Study Guide #1 GPY 235- Gutowsky
Study Guide #1 GPY 235- Gutowsky 11781 - GPY 235 - 02
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Klawr13 on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 11781 - GPY 235 - 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Michael Gutowsky in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Test #1 Study Guide Gutowsky Chapter 1: Climate- typical conditions of the weather expected at a place often measured long term averages of temperature and precipitation and at different seasons (ex- wet, cool winters, and hot, dry summers) Global warming-an increase in world temperatures and change in climate associated with increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other trace gases resulting from human activities (deforestation) Deforestation: the clearing, thinning, or elimination of tree-cover in historically forested areas, most typically referring to human-caused tree-cover loss Plate tectonics: theory that Earth’s crust is divided into large solid plates that move relative to each other and cause mountain building, and volcanic and earthquake activity when they separate or meet. Ecosystems: ecology of Earth’s surface, like its hydrology, represents regionally diverse conditions and outcomes based on the interaction of climate, plate tectonics, and geomorphology and human activity. Complexes of organisms and their environments in particular places Biomes: the largest geographic biotic units (deserts, forests, grasslands) Biodiversity: differences in types and numbers of species in different regions of the world We have exhausted plants and animals to expand Biodiversity has declined worldwide Ethnicities: socially created systems of rules about who belongs to a particular group bases on actual or perceived commonalities, such as language and religion Capitalism: a form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and control of the mean of production, distribution and exchange of goods by private owners. Tariffs: taxes, protect a region’s own products vs Free Trade Cold War: a period in which struggles between these two powers took place through a variety of proxy conflicts WWII- US and Soviet Union Culture: a learned way of life, material and symbolic connection among people and places Religion, language, family, food, gender, sexuality Constantly evolving Diaspora: the spatial dispersion of a previously homogenous group Buddhism in Asia, Eastern Orthodox in Russia, Hinduism in India Fundamentalism: strict adherence to a basic set of principles, cuts across all regions Islam- Qu’ran and Sunnah Supranational Organizations: groupings of countries that organize to advance common economic and political goals NAFTA, NATO, SEATO, EU Global Civil Society: comprised of NGO’s (nongovernmental org) that represent citizens against formal countries and markets Environmental defense fund, Genocide Watch, WWF, Save the Children Breakdown of Activities: Primary- natural resources (agriculture, mining, fishing forestry) Secondary- manufacturing, processing, assembling (canned food, furniture, clothing) Tertiary- sale and exchange of goods/services (retail, accounting, advertising, entertainment) Quaternary- handling and processing knowledge and info (data, education, research) Global North: most income, fewest people Luxembourg, Ireland, Norway (above $20,000) Global South: least income, most people Malawi, Sierra Leone Human Developmental Index (HDI): measures life expectancy, amount of education, and income 0 < X > 1 Povershed= 0 Developed= 1 Affluent countries .9 and up Gender Developed Index (GDI): highlights inequalities between men and women toward quality of life, knowledge, and standard of living Best: Iceland, Norway, Australia Worst: Niger, Guinea, Sierra Leone 1. Name and describe the world’s major climate zones. Tropical- warm with much rain year-round Arid/Semi-arid: just north and south of equator, most of world’s deserts Mediterranean: western, moderate temperature, areas are close to large bodies of water Humid Subtropical: southeast, more wet and humid than Mediterranean due to trade winds Marine Coastal: west coast, continually wet and cooler Continental: North American and European, drier with long, cold winters Polar: COLD 2. What is the Koeppen (Koppen) classification system? Classifies different climates around the world Uses monthly and annual temperatures and precipitation averages 3. Be able to generally describe the idea of plate tectonics. Large solid rock plates floating and slowly moving on a layer of molten material, their boundaries result in tension which are responsible for volcanic, earthquake and mountain building activity. 4. Name the 2 plates that collided to form the world’s highest mountain range, the Himalayas. Indian and Eurasian plates 5. What is the “Ring of Fire?” Chain of seismic instability and volcanic activity that stretches from Southeast Asia through the Philippines, down the Pacific coast of the Americas to the southern Andes in Chile- caused by the tension built up by moving tectonic plates 6. In which two continents do we find the fastest deforestation? Africa and South America 7. What is the difference between land use and land cover? Land cover is the physical land type Land use is how people are using the land 8. Be able to describe the differences between the 1 wave and the 2 wave of European colonialism (political, economic, sociocultural domination) 1 - government controlled industry and trade, investment moved slowly to plantation economies (single crop agriculture) nd 2 - incorporated Africa, Asia, Australia, South pacific Colonization of Non-European regions and people -> global expansion and capitalism Exploitation of agriculture to production and manufacturing 9. Be able to describe the extent of the British Empire in the late 1800s. Hegemony- domination over world economy using military, economic, financial and cultural means Protected by Royal Navy, web of commerce to collect food for workers and raw materials for industries from colonies and dependencies Successful trading empire 10. What two countries competed for global influence across many main issues during the Cold War of the mid-to-late 1900s? US and the Soviet Union 11. In what general ways may we look at the world’s regions? Climates, tectonically, Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Temporally, Politically 12. What era are we currently living in now? Post- Industrial era 13. How has manufacturing generally moved geographically during this era? Manufacturing in North America, Europe, and Japan went to East Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin America and Africa for cheap labor China, Mexico and India = largest labor pools 14. Be able to differentiate between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities. Primary- natural resources (agriculture, mining, fishing forestry) Secondary- manufacturing, processing, assembling (canned food, furniture, clothing) Tertiary- sale and exchange of goods/services (retail, accounting, advertising, entertainment) Quaternary- handling and processing knowledge and info (data, education, research) 15. Be able to give examples of the widening income gap between the world’s rich and poor. Highest 1/5 of the world with the highest–income countries has 74% of worlds income Lowest 1/5 of the world makes less than 1% Globalization of goods/companies widening this gap (food, brands, internet, technology) Global system of distribution is corrupt and inefficient 16. What conclusions can we make from this income gap? The income gap is only going to get wider as globalization increases and spreads 17. Be able to describe the Global North and the Global South in terms of income and population. North- Most income, lowest population South- lowest income, highest population 18. What is considered a reliable indicator of a country’s social well-being? Steep Global South (high mortality) to Global North (low mortality) gradient Life expectancy much higher in industrial countries 19. What does the HDI measure and in what range do its scores fall for the affluent and poorest countries? It measures life expectancy, income and education Affluent countries will be .9 closer to 1 and poorer countries will be under .4 closer to 0 20. Does this pattern hold up for all indicators of human development? It’s the same Human development- adult literacy, malnutrition, access to doctors, telephone lines 21. Be able to equate the cost of providing for the basic social needs of the world’s impoverished against certain expenditures of the world’s affluent. Education for children= $6 billion ~ annual US cosmetics Water and sanitation= $9 billion ~ annual European ice cream Basic health and nutrition= $13 billion ~ annual pet food in US and European Reduce global military spending by ~10%/year = all these costs 22. Know the 6 countries that are expected to assume half of the increase in global population to the year 2050. China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Pakistan 23. Know where 90% of the world’s population lives and how much land we reside on. 90% live north of equator All of the world’s population lives on 10% of the worlds land 24. Be able to describe the homogenization of the world’s culture and how it may be considered good and bad. Good: disparate people may identify with one another more easily Bad: the cultural gap between affluent and poverty deepens Bad: losing diversity, increased similarity Ex- McDonalds, cell phones, internet, Coca-Cola 25. What is the main purpose of supranational organizations? Advance common economic and political goals amongst countries EU, NATO, NAFTA, SEATO Chapter 2: Orographic effect: elevation influences Windward- (west) side of mountains cooler and wetter Leeward- (east) side of mountains warmer and drier Cirques: deep bowl shaped basins in mountain sides (common in Alps) Stabburs: raised structure to keep food dry and keep mice out Cordilleras: long narrow mountain ranges Buildings stacked uphill on ranges Influential buildings on top, churches/cathedrals Steppes: semi-arid, treeless, grassless plains Sheep herding Hot and cold extreme temperatures Scattered villages Aspect: direction in which a sloping piece of land faces (51) Ethnic cleansing: systematic and forced removal of members of an ethnic group from their communities in order to change the ethnic composition of the region Serbians cleansed Albanians and Muslims Genocide: killing of a large group of people, ethnic cleansing 200k-400k Albanians and Muslims in 1990’s Social housing: rental housing that is owned and managed by a public institution or nonprofit organization High taxes payed with lots of services and benefits Tundra: desolate treeless stretches North Cape Watershed: low-lying dividing ridges between drainage areas of river systems Danube, Dneiper, Elbe, Seine, Thames Xenophobia: hate and/or fear of foreigners 1.What is the general climate of Europe and what ocean current is a major influence of much of the region? Warm summer, cold winter- Mediterranean Gulfstream currents bring in moist air masses to northwestern Europe 2. Know and be able to describe the climate types of Europe. Continental mid-latitude- extreme hot and cold (continental) Mediterranean- drier with seasonal rains (southern) Semi-arid- mostly dry (Spain, eastern) Humid-subtropical- warmer and wetter (Italy and Balkans) 3. Know and be able to describe the physical geographic regions of Europe. Northwestern Uplands o Mountains- Scotland and Norway o Uplands- Iceland, Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany o Glaciated valleys Alpine Europe (crosses southern through Alps into Balkans) o Mountains- Appenines and Pindus o Vines- orchards, woods and meadows east Central Plateau (between Alps and NE uplands) o Coalfields o Rolling hills, steep slopes, river valleys o Spain- cordilleras North European Lowlands (SE England, N Germany, S France) o Very flat o Steppes 4. What is Europe’s population? What nation has the most people? 581 million 13% world (America 318 million) Germany= 82 million 5. Does Europe import or export more goods? 43% imports 35% exports 6. Be able to relate the percentage of Europe’s land to its population. Which percentage is greater? 7% Earth land 13% population 7. Be able to discuss Europe’s birthrate, family size, and life expectancy. Declined birth rates 1.5/family Increase in life expectancy (improving health care) 8. Discuss the pros and cons of much of Europe being a “welfare state.” Pros- lots of benefits and services (medical care, public transportation, good pension and unemployment benefits) Cons- high tax 9. Be able to discuss the background, development, and issues of the European Union (EU). What is their common currency? Originally rebound from WWII (bring France and Germany together) Started with 6 countries in 1951, now up to 27 Lenders from the European bank lend peripheral countries (Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain) money which they spend quickly and don’t pay back Common Currency- Euro 10. What is the Golden Triangle of Europe and why is it important to them? The area between London, Paris and Berlin, with Brussels in the center (EU headquarters) Elaborate canals, railways, highways Lots of industry, skilled labor force, intensive agriculture 11. Be able to discuss Europe’s population migration and the importance of immigrants to the European economy. WWII population decreased, immigration increased into area post WWII Labor shortages- 12-14 million immigrants filled labor pool 12. Why did many manufacturing industries move from the Golden Triangle to the Southern Crescent of Europe? Cheaper land and labor Rate of urbanization is higher Chapter 3: Permafrost: subsoil is permanently frozen, 2/3 of Russia Sukhovey winds: strong dry winds that bring dust storms Diurnal: extreme temperatures hot long days, and cold nights – cause rocks to exfoliate Salinization: when water evaporates from the surface of the land and leaves behind salts that it has drawn up from the subsoil Monoculture: agriculture practice in which one crop is grown intensively over a large area of land Desertification: arid and semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desert like conditions Taiga: ecological zone of boreal coniferous forest Oligarchs: entrepreneurial class, formed from the transition from state socialism to freer economic markets Mining and petroleum assets to become rich 1.How does the area of Russia, Central Asia, and the Transcaucasus compare to that of North America? 8 million miles squared > 7.6 million miles squared (North America) 2. What kind of climate does much of this region have? What explains this climate? Severe continental: long cold winters, short warm summers Arctic ocean to the north, frozen over with ice, sun reflects and bounces off (albedo) 3. Describe the climates of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan; the Transcaucasus, and western Georgia. Stans- desert and semi-arid (land locked) Trans- orographic uplift from mountains north and south, water bodies west and east Georgia- subtropical, bordering the Black Sea 4. What kind of changes to this region is climate change expected to bring? Milder winters extend growing season Some regions can grow new varieties of crops Infrastructure needs to be stabilized from melting permafrost Increase in water availability Reduced energy demand with shorter heating seasons 5. Describe this region’s major landforms. Russian plains- rolling, boggy, marshy Urals- North to South, low mountains with copper, gold, iron ore and minerals West Siberian Plain- flatter with wetlands and small lakes Central Siberian Plain- hilly uplands and river gorges (wall of mountain ranges, southern border, active volcanoes) 6. What are some general features of this vast region w/r/t its rivers, the Caspian Sea, and Lake Baykal? Longest rivers on Earth, drain Siberian land mass and flow into Arctic Caspian Sea- largest inland sea in world (size of Germany) Lake Baykal- “Pearl of Siberia” deepest lake (5,300 ft) o 20% of all freshwater on earth o Endemic animals 7. What did the breakup of the Soviet Union mean to the countries of Central Asia and its natural resources? Fragmented Kazakhstan- oil, Uzbekistan/Turkmenistan- natural gas and uranium 8. Be able to discuss the numerous environmental problems that beset Russia and this region from nuclear energy and nuclear weapons development, soil degradation, water depletion, water and air pollution, industrial waste, etc. Nuclear- radioactive pollution, food chain contamination, stores nuclear waste (Europeans) Soil- permafrost, exhausted by agriculture, desertification and diurnal temperatures Water depletion- arid climates, long winters frozen over, waste flowing into Lake Baykal Overcutting forests, acid rain from pollution 9. Explain the background behind all these problems mentioned in question #8. Becoming more industrialized, conquered by engineering projects Russian government doesn’t fund environmental conservation to help problems 10. Know the region’s population density w/r/t its total land area. 14% of Earth’s land ~5% of population 11. Where are most of the large cities in the Russian Federation located? European part of Russia Urals (Moscow, St. Petersburg) 12. What are the causes and what will be the effects of the declining populations of Belarus and Russia? Rise in death rate from deteriorating environment and health care systems Increasing rates of industrial accidents and alcohol relates diseases 13. What were the effects of the breakup of the Soviet Union on the migration of native Russians? Independent states enacted policies that encouraged migration o Russian language school reduced o Cyrillic Russian alphabet stopped being taught and used 14. What has been the impact of this breakup on the Russian economy and its workers? Be able to discuss the new economic classes that have been created in Russia since 1991. Former officials used insider status to obtain part ownership of state industries and resources Oligarchs- entrepreneurial class snapped up mining and petroleum assets Affluent middle class in cities (educated, employed in management and business) Working women decreased 24% 15. What are the main problems/challenges confronting Russia in the years and decades to come? No estimated growth Inflation climbing (cost of food) Banks cut off from western markets Money/people leaving the country Very little invested in Russian economy o More debt = companies less appealing for government
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