Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY-4073-5073-001
Arkansas Tech University
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-4073-5073-001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Steven Andrew Berg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 235 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Neural Basis of Cognitive Psychology Know their major contribution(s) to the field: > Donders Donders was one of the pioneers of ophthalmology. His major contributions were in the areas of refraction and astigmatism. In 1858 Donders established the first eye hospital in the Netherlands. In 1864 his influential work "On the anomalies of accommodation and refraction of the eye with a preliminary essay on physiologic dioptrics" was published in English. It describes a complete doctrine, both theory and practice, of the employment and prescription of corrective glasses. Donders' interests included not only ocular physiology, eye movements (he discovered what came to be called the Law of Donders), color vision and color blindness, but also general physiology, evolution, and mental processes. > Helmholtz He is highly regarded for his statement of the law of the conservation of energy, as well as his theories of vision. > Wundt (1890s) Father of Psychology 1 formal psychology lab Wundt concentrated on three areas of mental functioning; thoughts, images and feelings. These are the basic areas studied today in Cognitive psychology. This means that the study of perceptual processes can be traced back to Wundt. Wundt’s work stimulated interest in cognitive psychology Structuralism Combining elements of experience called sensations for a greater meaningful experience > Watson (19101920s) Criticized two issues with structuralism: o Extremely variable results across participants o Results are difficult to verify empirically; they are not replicable. Antimentalistic o Behavior can be analyzed w/o reference to mind o Methodological rigor reduces ambiguity > Skinner (1950s) Relationship between stimulus and response Operant conditioning: punishment and reward Behavior strengthened by reinforcement and weakened by punishment Project pigeon ‘pigeon guided missile system’ The decline of behaviorism > Chomsky (1959) Swept away behaviorism in one fatal swoop Children create language tht doesn’t get rewarded. Language is not explained well by behaviorists. Learn to generalize using cognitive faculty. Language is not determined purely by imitation or reinforcement. > Ebbinghaus The forgetting curve. Another important discovery is that of savings. This refers to the amount of information retained in the subconscious even after this information cannot be consciously accessed. Ebbinghaus would memorize a list of items until perfect recall and then would not access the list until he could no longer recall any of its items. He then would relearn the list, and compare the new learning curve to the learning curve of his previous memorization of the list. The second list was generally memorized faster, and this difference between the two learning curves is what Ebbinghaus called "savings". * Simple reaction time task vs. choice reaction time task Reaction time (mental chronometry) o How long it takes to execute a cognitive process o Increase in RT indicates increase #mental steps o Choice RT – Simple RT = decision time. * Method of Savings I think this is referring to Ebbinghaus. * Introspection the subjective observation of one's own experience Structure of Neurons – Building blocks; cells specialized to receive, process, and transmit information with other intrabody cells. ~100 billion in a human brain Neurons communicate in a vast network by chemical and electrical signals. They have a membrane, nucleus, and specialized organelles and they produce, traffic and secrete chemicals. The cells membrane separates the cells components from the environment outside of the cell proteins inserted into their membranes, and these proteins allow the cell to interact with its outside environment. They can transmit electrical signals quickly over long distances. And when those electrical signals arrive at their end point(s), they trigger a specialized form of chemical signaling. Order (parts of cell) that info follows as it passes along a neuron 1. Dendrites – are specialized for collecting information from thousands of tiny chemical signals that they receive all along their extent. They pass this information to the second zone of importance; the soma (containing the nucleus) where signals integrate. 2. The soma or cell body– The key feature of the soma is the cell’s nucleus, which is the control center of the cell that regulates cell activity, including gene expression. The soma plays a key role in integrating (that is summing up) the signals coming in from the Dendrites. The soma transfers integrated information along a neural fiber –the axon that allows never impulses to pass. 3. Axon – or nerve fiber, which is the third zone of importance. The axon is an extension that reaches long distances beyond the soma, and it is essentially a cable to conduct signals rapidly across long distances. The axon passes information toward the terminal buttons that allow stimulation of nearby glands, muscles, and other neurons. 4. Axon Terminals – the fourth zone of importance. The terminals are optimized for the output of signals. COLLECTING (DENDRITES), INTEGRATING (SOMA), CONDUCTING (AXON) AND OUTPUTTING INFORMATION (AXION TERMINALS). 3 Major classes of neurons 1. Sensory Neurons – carry sense receptor nerve impulses towards nervous system. 2. Motor Neurons – carry nerve impulses away from nervous system towards muscles and glands. 3. Inter neurons – relay nerve impulses between neurons (mostly found in the nervous system). Sequence of events in synaptic transmission – Communication between cells Neurotransmitters are moved towards a terminal button Neurons do not touch at site of transmissions; they communicate across a gap called the synapse. Neurotransmitters are carried by synaptic vesicles that attach to the presynaptic membrane. Neurotransmitters will bind if – nothing is already bound to receptor – or the chemistry matches. Once transmission has been completed, neurotransmitter is released back into synapse (decomposed by enzymes or reabsorbed by the sending neuron). Broca’ area, Wernicke’s area (these areas specialize in processing..?) Broca’s area – patients with damage to Broca’s area suffer from an expressive aphasia. Meaning their language problem is not one of comprehension but instead one of communicating ideas to others. Their incapacity is not limited simply to spoken language. They are no better at writing an intended message either. There is damage to the left frontal cortex. Wernicke’s area – sustained damage to their left temporal cortex. It is also called a receptive aphasia. The problem lies in receiving and comprehending language. 4 lobes of the brain Frontal – Motor control, cognitive activities, (planning decisions, abstractions). Parietal – sensations of touch pain and temp. It is associated with the ability to integrate spatial info. Occipital – back of the brain. It is responsible for visual perception. Temporal – Located beyond the ears. Linked to hearing, and it contains Wernicke’s area. Phineas Gage – A rod entered his cheek and went through his brain. He went from a fun loving dude to presenting ASPD like symptoms (i.e. anger, hostility, violence) Action Potentials – Nerve impulses transmit information by means of electrochemical signals It appears that spikes are the binary all or none fundamental letters of the nervous system. The two key ions in making an action potential is sodium (Na) and potassium (K). When the cell is at rest there is a high concentration of NA on the outside of the cell. There is a much lower concentration on the inside. And it is exactly the opposite for K ions, Excitatory and inhibitory post synaptic potentials. They are like a simple math problem. Two EPSP’s will sum to a larger voltage change. And EPSP’s and IPSP arriving at the same moment will cancel each other out. The total voltage of the cell is determined by the overall pattern of all the inputs received. Absolute Refractory Period VS Relative Refractory Period. Absolute – no other action potential may pass. Relative – an action potential may pass but needs additional activation to get to base line. Excitatory, Inhibitory input to neurons Excitatory input increases the likelihood of an action potential Inhibitory will decrease the likelihood of firing Distributed Processing Cognitive learning theory. The PDP model holds that the cognitive processes can be explained by activation flowing through networks that link together nodes. Every new evert changes the strength of connections among relevant units by altering the connection weights. FFA,PPA,EBA (these areas specialize in processing...?) The fusiform face area (FFA) is a part of the human visual system that, it is speculated, is specialized for facial recognition. It is located in the fusiform gyrus. The parahippocampal place area (PPA) is a subregion of the parahippocampal cortex. PPA plays an important role in the encoding and recognition of environmental scenes (rather than faces). The extrastriate body area (EBA) is a subpart of the extrastriate visual cortex involved in the visual perception of human body and body parts, akin in its respective domain to the fusiform face area, involved in the perception of human faces. Prosopagnosia, synesthesia Prosopagnosia is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to recognize faces. Prosopagnosia is also known as face blindness or facial agnosia. Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. Single dissociation vs. double dissociation Establishing a single dissociation between two functions provides limited and potentially misleading information, whereas a double dissociation can conclusively demonstrate that the two functions are localized in different areas of the brain. To make the difference between single and double dissociations easier to understand, Parkingives the following example: o If your TV set suddenly loses the color you can conclude that picture transmission and color information must be separate processes (single dissociation: they cannot be independent because you cannot lose the picture and still have the color). If on the other hand you have two TV sets, one without sound and one without a picture you can conclude that these must be two independent functions (double dissociation). Sensory Processes and Perception Sensations can be defined as the passive process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain. The process is passive in the sense that we do not have to be consciously engaging in a “sensing” process. Perception can be defined as the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses. Sensation Neural impulses in brain are produced when sensory receptors are stimulated Provide brain with link to world Internal and external Perceptual organization A critical component of perceptual processes for dealing with the world is figure (object) vs. ground (backdrop) Brain integrates stored info (memory) with incoming information (sense of signal) to form representations of events in the world. Integration is typically nonconscious Result of the integration process is the percept. Activity in brain travels along path of least resistance. Things we commonly perceive will pop out or remain salient when we observe then subsequent times. (trailblazer analogy) Identification & recognition We assign meaning of percepts Our brain helps us to gather information and integration processes use information to assign meaning. Gestalt psychology School psychology early to mid20 century Maintains that psychological phenomena achieve understanding when organized as collective, structured wholes – not when broken down into basic elements. The whole is different than the sum of its parts. Heuristics Learned strategies that rely on interference Used as cognitive shortcuts in problem solving Simple rules that people use to help make decisions Gestalt “laws” are really heuristics (because they do not always predict the environment). Ex. Light from above heuristic: we are accustomed to having light down on things from above (divots vs mounds image) Ex. Occlusion heuristic: when an object is partially covered by an occluding object, the covered one is seen continuing behind the occluder. Perceptual constancies Size constancy o True size of object is perceived regardless of variation is size on retinal image. (car images) Shape constancy o True shape of object is perceived regardless of viewing angle. (coin images) Lightness Constancy o Perceived whiteness, grayness, or blackness of an object remains constant across changes of illumination Recognitionbycomponents theory RBC theory is a bottomup process proposed by Irving Biederman to explain object recognition. According RBC theory, we are able to recognize objects by separating them into geons (the object’s main component parts)(elementary features) Bottomup vs. topdown processing BottomUp Processing o When sensory evidence from the environment is brought into the system for processing it is called bottom up processing. o Data driven. o Information taken into the system by sensory processes and sent toward the brain for extraction and analysis o Object recognition: object is initially analyzed, broken down by features TopDown Processing o When expectations and stored memories affect perception it is known as top down processing. o Conceptually driven. o Influence comes from many origins, such as past experiences, knowledge of the world, motivation, and sociocultural affiliation. o Higher level information can work to constrain processing of information by limiting the percept. o Contextual information can play an important role in the set of possible interpretations. Ex. Fox, Owl, Snake, D*ve vs. Bob, Ray, Tony, Bill, D*ve. o We use environmental context and our past experiences to help render accurate interpretations of what we perceive. o Ambiguity: stimuli that have more than one potential interpretation are said to be ambiguous. (old woman vs young girl in bonnet illusion, the cat) o Object recognition is subject to the influence of topdown processing (as well as bu processing) Rods,cones Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels. They do not mediate color vision, and have a low spatial acuity. o ~120 million o Sensitivity to light contrasts o Low light environment specializations; more sensitive to darkness Cones are active at higher levels, are capable of color vision, and are responsible for high spatial acuity. o ~7 million o Sensitivity to color contrasts o Specialized for dealing with bright/colorful stimuli. Transduction: the point in the process where physical signals become neural impulses The electrochemical signal is standard Begins at sensory receptors Sensory Receptors Detect environmental stimuli Convert phy. Form of sensory signal into cellular signal to be processed by nervous system Anatomical structures involved in vision Pupil o Little black dot at center o The opening at front of eye through which light passes Iris o Constricts and dilates o Less light vs more light Lens o Light entering the eye is reversed, inverted, and focused onto the back of the eye by the lens. o Handles focusing of near and distal vision. Retina o The retina is located at the back of the eye o Contains receptor cells that are sensitive to light; known as photoreceptors o It is here in the retina that organized layers of neurons convert the energy from light waves into neural signals. o 2 types of photoreceptors that line the back of the retina: rods and cones. Fovea o Small area near center of retina o Packed with cones (no rods here) o Sharpest vision (for color and spatial detail) happens here Blind Spot o Region where optic nerve leaves eye; ~18* o No photoreceptors here… Anatomical structures involved in hearing Sound waves are channeled into the ear canal by the pinna (external ear) Waves in canal may cause vibration of the tympanic membrane (ear drum) Vibration of the ear drum activates mechanical vibrations of three tiny bones ( the hammer [malleus], the anvil, and the stirrup [stapes]) in the inner part of the ear Bone vibration is passed into the cochlea, the primary organ of hearing Inside the cochlea vibrations set into motion the fluid inside the basilar membrane; fluid moves in waves Point of transduction: tips of tiny hair cells (stereocilia) lining the basilar membrane are bent as the fluid is sent into motion Bending of these hairs stimulate their nerve endings and transforms into neural impulses that can be sent to the brain. Illusions False patterns are perceived Trick you mind by exploiting cues we use to sense and perceive the world People in the similar perceptual environment tend to be tricked in the same way due to shared psychology Illusions exist for most senses but it is particularly easy to demonstrate visual illusions. If you are fooled about distance, you can be fooled about size (e.g. the Ames room)
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