Psych Exam 3
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karlie Capozzoli on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology Exam #3 Chapter 8 Cognition= how we use and store info in memory Thinking= using knowledge to accomplish a goal Knowledge= info stored in our long term memory as mental representations (memory traces of objects, people, or places) *Thinking involves visual images and concepts* Visual images= some research suggests a stored carbon copy of what we see while others suggest that it could deviate from an actual stimuli Stephen Kosslyn’s view: mental representations of visual stimuli involves sensory and meaning (words) Concepts= mental category that contains bits of knowledge organized by similarities Formal concepts: rigid rules to define a concept Natural concepts: our own natural definition of a concept (fuzzy, blurry boundaries) Prototypes: using the most typical member of a category to help decide Exemplars: using an instance of an actual member of the category to help decide Types of Concepts Superordinate: most broad/general (ex. Pear=fruit) Basic: what it is (ex. Pear=pear) Subordinate: really specific (ex. Pear= bosc pear) Well-Structured Problems= A clear path to solutions Algorithm: always leads to the correct solution Heuristic: short cut or “rule of thumb” that may or may not lead to the correct solution Identify Represent (why is this problem important?) Plan a solution Execute the plan Evaluate the plan Evaluate the solution Ill-Structured Problems: no known algorithm (use intuition and not reason) Insight: a new way of looking at the problem that leads to a new way to solve it Deductive reasoning: moves from general -> specific Inductive reasoning: moves from specific -> general Availability Heuristic: using ease in which we recall an event to estimate how frequently an event happens (ex. Plane crash on the news) Representative Heuristic: using the degree to which representative of the category to judge whether it belongs in a category (ex. Race related crime) Affective Heuristic: quick judgments about people and things based on whether or not we have immediate positive or negative emotional reaction to them Biological Nativist Approach Chomsky: language acquisition devices (LAD) Biological make-up gives us innate knowledge of the syntax of language Children do not get “coached to speak” Syntax is the rules of our language Poverty of Stimulus Argument (approach) Behaviorist Approach Language is not innate Children are exposed to so much language in early life The Case of Genie Lived in complete isolation until found at 13. Found as the size of a six year old and had never been taught to speak or even spoken to. Research: Genie learns new words at a rapid pace Grammar is not sufficient Extreme neglect causes malformation in the brain BASICALLY: aspects of biological and environmental approaches both impact acquiring language Language Development Birth to 1 month: capable of perceiving vowel sounds 2 months: start to coo (ooh, ahh) 4 months: babbling By 7 months: babble in their language (English vs. Spanish) By 1 year: babbling contains sounds/intonations of native language 1 year: First word 12-18 months: 1 word at a time being added 20-26 months: combining words (car go/ mom come) 2-3 years: subject/verb/object being formed 6 years: 10,000 words & fairly mastered language Intelligence: abilities that enable you to adapt to your environment and behave in a goal-directed way Binet & Simon develop first intelligence test in France Mental Age: age that reflects child’s mental abilities compared to the average child of the same age Above avg: mental age exceeds chronological Average: mental & chronological age are the same Below avg: mental age is below chronological Stanford-Binet test (created by Terman): a standardized set of questions, procedures, and scoring methods Terman developed the intelligence quotient (IQ) Mental age/Chronological age times 100 Over 100 is above average, Under 100 is below Weshcler (used today): individual subscales that measure different mental abilities
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