Chapter 1 and 2 Exam Study Guide
Chapter 1 and 2 Exam Study Guide PSYC 110 - 010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carissa Hatcher on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 - 010 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Nicole Kerr-German in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 1 and 2 Study Guide, Exam 1 Individual differences Helps explain why each of us respond differently to the same objective situation Naïve realism The belief we see the world exactly as it is We make assumptions about the world based on theoretical explanations using the scientific method Assume “seeing is believing” and trust our perceptions Scientific theory An explanation for many findings in the natural world Generate predictions (hypotheses) that researchers can test Theories are general explanations, whereas hypotheses are specific predictions derived from the explanations Theory Explains Predicts Observations Modifies theory Generates new theory Confirmation bias tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny or dismiss any evidence that may contradict them results in psychological tunnel vision Belief perseverance tendency to stick to initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them “don’t confuse me with facts” effect because people are reluctant to admit they’re wrong Hindsight bias tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes “I knew it all along” Cognitive bias systematic errors in thinking Overconfidence tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions Heuristics Mental shortcut that helps understand our thinking and make sense of the world Oversimplifying “common sense” or “rule of thumb” Tools we use to problem solve by drawing on our experiences and surroundings Representative heuristics Judge the probability of an event by its similarity to a prototype Powerful cognitive distortion “if it looks like one, then it is one”, “judge a book by its cover” Neglect to consider base rate -base rate: how common a behavior or characteristic is Pseudoscience A set of claims that seem scientific but aren’t Lacks the safeguards against confirmation bias and belief perseverance Warning signs of Pseudoscience Exaggerated claims Overreliance on anecdotes -don’t tell us anything about cause and effect -don’t tell us how representative the cases are -difficult to verify Lack of peer review Lack of self-correction -may be belief perseverance? Psychobabble -uses technical terms that actually have no meaning just to lure in consumers Talk of “proof” instead of evidence Science and Psychology Science VS. Popular Psychology -Common Vs. Uncommon Sense -Cannot always trust our common sense -Psychology as a Science -Just like other sciences (chemistry, biology, physics, etc.), science begins on the basis that knowledge should be obtained through observation. Observation is only a starting point of obtaining psychological knowledge. -Biases that disrupt scientific thinking Scientific Thinking -6 Basic Principles 1. ruling out rival hypotheses 2. correlation vs. causation 3. falsifiability 4. replicability 5. extraordinary claims 6. occam’s razor -Helps us see warning signs of Pseudoscience 6 basic principles of critical thinking 1. Extraordinary claims ask yourself: Is the evidence as strong as the claim? this claim requires more rigorous evidence to support the claim -Example: Reading about Bigfoot or aliens without any strong supporting evidence by researchers 2. Replicability -ask yourself: can the results be duplicated in other studies? -we would be skeptic if no other scientific research reported the same findings 3. Ruling out rival hypotheses ask yourself: have important alternative explanations for the findings been excluded? more than not, only one finding is reported -cannot just assume it’s correct -were other explanations ruled out? 4. Occam’s razor -ask yourself: does a simpler explanation support the evidence just as well? -parsimony: simpler is better 5. Falsifiability ask yourself: can the claim be disproved? possible to find evidence that would prove this statement false? -Example: Rabbits don’t exist. -Here’s a rabbit. (Falsifiable) -Example: Rabbits exist. -I’ve examined every creature and none were a rabbit. (NOT falsifiable, statement is true) 6. Correlation vs. Causation ask yourself: can we be sure that A causes B? Falsifiability ask yourself: can the claim be disproved? possible to find evidence that would prove this statement false? -Example: Rabbits don’t exist. -Here’s a rabbit. (Falsifiable) -Example: Rabbits exist. -I’ve examined every creature and none were a rabbit. (NOT falsifiable, statement is true) What is Empiricism? Knowledge should initially be acquired through observation Logical fallacies Emotional reasoning fallacy -error of using emotions to evaluate validity of a claim Bandwagon fallacy -error of assuming a claim is correct because a lot of people believe it. Not me fallacy -error of believing that we’re immune from errors in thinking that afflict others Correlation and causation ask yourself: can we be sure that A causes B? Correlation ≠ Causation Correlation in causation of the design Correlation design: NO directionality, NO correlation can be obtained or measured Experimental design: directionality, correlation CAN be measured Confounding variables Something that could explain the results/data but is not directly addressed by the study or wasn’t a variable of interest Alternative explanations Important people and dates William James: Father of American psychology, built research lab at Harvard University (1875), wrote Principles of Psychology (1890) William Wundt: first “formal” psych lab in the world (1879) and first journal (1881) Sir Francis Galton: introduces “correlation” so we can discuss relationship regarding variables (1889) APA (American Psychological Association): founded in 1889 Sigmund Freud: Writes “The Interpretation of Dreams” (1900) Types of psychologists -clinical Perform assessment, diagnosis, treatment of mental disorders Conduct research on people with mental disorders -counseling Work with people experiencing temporary or relatively self-contained life problems (marital conflict, work, relationships) -developmental Study how and why people change over time -school Work with teachers, children, and parents to treat students’ behavioral, emotional, and learning difficulties -experimental Use research methods to study memory, language, thinking and social behaviors of humans -biological Examine the physiological bases of behavior in animals and humans -forensic Assess and diagnose inmates and assist with their rehabilitation and treatment -industrial-organizational Assist with selecting productive employees, evaluate performance, examine effects on work environment Cognitive miser Mentally lazy and try to conserve mental energies Doesn’t put forth more effort than necessary in thinking Types of studies Case study -researchers examine one person or group over extended period of time -provide opportunity to study rare or unusual phenomenon -provide insight into future research questions Cross-sectional -design in which researchers examine people of different ages at a single point in time Longitudinal -tracking the development of the same group of subjects over time Between vs. Within participants -Within group: extent to which a trait is heritable within groups -Between group: extent to which the difference in this trait between groups is heritable Nature Vs. Nurture debate Is it your genes or your experiences? -both, reciprocal and multifaceted Free Will-Determination Debate To what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside of our control? Automatically generated behaviors? -some psychologists argue most of perhaps all of our behaviors are generated automatically Those like Skinner suggested we aren’t consciously aware of all of the influences that impact us The Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology Structuralism -Leading Figures: E.B. Titchener -Scientific Goal: uses introspection to identify basic elements or “structures” of experience -Lasting Influence: emphasis on the importance of systematic observation to the study of conscious experiments Functionalism -Leading Figures: William James, influenced by Charles Darwin -Scientific Goal: to understand the functions or adaptive purposes of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Why we function the way we do) -influenced by ideas of Natural Selection -Lasting Influence: absorbed into psychology, still influences in numerous ways Behaviorism: -Leading Figures: John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner -Scientific Goal: to uncover the general principles of learning that explains behaviors -focus is largely on observable behaviorism -Lasting Influences: human and animal learning models, among the first to focus on the need for objective research Cognitivist -Leading Figures: Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser -Scientific Goal: to examine the role of mental processes on behavior -Lasting Influences: research areas- language, problem solving, concept formation, intelligence, memory, and psychotherapy Psychoanalysis -Leading Figures: Sigmund Freud -Scientific Goal: uncover the role of unconscious psychological processes and early life experience in behavior - where “sitting on a couch talking about your feelings” comes from -Lasting Influence: understanding that much of our mental processes goes on outside of conscious awareness
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