FN 235: Nutrition For Health Quiz 1 Study Guide
FN 235: Nutrition For Health Quiz 1 Study Guide FN235
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dempsey Hankins on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FN235 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Dr. Kimberly Pickerl in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see Nutrition for Health in Biology at Southeast Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Quiz 1: Chapters 1 & 2 Study Guide Chapter 1 o 1.1 Nutrition: The Basics 1.1 talked about lifestyle choices and the basics of nutrition. It talked about the 6 classes of nutrients—carbs, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water. It also talked about the essential nutrients and nonnutrients. o 1.2 Factors that influence Americans’ Health Heart disease, stroke, some cancers, and type 2 diabetes are all in the top 10 causes of death in America and can all be helped, if not cured, with good nutrition. Risk factors do play a big role in these disease though. Some of the objectives for America are listed on Healthy People 2020. o 1.3 Metrics for Nutrition Scientists use the metric system in nutrition. Every cell needs energy to perform. A calorie is the energy value found in food. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are the macronutrients. Vitamins and minerals are the micronutrients. o 1.4 Key Nutrition Concepts Most naturally occurring foods are a mixture of nutrients, but no one food is the “Miracle” food. A healthy diet is a combination of several different foods. Food should not be looked at as “good” or “bad”, instead, all foods should be eaten with moderation, limiting empty-calorie foods. o 1.5 Nutrition Matters: Undernutrition—A Worldwide Concern Poverty and undernutrition are found all over the world. This results in infections and widespread disease. Stunned growth, blindness, premature death, and impaired intellectual development are among the most common diseases from undernutrition. Vocabulary Nutrition—the scientific study of nutrients, chemicals necessary for proper body functioning, and how the body uses them. Chemistry—the study of the composition and characteristics of matter and changes that occur within it. Cell—the smallest living functional unit in an organism. Metabolism—the total of all the chemical processes that occur in living cells. Essential Nutrients—a nutrient that must be supplied by food because the body doesn’t produce enough, or any at all, of the nutrient. Deficiency Disease—a disease that occurs when the body doesn’t receive enough of an essential nutrient. An example of a deficiency disease is scurvy. Non-nutrients—substances made by plants that are not nutrients yet they have healthful benefits, such as caffeine. Phytochemicals—a non-nutrient made by plants. Antioxidant—phytochemicals that protect cells and their components from being damaged or destroyed by exposure to certain harmful environmental and internal factors. Dietary supplements—a product that contains a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other plant product, an amino acid, or a dietary substance that supplements the diet by increasing total intake. They should not be substituted for the actual fruit or vegetable, however. Risk Factor—personal characteristic that increases a person’s chances of developing a disease. Lifestyle—usual way of living, includes dietary practices and exercise. Calorie—the hear energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1˚Celsius. This is the measure of food energy. Macronutrient—nutrients needed in gram amounts daily and that provides energy; fats, proteins, and carbs are the macronutrients. Micronutrients—vitamins and minerals that are not needed in large amounts. Empty calorie—food or beverages that supply excessive amounts of unhealthy, solid fat, added sugars, and/or alcohol. Cake is a great example. Nutrient-dense—food or beverages that has more vitamins and minerals in relation to its unhealthy fat, added sugar, and/or alcohol contents. Carrots are an example. Energy density—energy value of a food in relation to the food’s weight. Moderation—obtaining adequate amounts of nutrients while balancing calorie intake with calorie expenditure. Metrics in Nutrition: Scientific Measurements: Weight = grams Volume = liters Length = meters Table 1.6 pg 12 Conversions: 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 kg = 2.2 lbs 1 ounce = 2.8 grams 1 lb = 454 grams “Always weight less in grams” Physiological Dose—amount of a nutrient that is within the range of safe intake and enables the body to function optimally. Megadose—generally defined as 10 times the recommended amount of a nutrient. Malnutrition—state of health that occurs when the body is improperly nourished. Biotechnology—the use of living things—plants, animals, etc—to manufacture new products. Sustainable agriculture—faming technology that does not deplete natural resources or harm the environment while meeting the demand for food. Chapter 2 o 2.1: Science for Consumers Nutrition relies on scientific methods that may involve making observations, asking questions and developing possible explanations, performing tests, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions from data, and reporting on the findings. Human Research is known as Epidemiology. Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence, distribution and causes of health problems in populations. By studying these occurrences, epidemiologists can suggest nutrition-related hypotheses to cure these diseases. Epidemiology is broken down into 2 groups: intervention and observation Most human research is observational. Observational can be prospective or retrospective. Researchers must do extensive research before publishing their findings, and even then the findings undergo a peer review. Consumers need to be aware of the many red flags when choosing a product. The science of nutrition is constantly evolving. o 2.2 Nutrition Information: Fact or Fiction? Testimonials and anecdotes are often used to promote and persuade consumers one way or another, but consumers should make sure that all the information is evidence based before purchasing a product. Consumers are responsible for questioning new research. Some of the questions that consumers should ask, and the red flags that they should look out for, are: Promises of quick fixes Scare tactics Personal attacks on reliable, known sources, Anecdotes/testimonies Vague scientific terms Too good to be true claims Disclaimers Based on a single study The “research” is done by the products own doctors/teams. o Vocabulary Anecdotes—reports of personal experiences Treatment Group—the group in an experiment who is given the medicine. Control Group—the group in an experiment who isn’t given the medicine. They can be given a placebo or nothing at all. Placebo—fake treatment, such as a sham pill, injection, or medical procedure. Placebo Effect—response to a placebo Double-blind Survey—experimental design in which neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participant’s group assignment. Epidemiology—study of the occurrence, distribution and causes of health problems in populations. Case-control Study—study in which individuals who have a health condition are compared with individuals with similar characteristics who do not have the condition. Cohort Study—study that measures variables of a group of people over time. Correlation—relationship between two variables. Testimonial—personal endorsement of a product Pseudoscience-presentation of information masquerading as factual and obtained by scientific methods. Quackery-promotion of useless medical treatments Multivitamin/mineral—describes a dietary supplement that contains vitamins and minerals. Complementary and alternative medicine—variety of health care practices that are not accepted by the majority of conventional medical practitioners. In-vitro—test-tube experiments experimenting on small parts of a whole organism. In-viro—testing on the whole living organism, such as mice and other small animals. Retrospective—“looking back in time” this type of study looks back at people’s past experience and seeing what may have caused disease. Prospective—“looking into the future” this type of study follows the group into the future for contributing factors. Direct correlation— when 2 variables change in the same direction Inverse Correlation—when 2 variables move in the opposite direction
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