course objectives for midterm 1
course objectives for midterm 1 BIO 162
Popular in Introduction to Organismal Form and Function
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alanna Reilly on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 162 at a university taught by Emily Taylor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 558 views.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
CH 37 objectives Topic: Plant form and function Reading: Chapter 37 1. Distinguish between the roles of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity in creating the differences between organisms. a. genetic diversity is within a population, and phenotypic plasticity is a single organism reacting to the environment 2. Identify the major structures in the shoot and root systems of plants. roots shoots lateral/tap roots stem root hairs leaves meristems nodes internodes auxillary buds lea anchor roots, prop roots, stems: tubers thorns, etc pneumatohphones(in leaves: air) bulbs, succulents, tendrils 3. Give examples of leaves and roots that are modified from the basic plan presented in lecture. a 4. Identify the major tissue types in plants, and give examples of major structures and cell types in each. edpidermal tissue: cuticle: waxy layer pore: stomata and guard cells trichomes: hair like appendages ground tissue: parenchyma: photosynthesis location collenchyma: support and flexibility sclerenchyma: secondary cell wall, cellulose and lignin. FIBERS AND SCLERIDS vascular tissue: phloem: sugar and nutrients xylem: water vascular bundles: long and thin tracheids: conduct waters 5. Distinguish between primary growth and secondary growth in plants. primary growth: up secondary growth: outwards, laterally 6. Describe the process of growth ring formation in plants that undergo secondary growth. a. vascular and cork cambium add cells to the outside ch 42 1. Define an adaptation (natural selection, survival, reproduction). How does the structure of a trait relate to its function? Provide specific examples. adaptation: heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reproduce in certain environments a traits structure will make it more or less successful and therefor more or less likely to be passed on. 2. Define a fitness trade-off. Work through and be able to interpret the experiment on cricket trade-offs. a. fitness trade off: the inescapable compromise between two traits necessary to survivability 3. Compare and contrast the extent of phenotypic plasticity typically seen in animals and plants. plants move towards to sun, are highly phenotypically plastic. animals less so. 4. Describe the difference between adaptation and acclimatization (acclimation). acclimation is a type of adaptation. its a short term reversible reaction to the environment 5. Identify the major tissue types in animals, and describe how their structure relates to their function. a. connective tissue i. loose, dense, supportive, fluid. holds body together b. nervous tissue i. neurons: conducts nerve impulses c. epithelial tissue i. protection and interface with environment d. muscle i. skeletal, cardiovascular, smooth 6. Explain how size and the surface area to volume ratio affect physiological processes. a. surface area to volume ratio dictates speed of processes. slower metabolism for larger volume 7. Does the surface area to volume ratio impose more of a limit on the upper body size of plants or animals? Why?Give examples of how some structures are modified into a shape that alters surface area to volume ratio. a. flattening(gills), folding(GI tract) and branching (capillaries) increase surface area 8. homeostasis: stability in the chemical and physical conditions within an animals cells tissues and organs 9. Describe how mammals maintain homeostasis of body temperature (set point, sensor, integrator, effector, hypothalamus). Now apply this to a lizard. What about plants? a. hypothalamus: the part of the brain that control the basic functions of life. responds to a change in blood temperature b. sensor: a structure that senses some aspect of the external or internal environment. c. integrator: evaluates incoming sensory info and decides wether or not a response is necessary. d. effector: an structure that helps restore the internal environment e. based on negative feedback. f. conduction: direct transfer of heat b/w two physical bodies in contact with one another. convection: b/w solid and liquid/gas 10. Compare and contrast endothermy and ectothermy, homeothermy and poikilothermy. Are endotherms most commonly homeotherms or poikilotherms? What physiological mechanisms do they use to achieve this? a. endothermy:produces enough heat to keep tissues warm b. ectothermy: rely principally on heat given from the environment c. homeotherms: constant temperature d. heterotherms: allow body temp to increase/decrease with environment e. torpor/hibernation: when metabolism slows and animals body temp decreases f. shivering, fluffing of fur or feathers, increasing cellular respiration counter current heat exchanges: bundles of arteries exhange heat when in close contact maintain a gradient throughout the entire length. ch 43 1. Identify the reasons why water and electrolyte homeostasis are important in animals. a. there is a specific balance of electrolyte and water concentrations that are conducive to electrical currents and chemical interactions 2. Define the terms osmolarity (compare with water potential), hyperosmotic, hyposmotic, and isosmotic. a. osmolarity:the concentration of dissolved substances in a solution b. hyperosmotic: the solution inside the body contains fewer solutes than outside c. hyposmotic: the solution inside the body contains MORE solutes than outside d. isosmotic: soute concentrations inside and outside are equal. 3. For each type of transport across plasma membranes (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, primary active transport, and secondary active transport), describe how and why a molecule moves across a membrane. a. b. c. d. 4. Compare and contrast the osmoreguatory challenges of living in the ocean, in freshwater, and on land 5. Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators. a. osmo conformers have a similar blood osmolarity to the environment 6. Compare and contrast how marine (both cartilaginous and bony fishes), freshwater, and diadromous fishes osmoregulate. 7. Identify the three main types of nitrogenous wastes produced by animals, and give examples of an animal that produce each type. uric acid: a bird urea: a human ammonia: a freshwater bony fish 8. Identify the costs and benefits of each type of nitrogenous waste, focusing on the trade-off between production of uric acid and urea. 9. Diagram the mechanisms of NaCl excretion in the shark rectal gland and of reabsorption in the human proximal tubule (use terms: osmosis, concentration gradient, facilitated diffusion, primary active transport, secondary active transport). 10. Describe how Malpighian tubules function in insect osmoregulation. the malpighian tubules form a filtrate thats isosmotic with the hemolymph. pumps in the epithelium will get activated and electrolytes and water will be resorbed from the filtrate and returned to the hemolypmh. to stop water loss, hyperosmotic (super condensed) urine can be excreted 11. Identify the major parts of the mammalian nephron and list the substances reabsorbed at each part. a. renal capsule: pre urine forms, water +ions+wastes b. promixal tubule: electrolytes resorbed c. loop of henle: water diffuses ou, then NaCl resorbed d. distal tubule: active transport of water and elctrolytes e. collecting duct: water resorbed 12. Describe the roles of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone in the formation of concentrated urine in mammals. aldosterone: needed to resorb sodium ADH: controls aquaporins to resorb water. if limited then there will be high water loss 1. Water flows from one cell into another. Explain how the water potentials (ψ) of these two cells differ. water potential runs from high water potential to low water potential. 2. Identify the relationship between solute concentration and ψ , asd between turgor pressure and ψ .p when the solute pressure equals the tugor and they add up to 0, the cell is in homeostasis 3. Describe how ψ of a cell would change in the following conditions: the cell wall is degraded by enzymes. there would be no turgor pressure, and the cell would burst a pump transports Na out of the cytoplasm into the surrounding solution 4. Explain the relationship between wilting and turgor pressure. a cell without enough water is flaccid, aka wilty 5. Distinguish between positive pressure and negative pressure and explain how either of these two pressures can result in the movement of water (guttation, cohesion-tension theory). a. guttation: positive pressure. when something is PUSHING water b. choesion tension toery: negative pressure: water is being PULLED up 6. Explain how the experiment described in the text supports the cohesion-tension theory. 7. Distinguish between sources and sinks. Make a list of plant tissues that are sources or sinks (photosynthesis, storage, respiration). a. sources: create sugars, where photosythesis happens b. sinks: storage, roots or fruit, do not have photsysnthesis c. 8. Compare and contrast the anatomy of xylem (vessel elements, pits) and phloem (sieve tubes, cytoplasm, plates). 9. Explain how sucrose becomes concentrated in the sieve tube elements in source tissue. Include the following in your description: companion cell, H -ATPase, pump, cotransport. a. sucrose is in the companion cell. a proton gradient is established by exporting protons from the cell using HTpase. a cotransporter then brings sucrose into the sieve tubes using this gradient. Draw a diagram showing how pressure and sucrose concentration influence ψ in phloem in source and sink. 10. Suggest an explanation for why phloem transport requires living cytoplasm in the sieve tube members (remember that xylem cells are dead at functional maturity. a. the sucrose travels via the plasmodesma cho 10, 19 1. “CO 2s fixed during the Calvin cycle.” Explain what the term “fixed” means in this context. carbon dioxide reacts with RuBP to form 6 3 carbon molecules 2. Describe how the current atmosphere differs from that in which photosynthesis evolved. How does the current Earth atmosphere reduce the efficiency of rubisco? there used to be less O2, so there was less competition for RuBP between O2 and CO2 3. Identify the ways in which photorespiration drains energy from the plant. it consumes an ATP to produce CO2, which takes energy and slows the rate of photosynthesis 4. Describe the interior of a typical leaf. How do gases move from the atmosphere to the interior of the leaf (air space, mesophyll, stomata)? stomata open to let CO2 into the airspace of the leaves. it moves down a concentration gradient into the chloroplasts, which are in mesophyll cells 5. Diagram all reactions of C 4nd CAM photosynthesis shown in class. Pay particular attention to steps in which energy is consumed or fixation occurs. 6. Predict the relative success of C 3 C 4nd CAM plant in a cool, wet environment and in a hot dry environment. cool wet environment: C# is most successful, C4 much less, CAM much much less hot dry: CAM, C4, C3 7. Distinguish between temporal and spatial separation of CO fixat2on and sugar synthesis (C ,4CAM, Rubisco). temporal: CAM plants store up CO2 at night when its cooler, and then perform photosythesis during the day spatial: C4 and CAM plants perform the C4 patway in mesophyll cells, while rubispo is in te bundlesheath cells (calvin cycle in the budle sheath cells) 8. Create a list of macronutrients and micronutrients common to plants and animals. macro micro magnesium molybdenum calcium boron nitrogen manganese macro micro phosphorus zebras potasium copper sulfur nickle chlorine Iron 9. Identify the advantage to plants of pumping protons (H ) from root cells. roots are in teh soil which is rich with ions and nutrients. by pumping protons in root cells, they can set up an electro chemical gradients which will bring in more nutrients then if protons were pumped in the leaves or stems. 10. Explain how the electrochemical gradient is used to import K and NO 3- (channel, cotransport). on the root hairs, a proton pump is established, creating an electrochemical gradient. cations (K) follow this electrochemical gradient into the cell, and NO3- uses a co- transporter to get into the cells along the elctrochemical gradients. 11. Nitrogen is described as being “very expensive” for plants to acquire. Explain this statement. NO3- must go against its gradient in order to come into the cell, and so the cell must expend energy to get it in. 12. Diagram the steps in which rhizobia colonize a root (flavonoid, infection thread, cytoplasm, nodule, cell division). 13. Diagram the fixation of N i2 rhizobia (ATP, NH 4+ or NH 3 nitrogenase). 14. Describe how the presence of leghemoglobin influences the efficiency of N 2 fixation. leghemoglobin binds to oxygen, which protects nitrogenase from oxygen. oxygen degrade nitrogenase so lehmoglobin increases the efficiency of N2 fixation. 15. Compare and contrast epiphytes, parasitic plants and carnivorous plants. epiphytes parasitic plants carnivorous plants grow on trees grow on plants, make use insects to meet them less ﬁt nitrogen needs
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