PRAD 291 Research Methods Midterm Study Guide
PRAD 291 Research Methods Midterm Study Guide PRAD 291
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gillian Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PRAD 291 at DePaul University taught by Dan Azzara in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Public Relations at DePaul University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Research Methods Midterm Study Guide Research – A disciplined inquiry that involves studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so that others may replicate and test. - The process of asking questions and finding answers - Application of scientific and systematic procedures - Assumes that patterns can be uncovered - Every research follows a “method” - Law of the Hammer essential problem. Everything problem can be solved by those methods. Basic Research – Designed to test and refine a theory. Theory – A hypothesis or idea. A set of concepts Uses for Research in Communication – Who is the audience? How do we reach them? Did the campaign work? Why or why not? Advertising Research – About meeting goals of the specific communication. Specific objectives that are measurable, timely, and achievable. Three Areas of Research – 1. Awareness. 2. Recall. a. Unaided: Percentage of people who know the name automatically. b. Aided: Cues are necessary. Usually higher. 3. Attitude and Usage (A&U). Most meaningful studies. Has planned usage changed? Did you buy it before, will you buy it now? Before and after. Longitudinal (over time) studies. Track changes. Contribution of Research – Research contributes Market (macro): Successful advertising planning build on research- driven analysis of the marketplace. Economic, global. - Current and potential future trends - Forces shaping the marketplace - How market forces affect own and competitive brands and advertising Consumer: Effective advertising based on thorough understanding of target audience. - Three dimensions of target audience analysis. 1. Consumer trends 2. How consumers interact with brand/product/service 3. Relationship between consumers and brand/product/service Creative: Research helps throughout creative development. - Identify strongest essential message - Identify strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches - Select most powerful approaches for placement in media (the “winning” approach) - Research also makes a contribution after creative is placed in media. o Tracking evaluations to determine in-market success o Claim substantiation Media (micro): - Research helps answer questions such as: o How much are the competitors spending? o Where should the advertising be concentrated? o When and how should advertising be scheduled? o What is the optimal way to use different media? o What is the best media mix? - Individuals with direct responsibility for brand and advertising related decisions. - Involved in all stages of research project: from planning to application. - Individuals on the “client side” are brand managers and research specialists. o Brand managers responsible for marketing/advertising of a specific brand o Research specialists responsible for coordinating, gathering, analyzing, and disseminating research finds - All individuals on the “agency side” are involved with research. - In larger agencies there is typically a dedicated research department. o Smaller agencies may use account of media personnel to plan…. Difference between marketing research and advertising research - Marketing includes price, package, distribution, etc. Advertising is a part of that. - Marketing research: The systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, dissemination, and use of information for the purpose of improving decision making… - Problem-identification research, problem-solving research. - Internal suppliers - External suppliers. PR Research - Same tools used as in advertising research. - Tends to be more qualitative methods of research. - Think about the image of a brand. o Conduct surveys, ask the consumers about their opinions - Every Day Ways of Knowing: 1. Authority 2. Personal Experience or Introspection 3. Intuition 4. Custom 5. Magic or Superstitions o Values include: Leads us to valid and reliable knowledge Starting point for gaining knowledge Leads to useful ideas Make very good sense o Problems include: Cuts off the inquiry process Makes people passive receivers of apparent truths Lead to conflict and miscommunication Difficult to evaluate and trust Inaccurate opinions Cognitive conservatism Types of PR Questions - Questions of fact: Provide definitions. - Questions of variable relations: Examine if, how, and to what degree phenomena are related. - Questions of value: As for subjective evaluations. - Questions of policy: Recommend a course of action. The Research Process The Scientific Approach: - Research follows traditions & procedures. - Researcher as a detective, seeking answers to questions. - Research process depends on your abilities to search for and track down information. The Deductive Research Model: - Theory guides investigation The Inductive Research Model: - Gather and analyze data framed around research. Problems - Existing Theory or Research. o Building off established theory. o Interdisciplinary applications of theory. - Practical Problems o Applied research to answer practical problems - Casual Observation Defining a Research Problem - Multi step vs picking an idea. Area - General title of research (broad) Narrow - A specific statement of the research problem. - A single issue if possible. - Topic better suited to quantitative or qualitative methods? Defining a Topic - It needs to be specific enough that you could actually research it, and must represent something worth discussing. - “why do people advertise” is too broad. - Should reflect an overall area – and be specific enough to develop questions to investigate. Sources - Understand sources from which you define the problem. o Experience o Experts o Deduction from theory o Readily available problem o Lit review (previous research on the product) Evaluate - The potential of the problem. o Is it important enough? o Does it meet criteria of the study? Problem Criteria - Findings make a difference for others? - Lead to new research? - Really researchable? - Your knowledge on the area? - Data available? - Complete in the time frame? 1. Area 2. Narrow 3. Sources 4. Evaluate 5. Statement 6. Balance 7. Format 8. Research. Statement - Clarify what you want to determine/solve. - A scope limited to a specific question. - Operationally defines key terms. Balance - Between general and specific in problem statement. - Broad enough to be significant in findings. Format - Design a research question. - How you write the question will determine the scope of your research. Descriptive - “what is…” - When a study is designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exists. Public opinion polls that seek only to describe the proportion of people who hold various opinions are primarily descriptive in nature. Exploratory - “what is the relationship between”. - When a study is designed to look at the relationships between two or more variables. Explanatory - “why…” - Also known as “casual”. - Essentially, a hypothesis (can also be said as a statement). Quantitative Methods Examples: - Surveys - Correlation - Experiments Advantages: - Tradition and history implies rigor - Numbers and statistics allow precise and exact comparisons - Generalization of findings.
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