Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide PSYCH 270
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Dominguez on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 270 at University of North Dakota taught by Rachel Cramer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.
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Test 1 Study Guide STUDY THE VOCAB WORDS THE MOST AND ANY SPECIFIC QUESTIONS. CHAPTER ONE, TWO, AND THREE WILL HAVE THE MOST QUESTONS!!! Chapter 1 UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY What Is a Psychological Disorder? How do you define it? What are the 3 parts? How would you explain it? E.g. time, occurrence, etc. See below “THE PRESENT” Scientist practitioner Enhances the practice, determines the effectiveness of the practice, conducts new research to find new procedures The Science of Psychopathology: how is it studied or what part? Psychopathology: Scientific study of psychological dysfunction Mental health professionals The Ph.D.: Clinical and counseling psychologist (trained in research and delivering treatment) The Psy.D.: Clinical and counseling “Doctor of Psychology” (trained in delivering treatment) M.D.: Psychiatrist Psychiatric nurses LICSW: Licensed clinical social worker (trained in delivering treatment) Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior Major psychological disorders have existed across time and cultures Perceived causes and treatment of abnormal behavior varied widely, depending on context Three dominant traditions have existed in the past to explain abnormal behavior Supernatural Biological Psychological THE SUPERNATURAL TRADITION Demons and Witches Deviant behavior as a battle of “Good” vs. “Evil” Believed to be caused by demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery Treatments included exorcism, torture, religious services Stress and Melancholy “Stress and melancholy” = anxiety and depression Competing view that coexisted with supernatural tradition: “insanity” is caused by emotional stress, not supernatural forces Treatments: Rest, sleep, healthy environment, baths, potions Treatments for Possession Mental illness sometimes believed to reflect possession by evil spirits Treated by shocking/scaring out spirits (e.g., hang patient over snake pit), exorcism Mass Hysteria Saint Vitus’s Dance/Tarantism Modern Mass Hysteria The Moon and the Stars Paracelsus: Swiss physician suggested that mental health problems are affected by pull of moon and stars Led to term “lunatic” “People act crazy during full moons” THE BIOLOGICAL TRADITION Hippocrates and Galen Hippocrates (460-377 BC) Father of modern Western medicine Etiology of mental disorders = physical disease Hysteria “the wandering uterus” – psychological symptoms were a result of the uterus moving around in the body Linked abnormality with brain chemical imbalances Foreshadowed modern views Galen (129-198 AD) extended Hippocrates’ work Humoral theory of disorders: Functioning is related to having two much or too little of four key bodily fluids (humors) Blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile Example: Depression caused by too much black bile Treated by changing environmental conditions (e.g., reducing heat) or bloodletting/vomiting The 19th Century General paresis (syphilis) and the biological link with madness Several unusual psychological and behavioral symptoms Pasteur discovered the cause – a bacterial microorganism Led to penicillin as a successful treatment Bolstered the view that mental illness = physical illness John P. Grey and the reformers Psychiatrist who believed mental illness had physical roots Championed biological tradition in the U.S. Led to reforms of hospitals to give psychiatric patients better care The Development of Biological Treatments Psychotropic medications became increasingly available in 1950s Electric shock Crude surgery Insulin (discovered by accident to calm psychotic patients) th C): Quaaludes Major tranquilizers (discovered mid-20 Minor tranquilizers (e.g., benzodiazepines) – commonly prescribed for anxiety today Consequences of the Biological Tradition Overall, mental illness understood to have physical roots Increased hospitalization Mental illness often seen as “untreatable” condition Improved diagnosis and classification Emil Kraepelin was father of classification Increased role of science in psychopathology THE PSYCHOLOGICAL TRADITION Moral Therapy The rise of moral therapy tcentury Became popular in first half of 19 “Moral” = referring to psychological/emotional factors Main idea: Treat patients as normally as possible in normal environment More humane treatment of institutionalized patients Encouraged and reinforced social interaction Asylum Reform and the Decline of Moral Therapy Proponents of moral therapy Philippe Pinel and Jean-Baptiste Pussin – patients shouldn’t be restrained Benjamin Rush – led reforms in U.S. Dorothea Dix – mental hygiene movement Asylum reform > more patients getting care Moral therapy declined because more difficult with large groups of patients Soon followed by emergence of competing alternative psychological models Psychoanalytic Theory Freudian theory of the structure and function of the mind Unconscious Catharsis Psychoanalytic model sought to explain development and personality) Structure of the mind Id (pleasure principle; illogical, emotional, irrational) Superego (moral principles) Ego (rational; mediates between supergo/id) Defense mechanisms: Ego’s attempt to manage anxiety resulting from id/superego conflict Displacement & denial Rationalization & reaction formation Projection, repression, and sublimation Psychosexual stages of development Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages Theory: conflicts arise at each stage and must be resolved Anna Freud and self-psychology Emphasized influence of the ego in defining behavior Melanie Klein, Otto Kernberg, and object relations theory Emphasized how children incorporate (introject) objects Objects – significant others and their images, memories, and values The “Neo-Freudians”: Departures from Freudian thought De-emphasized the sexual core of Freud’s theory Examples: Carl Jung emphasized the “collective unconscious” Alfred Adler focused on feelings of inferiority, invented “inferiority complex” Humanistic Theory Theoretical constructs Intrinsic human goodness Striving for self-actualization Person-centered therapy Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Humans fulfill basic needs first (e.g., food, safety) before moving onto higher needs like self esteem Person-centered therapy Therapist conveys empathy and unconditional positive regard Minimal therapist interpretation No strong evidence that purely humanistic therapies work to treat mental disorders More effective for people dealing with normal life stress, not suffering from psychopathology The Behavioral Model Derived from a scientific approach to the study of psychopathology Classical conditioning (Pavlov; Watson) Ubiquitous form of learning People learn associations between neutral stimuli and stimuli that already have meaning (unconditioned stimuli) Conditioning explains the acquisition of some fears Example of CC: Spoiled tuna fish salad UCS: Tuna, UCR: getting sick tuna will be CS Classical conditioning – concepts Stimulus generalization Start to respond in the same way to similar stimuli. E.g., a child taught to fear the color red (because it is paired with a loud, scary noise) may also fear the color orange Extinction When the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, the association is weakened John B. Watson (1878–1958) Believed that psychology should be as scientific and objective as possible “Little Albert” experiment: Baby Albert was taught to fear a white rat when it was repeatedly paired with a loud noise (classsical conditioning) Mary Cover Jones One of the first to treat phobias with exposure and extinction of learned association Peter and bunny THE PRESENT: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH A psychological disorder is (1) a psychological dysfunction within an individual that is (2) associated with distress or impairment in functioning and (3) a response that is not typical or culturally expected. All three basic criteria must be met; no one criterion alone has yet been identified that defines the essence of abnormality. Key Terms psychological disorder see above abnormal behavior A psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress impairment in functioning and a response that is not typically or culturally expected psychopathology scientific study of psychological disorders scientist-practitioner mental health professionals who are expected to apply scientific methods to their work, they keep up to date in their field, evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and conduct research to find new knowledge presenting problem original compliant reported by the client to the therapist clinical description d etails of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder prevalence number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time incidence number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period course pattern of development and change of a disorder over time prognosis predicted future development of a disorder over time etiology cause or source of a disorder th moral therapy psychosocial approach in the 19 century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments psychosexual stages of development the sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at the time object relations modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate he memories and values of people who ae close and important to them collective unconscious accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung free association psychoanalytical therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring dream analysis psychoanalytical therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts psychoanalyst therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either a M.D. or a Ph.D. degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training transference psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to the important authority figures, particularly their parents psychodynamic psychotherapy contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems self-actualizing process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences person-centered therapy therapy method inn which the client, rather than the counselor, primary directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility unconditional positive regard acceptance by the counselor of the client’s feelings and actions without judgement or condemnation mental hygiene movement mid 19 century effort to improve care of mental disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment psychoanalysis psychoanalytical assessment and therapy, which emphasize exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud behaviorism explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaption derived from experimental psychology unconscious part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person catharsis rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytical therapy psychoanalytic model complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account or the development and structure of personality, as well as the orgin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces id in psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychical entity presented at birth representing basic sexual and aggressive drives ego superego in psychoanalysis the psychical entity representing the internalized moral principles of parents and society intrapsychic conflicts in psychoanalysis, the struggles among the id, ego, and superego defense mechanisms common patterns of behavior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes originating in the ego behavioral model explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaption derived from experimental psychology classical conditioning fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that doesn’t (neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desire response extinction learning processes in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when the reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing introspection early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoke systematic desensitization behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation behavior therapy array of therapy methods based on the principal of behavioral and cognitive science, as well as principles of leaning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change reinforcement in operant condition, consequences for behavior that strengthens it or increases its frequency. Positive reinforcement involves the contingent escaped from an aversive consequence. Unwanted behaviors may result from their reinforcement or the failure to reinforce desired behaviors shaping in operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in the manner Chapter 2 . ONE-DIMENSIONAL OR MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELS GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY * What are genes? a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring * DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. * polygenics Inheritances such as height or skin color * Genes and Environment: how do they interact? Understand studies Eric Kandel and gene-environment interactions The genetic structure of cells actually changes as a result of learning experiences E.g., an inactive gene may become active because of environmental influences * Diathesis Stress Model Disorders are the result of underlying risk factors combining with life stressors that cause a disorder to emerge * Gene Environment Reciprical Model Outcomes are a result of interactions between genetic vulnerabilities and experience Examples: depression, impulsivity Genetics may make people more likely to seek out certain environments, thus affecting their experiences * Epigenetics and the Nongenomic “Inheritance” of Behavior Epigenetics Environmental influences (e.g., stress, nutrition) actually affect the expression of certain genes both for the individual and decendents Cross fostering studies of development Rats who were born to anxious moms (i.e. genetic influence = anxiety) but raised by calm moms (i.e. environmental influence = calm) grew up calm i.e., environment “overrides” genes NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY The Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord The Structure of the Brain: know roughly what brain regions are Two main parts: Brain stem Basic functions Contains hindbrain, midbrain, thalamus and hypothalamus (between brainstem and forebrain) Forebrain Higher-order functions Contains limbic system, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex (larges part of the brain, the wrinkled outer structure) Hindbrain – regulates automatic processes Medulla – heart rate, blood pressure, respiration Pons – regulates sleep stages Cerebellum – involved in physical coordination Midbrain Coordinates movement with sensory input Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS) Limbic system Involved in emotional processing, aggression Thalamus – receives and integrates sensory information Hypothalamus – eating, drinking, aggression, sexual activity Basal ganglia: Thought to partially control motor activity Forebrain Most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing Cerebral cortex contains two specialized hemispheres (left and right) Each hemisphere has four lobes with specialized processes Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex and some of their important functions Frontal – thinking and reasoning abilities, memory Parietal – touch recognition Occipital – integrates visual input Temporal – recognition of sights and sounds, long-term memory storage The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic branch of PNS Controls voluntary muscles and movement Autonomic branch of the PNS Involuntary processes Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches Regulates cardiovascular system & body temperature Also regulates the endocrine system and aids in digestion Neurotransmitters: Serotonin, Norepinephrine, GABA, Glutamate, Dopamine Functions of Neurotransmitters “Chemical messengers” - transmit messages between brain cells Other chemical substances in the brain Agonists Inverse agonists Antagonists Most drugs are either agonistic or antagonistic Serotonin Also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Influences information processing, behavior, mood and thoughts Dysregulated serotonin may contribute to depression Very low serotonin linked to instability and impulsivity Norepinephrine Also called noradrenaline Involved in alarm responses and basic bodily processes (e.g. breathing) Dopamine Implicated in depression and ADHD Link between excessive dopamine and schizophrenia Link between reduced dopamine and Parkinson’s disease Implications for Psychopathology Certain types of brain activity may be associated with abnormal behavior Example: OCD Patients have increased activity in part of the frontal lobe (orbital surface) Man developed OCD after This overactivity is reduced after effective treatment Psychosocial Influences on Brain Structure and Function Psychosocial influences on the brain Neurological activity may change as a result of psychotherapy > suggests that psychosocial influences affect brain function Placebos may also change brain function Psychotherapy Stress and early development Interactions of psychosocial factors with brain structure and function Developmental disorders Environment and brain structures More stimulating environments appear to promote neurodevelopment Stress and early development Sense of control over environment appears important Monkeys were given neurochemical designed to trigger extreme anxiety Monkeys raised in uncontrollable environment responded with panic Monkeys raised in controllable environment responded with aggression BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE Conditioning and Cognitive Processes Classical and Operant) Early research on classical conditioning: Simple associations are learned between two things that tend to occur together Later research indicated that it is not always that simple – influenced by higher-order cognitive processes Learned Helplessness First demonstrated in animal models, but may contribute to the maintenance of depression Rats given occasional shocks Gave up trying to control the shocks if attempts were ineffective (i.e., “learned” not to bother trying) Social Learning Based on research of Albert Bandura Modeling and observational learning: Learn to copy the behaviors that seem to turn out well for other people Prepared Learning It is easier to learn associations that would have been helpful to our ancestors Example: Easier to acquire a fear of spiders because it was adaptive for our ancestors to fear (possibly poisonous) spiders Cognitive Science and the Unconscious (i.e. stroop) and Blind sight There may be a dissociation between behavior and consciousness Implicit memory Acting on the basis of experiences that are not recalled Blind sight Some people who are blind can still sense objects that would be in their visual field even if they do not experience sight Some experimental tests reveal implicit processing EMOTIONS The Physiology and Purpose of Fear,Emotional Phenomena,andThe Components of Emotion: what are the three parts? The nature of emotion To elicit or evoke action Action tendency different from affect and mood Components of emotion Behavior, physiology, and cognition Example of fear: Anxious thoughts, elevated heart rate, tendency to flee Anger and Your Heart Chronic hostility increases risk for heart disease This effect is stronger than many physiological risk factors Efficiency of heart pumping is decreased when angry This effect is reversed when people practice forgiveness toward an offense Emotions and Psychopathology Suppressing negative emotions increases sympathetic nervous system activity Dysregulated emotions are key features of many mental disorders Example: Panic attack = fear occurring at the wrong time CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND INTERPERSONAL FACTORS Voodoo, the Evil Eye, and Other Fears Cultural factors Influence the form and expression of behavior Example: Children raised to be autonomous are less fearful Example: Culturally-bound fears Susto (Latin America): symptoms of anxiety occurring when an individual believes (s)he has been struck by black magic Gender Gender effects Men and women may differ in emotional experience and expression Examples: 90% of insect phobia sufferers are female Most bulimia sufferers are female Alcohol use disorders are more common in men May be related to gender roles: Certain ways of coping with emotion are more acceptable for men or women Social Effects on Health and Behavior Effect of social support Low social support related to mortality, disease, and psychopathology Frequency and quality important Social support especially important in the elderly Culturally, socially, and interpersonally situated Problems with social stigma May limit the degree to which people express mental health problems E.g., concealing feelings of depression > unable to receive support from friends May discourage treatment seeking Global Incidence of Psychological Disorders Mental health accounts for 13% of world disease burden Mental health care very limited in developing countries Sub-Saharan Africa: only one psychiatrist per 2 million people Even in the US, only 1 in 3 people with a mental disorder has received any treatment Key Terms multidimensional integrative approach glutamate genes long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes. A single gene is a subunit of DNA that determines inherited traits in living things gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially general anxiety diathesis-stress model hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder serotonin neurotransmitters involved in processing information and coordination of movements, as well as inhibited and restraints. It also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual and aggressive behavior, and all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia vulnerability susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder norepinephrine (also noradrenaline) neurotransmitters active in the central and peripherial nervous system, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among functions. Because of its role in the body’s alarm reaction, it may also contribute generally and indirectly to panic attacks and other disorders gene-environment correlation model hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder dopamine neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploration and pleasure seeking behaviors (balancing serotonin) its deficit is involved in Parkinson’s disease epigenetics the study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes cognitive science field of study that examines how humans and other species acquire, process, store, and retrieve information neuroscience study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions learned helplessness Martin Seligman’s theory that people become anxious or depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their life neuron individual nerve cell; responsible for transmitting information modeling (also observational learning) learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and consequences of that behavior reuptake action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft prepared learning an ability that has been adaptive for evolution, allowing certain associations to be learned more readily than others neurotransmitters chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. implicit memory condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them hormone chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands fight or flight responsebrain circuit in animals that when stimulated causes an immediate alarm and escape response resembling human panic brain circuitsneurotransmitter currents or neutral pathways of the brain emotion pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response agonistchemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects mood enduring period of emotionality antagonist a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter affectconscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time inverse agonist chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular transmitter equifinalitydevelopmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes STRUCTURE FUNCTION Central nervous system Consists of the brain and spinal cord Medulla and pons Breathing, pumping of heart, digestion Cerebellum Motor coordination Midbrain Coordinates movement with sensory input Reticular activating system Processes of arousal and tension Limbic system Emotional experiences/basic drives of sex, aggression, hunger, and thirst Caudate nucleus Controls motor behavior Cerebral cortex Contains over 80% of neurons in the central nervous system Left hemisphere Verbal and other cognitive processes Right hemisphere Perceiving surrounding events and creating images Temporal lobe Recognizing various sights and sounds Parietal lobe Recognizing various sensations of touch Occipital lobe Integrates various visual input Frontal lobe Thinking and reasoning abilities Peripheral nervous system Coordination with brain stem to ensure body is working properly Somatic nervous system Controls our muscles Autonomic nervous system Regulates the cardiovascular system and endocrine system Endocrine system Releases hormones into the bloodstream Sympathetic nervous system Mobilizes body during times of stress Parasympathetic nervous system Renormalizes body after arousal states Pituitary gland Master or coordinator of endocrine system CHAPTER 3 ASSESSING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Key Concepts in Assessment Reliability Degree of consistency of a measurement Example: “Agreement” between two different testing times or between two different evaluators Interrater reliability Test-re-test Validity Does the test measure what it’s supposed to? Several types: Concurrent: Comparison between results of one assessment with another measure known to be valid Predictive: How well the assessment predicts outcomes Construct: Degree to which test or item measures the unobservable construct it claims to measure (e.g., “depression”) Face: does the question look like it is assessing that, at face value Standardization Consistent use of techniques Provides normative population data Examples of things that are kept constant Administration procedures Scoring Evaluation of data The Clinical Interview Clinical interview Assesses multiple domains Presenting problem Current and past behavior Detailed history Attitudes and emotions Clinical interview Most common clinical assessment method Structured or semi-structured Example of semi-structured interview: Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-5 (ADIS-5) has modules pertaining to anxiety, mood and related disorders, designed to assess DSM-5 criteria Physical Examination Physical examinations can be helpful in diagnosing mental health problems Understand out rule out physical etiologies Toxicities Medication side effects Allergic reactions Metabolic conditions Behavioral Assessment Behavioral observation Identification and observation of target behaviors Target behavior: Behavior of interest (e.g., something that needs to be increased or decreased) Direct observation conducted by assessor (e.g., therapist) or by individual or loved one Goal: Determine the factors that are influencing target behaviors When individual observes self, it is called self-monitoring May be informal or formal (e.g., using established rating scales) The problem of reactivity Simply observing a behavior may cause it to change due to the individual’s knowledge of being observed The ABCs of observation Antecedents Behavior Consequences Psychological Testing Psychological testing Specific tools for assessment of: Cognition Emotion Behavior Include specialized areas like personality and intelligence Neuropsychological Testing Purpose and goals Assess broad range of skills and abilities Goal is to understand brain-behavior relations Examples The Luria-Nebraska and Halstead-Reitan batteries Designed to assess for brain damage Test diverse skills ranging from grip strength to sound recognition, attention, concentration Problems with neuropsychological tests False positives: Mistakenly shows a problem where there is none False negatives: Fails to detect a problem that is present Neuroimaging: Pictures of the Brain Neuroimaging: Pictures of the brain Two objectives: Understand brain structure Understand brain function Imaging brain structure Computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT scan) Utilizes X-rays Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Utilizes strong magnetic fields Better resolution than CT scan Imaging brain function Positron emission tomography (PET) Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Both involve injection of radioactive isotopes Isotopes react with oxygen, blood, and glucose in the brain Functional MRI (fMRI) – brief changes in brain activity Chief advantage: Yield detailed information Lead to better understanding of brain structure and function Disadvantages: Still not well understood Expense Lack adequate norms Limited clinical utility Psychophysiological Assessment Purpose Assess brain structure, function, and activity of the nervous system Psychophysiological assessment domains Electroencephalogram (EEG) – brain wave activity. ERP – Event related potentials = brain response to a specific experience (e.g., hearing a tone) Alpha and delta waves Heart rate and respiration – cardiorespiratory activity Electrodermal response and levels – sweat gland activity Uses of routine psychophysiological assessment Disorders involving a strong physiological component Examples PTSD, sexual dysfunctions, sleep disorders Headache and hypertension DIAGNOSING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Classification Issues Categorical and dimensional approaches Classical (or pure) categorical approach – strict categories (e.g., you either have social anxiety disorder or you don’t) Dimensional approach – classification along dimensions (e.g., different people have varying amounts of anxiety in social situations) Prototypical approach – combines classical and dimensional views Widely used classification systems Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Updated every 10-20 years Current edition (released May 2013): DSM-5 Previous edition called DSM-IV-TR ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) Published by the World Health Organization (WHO) Diagnosis Before 1980 Prior to 1980, diagnoses were made based on biological or psychoanalytic theory Introduction of DSM-III in 1980 revolutionized classification Classification newly relied on specific lists of symptoms, improving reliability and validity Diagnoses classified along five “Axes” describing types of problems (e.g. disorder categories, health problems, life stressors) DSM-III and DSM-III-R The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR DSM-IV-TR incorporated changes from DSM-IV in diagnostic criteria for nine diagnoses: includes Dementia Due to Other General Medical Conditions Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type Exhibitionism Frotteurism Pedophilia Personality Change Due to a General Medical Condition Sexual Sadism Tourette's Disorder Voyeurism DSM-5 Basic characteristics Removed axial system Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria for disorders Disorders are categorized under broad headings Empirically-grounded, prototypic approach to classification Creating a Diagnosis Clinical assessment and diagnosis Aims to fully understand the client Aids in understanding and ameliorating human suffering Based on reliable, valid, and standardized information Beyond DSM-5: Dimensions and Spectra Key Terms clinical assessment systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and some social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder psychophysiological assessment measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal diagnosis process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder idiographic strategy close and detailed investigation of an emphasizing what makes that person unique reliability degree to which a measurement is consistant, for example, over time or among different raters nomothetic strategy identification and examination of large groups of people with the same disorder to note similarities and develop general laws validity degree to which a technique measures what is purports to measure classification assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics standardization process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions taxonomy system of naming and classification in science mental status exam relatively brief preliminary test of client’s judgement, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state; typically conducted during an initial interview nosology classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena behavioral assessment measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating the client’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem or content nomenclature in a naming system or nosology, the actual names or labels that are applied. IN psychopathology these include mood and eating disorders self-monitoring action by which clients observe and record their own behavior as either an assessment of a problem and its change or a treatment procedure that makes them more aware of their responses classical categorical approach classification method founded on the assumption of clear cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause projective tests psychoanalytical based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts, results lack high reliability and validity dimensional approach method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either or, or all or none basis personality inventories self-report questionnaires that asses personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to them prototypical approach system for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics intelligence quotient (IQ) score on an intelligence test estimating a person’s deviance from average test performances familial aggregation the extent to which a disorder is found among a patients relatives neuropsychological test assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual’s performance on behavioral tasks comorbidity presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time false positive assessment error in which pathology is reported (test results are positive) when none is actually present labeling applying a name to a phenomena or a pattern of behavior. The labeling may require negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than that persons behavior false negative assessment error in which pathology is noted (test results are negative) when one is actually present Chapter 4 EXAMINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Important Concepts Basic Components of a Research Study Starts with a hypothesis or “educated guess” Not all hypotheses are testable Hypotheses in science are formulated so that they are testable Research design A method to test hypotheses Independent variable The variable that causes or influences behavior Dependent variable The behavior influenced by the independent variable Statistical versus Clinical Significance Statistical methods – branch of mathematics Helps to protect against biases in evaluating data Statistical vs. clinical significance Statistical significance – are results due to chance? Clinical significance – are results clinically meaningful? Statistical significance does not imply clinical meaningfulness Balancing statistical versus clinical significance Evaluate effect size Evaluate social validity The “Average” Client Patient uniformity myth Researchers sometimes mistakenly see all participants as one homogenous group Generalizability The extent to which results are applicable to the larger population being studied TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS Studying Individual Cases Case study method Extensive observation and detailed description of a single client Foundation of early historic developments in psychopathology Limitations Lacks scientific rigor and suitable controls Internal validity is typically weak Often entails numerous confounds Research by Correlation Assess the degree to which levels of certain variables are linked to levels of other variables Example: Higher levels of education are linked to higher levels of income The nature of correlation Statistical relation between two or more variables No independent variable is manipulated Range from –1.0 to 0 to +1.0 Negative vs. positive correlation Necessary in situations where you can’t manipulate variables Limitations Does not imply causation Problem of directionality Research by Experiment Nature of experimental research Manipulate independent variable Observe effects on dependent variable Attempt to determine causal relationships Premium on internal validity Single-Case Experimental Designs Nature of single subject design Rigorous study of single cases Manipulate timing and nature of experimental conditions Frequent repeated measurement of outcomes is critical Permits conclusions about changes over time relative to the introduction and withdrawal of certain variables Types of single-subject design Withdrawal designs First establish a baseline, then introduce treatment Then, stop treatment to see if behavior/symptoms return to the way they were before treatment May present ethical concerns if an efficacious treatment is removed Types of single-subject design Multiple baseline designs Start treatment at different times in different conditions (e.g., in home vs. school settings) – see if changes occur in conjunction with introduction of treatment Improves internal validity GENETICS AND BEHAVIOR ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES Studying Genetics Behavioral genetics Interactions of genes, experience, and behavior Phenotype vs. genotype Genotype: Genetic makeup Phenotype: Observable characteristics (e.g., eye color, degree of shyness) Endophenotype: Genetic mechanism that contributes to problems causing certain symptoms Example: Group of genes responsible for impairing working memory in schizophrenia Family studies Proband: The person who has the trait of interest (e.g. someone who has schizophrenia) If there is a genetic influence, expect to see the trait more in first-degree relatives compared to second-degree Familial aggregation: Tendency of a disorder to run in families Issue of shared environment: Families usually live together, so similarities may be due to environmental factors as well as genetics Adoption studies One way to separate the effects of the environment Sibling pairs separated after birth: Do they show similarities even if they were raised in different environments? Are adopted children more similar to their birth parents (genetics) or adoptive parents (environment)? Twin studies Compare identical/monozygotic twins against fraternal/dizygotic twins If a trait is genetic, expect to see greater concordance in identical twins (similar environment and same genetics) compared to fraternal twins (similar environment, different genetics) Can be combined with adoption studies: If identical twins are both adopted separately and raised apart, shared outcomes are more attributable to genetics Studying Behavior over Time Prevention research Health promotion: Increasing healthy behavior in entire population (even people not at risk for developing disorders) Universal prevention: Target specific risk factors but not specific people Selective prevention: Targets groups of people at risk Indicated prevention: Targets specific individuals who are showing early signs of a disorder Time-based research strategies Cross-sectional designs: Take a cross section of the population at different age groups Compare cohorts (age groups) on traits of interest Longitudinal designs Study one group of people over time Have to take into account specific experiences of the generation being studied (cross- generational effect) Studying Behavior across Cultures Value of cross-cultural research Overcoming ethnocentric views Increases understanding of Etiologies Symptom presentations Treatments Difficulties in cross-cultural research Definitions of abnormal behavior Variance in presentation Availability of valid assessment instruments may be limited The Power of a Program of Research Components of a research program Set of interrelated research questions Draw on several methodologies in finding answers Conducted in stages, often involving replication Allows for more nuanced, complete picture of a phenomenon Replication is critical Protects against fluke results Replication Research Ethics : Sometimes, needs of science (e.g., designing a good experiment) are at odds with needs of research participants (e.g., need for treatment) Research ethics determine the degree to which each should be prioritized Ethics determined by institutional review boards (IRBs) & the APA ethics code Oversee the rights of human subjects participating in research Make sure research and data are handled responsibly Ethical principals Informed consent Became important after WWII after Nazis had forced people to participate in research Competence – ability to provide consent Voluntarism – lack of coercion Full information – necessary information to make an informed decision Comprehension – understanding about benefits and risks of participation Key Terms dependent variable in an experimental study, the phenomenon that is measured an expected to be influenced repeated measurement when responses are measured on more than two occasions ( not just before and after intervention) to asses trends external validity extent to which research findings generalize or apply to people or setting not involved in the study single-case experimental design research tactic in which an independent variable is manipulated for a single individual, allowing cause and effect conclusions but with limited generalizability hypothesis educated guess or statement to be tested by research variability degree of change in a phenomenon over time independent variable phenomenon manipulated by the experimenter in a study and expected to influence the dependent variable multiple baseline single case experimental design in which measures are taken on two or more behaviors or on a single behavior in two or more situations. A particular intervention is introduced for each at different times. If behavior change is coincident with each introduction, this is strong evidence the introduction caused the change internal validity extent to which the results of a study can be attributed to the independent variable after confounding alternative explanation have been ruled out phenotype observable characteristic or behaviors of an individual research design plan of experimentation used to test a hypothesis endophenotypes genetic mechanisms that contribute to the underlying problems causing the symptoms and difficulties experienced by people with psychological disorders testability ability for a hypothesis, for example to be subjected to scientific scrutiny and to be accepted or rejected, a necessary condition for the hypothesis to be useful human genome project ongoing scientific attempt to develop a comprehensive map of all human genes genotype specific genetic makeup of an individual adoption studies in genetics research, the study of first degree relatives reared in different families and environments. If they shared common characteristics, such as a disorder, this finding suggests that those characteristics have a genetic component confound any factor occurring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable because its effects cannot be separated from those of the variables being studied family studies genetic studies that examine patterns of traits and behavior among relatives confounding variable variable in a research study that that wasn’t part of the intended design and may contribute to changes in the dependent variable genetic linkage analysis study that seeks to match the inheritance pattern of a disorder to that of a genetic marker. This helps researchers establish the location of the gene responsible for the disorder control group group of individuals in a study who are similar to the experimental subjects in every way but aren’t exposed to the treatment received by the experimental group effect size statistical measure that sows the amount of difference among the members of a group in a clinical study generalizability extent to which research results apply to a range of individuals not included in the study uniformity myth tendency to consider all members of a category as more similar than they are, ignoring their individual differences randomization method for placing individuals into research groups that assures each an equal chance of being assigned to any group, thus eliminating any systematic differences across groups twin studies comparison of twins with unrelated or less closely related individuals. If twins, particularly monozygotic twins who share identical genotypes, share common characteristics such as a disorder, even if they were reared in different environments, this is strong evidence of genetic involvement in those characteristics case study method research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. This method doesn’t allow conclusions about cause and effect relationships, and findings can be generalized only with great caution statistical significance probability that obtaining the observed research findings merely by chance is small clinical significance degree to which research have useful and meaningful applications to real life problems correlation- positive two variables increase and decrease together correlation- negative one variable increases and the other decreases (and vice versa) cross-sectional design methodology to examine a characteristic by comparing individuals of different ages longitudinal design systematic study of changes in the same individual or group examined over time epidemiology psychopathology research method examining the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorders in populations placebo control group in an outcome experiment, a control group that doesn’t receive the experimental manipulation but its given a similar procedure with an identical expectation of change, allowing the researcher to assess the placebo effect retrospective information data collected by examining records or recollection of the past. It is limited by the accuracy, validity, and thoroughness of the source informed consent ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their own role in it experiment research method that that can establish causation by manipulating the variables in question and controlling for alternate explanations of any observed effects double-blind control procedure in outcome studies that prevents bias by ensuring that neither the subjects nor the providers of the experimental treatment know who is receiving treatment and who is receiving placebo placebo effect behavior change resulting from the person’s expectations of change rather than from the experimental manipulation itself comparative treatment research outcome research that contrasts two or more treatmentmethods to determine which is most effective
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