasmic fragments (platelets) Hematopoietic Stem Cell (Hemocytoblast) In bone marrow (red bone marrow) Epiphysis of long bones (spongy bones) Hemostasis 1. Vascular Spasm a. Vascoconstriction 2. Platelet Plug Formation a. Platelets adhere b. Platelets become sticky c. Very little blood stoppage until... 3. COAGULATION a. Fibrin forms a mesh that traps RBCs and platelets; forming the clot Blood Clotting Factors (Procoagulants) II Prothrombin --> Liver** III Tissue Factor --> Plasma membrane glycoprotein --> activates extrinsic pathway VII Proconvertin --> Liver** VIII Antihemophilic Factor --> Liver** IX Plasma Thromboplastic Component --> Liver ** X Stuart Factor --> Liver** ** = synthesis requires vitamin K 9 of 14 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways of Coagulation Phase 1 Intrinsic Pathway o Vessel endothelium ruptures, exposing underlying tissue (ex. collagen) Extrinsic Pathway o Tissue cell trauma exposes blood Formation of Prothrombin activator (thromboplastin) Phase 2 Prothrombin --> Thrombin Phase 3 Thrombin and Fibrinogen (soluble) --> Fibrin (insoluble) Phase 4 Cross-linked fibrin mesh --> clot retraction ABO Blood Group Systems AB --> Antigens: A and B --> NO plasma antibodies --> Can receive: A, B, AB, O (universal recipient) B --> Antigens: B --> Plasma antibody: Anti-A (a) --> Can receive: B, O A --> Antigens: A --> Plasma antibody: Anti-B (b) --> Can receive: A, O O --> NO antigens --> Plasma antibodies: Anti-A (a) and Anti-B (b) --> Can receive: O (universal donor) 10 of 14 The Cardiovascular System: Heart (Chapter 18) Coverings of the Heart Pericardium (3 layers, 2 portions) 1. Fibrous Pericardium a. Tough, inelastic fibrous CT 2. Serous Pericardium a. 1. Outer-parietal layer i. Pericardial cavity b. 2. Inner-visceral layer i. Epicardium Walls of the Heart 3 Layers: 1. Outer => Epicardium 2. Middle => Myocardium 3. Inner => Endocardium Epicardium F => protective layer Consists of CT, covered in mesothelium Myothelium F => pumping action Consists of cardiac muscle tissue, which are separated by CT Endocardium Contain epithelial tissues and CT (contains specific cardiac muscles) Fibers => Purkinje fibers 11 of 14 Chambers of the Heart (4) 2 Upper (Atria) o Right Atrium o Left Atrium o RECEIVES BLOOD 2 Lower (Ventricles) o Right Ventricle (thinner) o Left Ventricle (thicker) o PUMPS OUT BLOOD 1. Auricles (above atria) a. Increases volume of atria 2. Intraventricular Septum a. Separates the left and right ventricles 3. Interatrial Septum a. Separates the left and right atrium 4. Coronary Sulcus a. Separates atria from ventricles 5. Valve (prevents back flow of blood) a. Guards the opening that the atrium uses to communicate with its corresponding ventricle Blood Supply to the Heart Ascending Aorta o 2. Left Coronary Aorta 1. Anterior Interventricular Branch --> walls of both ventricles 2. Circumflex Branch --> walls of left ventricle and left atrium o 2. Right Coronary Aorta 1. Posterior Interventricular Branch --> walls of both ventricles 2. Marginal Branch --> walls of right ventricle and right atrium 12 of 14 Electrocardiogram => composite action potential produced by all the heart muscles during each heart beat P => caused by depolarization of atrial fibers just before contract (when impulses passes from SA --> AV node) O,R,S complex => represent the spread of excitation (depolarization) through the bundle of His and ventricular wall T => represents electrical recovery and relaxation (repolarization) of ventricles Increase P = increase of atrium (in mitral valve stenosis) Increase Q = Myocardial Infarction (M.I.) Increase R = increase ventricles P <---increase---> = slow impulse due to scar tissue (in coronary artery disease and rheumatic fever) S-T = elevated above the base line = Acute M.I. S-T = depressed = low O (i2 coronary artery disease) Cardiac Cycle Approximately 72 heart beats/minute (0.8 sec/cycle) In atria and ventricles: o Systole => contraction o Diastole => relaxation Normally: o 2 atria contract <----> 2 ventricles relax o 2 ventricles contract <----> 2 atria relax 3 Main Phases: 1. Ventricular Systole (Contraction) a. Impulse -> AV node -> ventricles to depolarize (QRS Complex) i. Increase pressure in ventricles ii. Closing of AV valves iii. All valves closed (isovolumetric contraction) => 0.05 secs iv. Increased pressure v. Contraction (120-130 mmHg) vi. Both SL valves open vii. Ejection of blood (ventricular ejection) when pressure increases => 0.25 secs viii. TOTAL TIME: 0.3 secs ix. End-Systolic Volume still left in the ventricles => 60 mL 2. Relaxation Period and Ventricular Filling 13 of 14 a. At the end of the heart beat i. T wave ii. V relax b. All 4 chambers are in diastole c. Backflow of blood from aorta and pulmonary track (0.4 secs) => SL valves close produce a bump (dicrotic wave) d. Due to ventricular relaxation, pressure decreased in ventricles e. Open AV valve => rapid ventricular filling 3. Atrial Contraction a. SA Node results in depolarization of atria (P-Wave) b. Atria contract (systole) => 0.1 secs i. Flow more blood in ventricles c. Total blood in ventricles is about 130 mL/each at the end of ventricular diastole (end-diastolic volume) d. SL valves are closed e. Atrial systole contributes only 20-30% of the total blood volume in the ventricles Cardiac Output (CO) Amount of blood pumped out be EACH (each ventricle) side of the heart in 1 minutes Product of heart rate and stroke volume --> blood pumping out of heart or ventricle Stroke Volume (SV) Volume of blood pumped out by A ventricle with each heart beat o SV increases as <-------> increased ventricular contraction Normal resting SV = 70 mL/beat Normal resting HR = 75 beats/minute So average adult: CO = HR/min X SV/beat = 75X70 = 5250 mL Normal blood volume = 5-6 L CO increases when HR increases and/or SV increases CO decreases when HR decreases and/or SV decreases Cardiac Reserve Ratio between maximum cardiac output a person can achieve = CO at rest 14 of 14
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