Psych Exam 4
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karlie Capozzoli on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology Exam #4 Personality= unique collection of thoughts, attitudes, impulses, & behavior that defines how a person behaves across situations Four perspectives: 1. Psychoanalytical (Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney) 2. Trait (Allport, Cattell) 3. Social Cognitive (Bandura, Rotter) 4. Humanistic (Maslow, Rogers) Freud’s psychoanalytic theory personality is informed by our inner forces and conflicts, so people have little awareness and no control Unconscious=memories, knowledge, beliefs, etc. that you are unaware of Conscious=memories, knowledge, beliefs, etc that you are aware of Preconscious= holds info that we could potentially be aware of (subconscious) Freud’s Structure of Personality: ● Id= the unconscious part of personality that seeks pleasure and gratification ● Ego= reality principle cannot always be pleasure/gratified (buffer between id and outside world) ● Superego= judges the morality of the behavior and prevents improper behavior Defense mechanisms: unconscious strategy to reduce anxiety by distorting reality and conceal the anxiety from ourselves Repression (primary): the psychological attempt made by an individual to repel one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding the desire from one's consciousness and holding or subduing it in the unconiousness Psychosexual stages: ● developmental periods a person goes through ● encounter conflict between demands of society and own sexual urges ● Fixation= concerns or conflicts that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur Freud’s contributions: ● dreams= research on sleep; coping research on health ● importance of early development Criticism’s: ● too much emphasis on the sexual urges ● maledominated theories ● cannot test his theories ● observations are not objective ● cases included individuals w/ anxiety Trait approach: emphasizes internal, biological aspects of personality ● tendency to behave in a certain way across situations ● stable Allport’s trait theory: 1. cardinal= all situations (dominant) 2. central= most situations (510) 3. secondary= certain situations (less consistent) Factor Analysis= statistical approach of identifying patterns among large # of variables Cattell’s Factor Analytic Trait Theory: 1. surface= basic traits that describe people’s personality 2. source= universal tendencies that underlie and are at the core of surface traits Eysenck’s PEN model: 1. introversion= personality traits that involve energy directed inward, such as being calm or peaceful 2. extraversion= personality traits that involve energy directed outward, such as being easygoing, lively, or excitable 3. emotional stability= having control over one’s emotions 4. neuroticism= the degree to which one is emotionally unstable 5. psychoticism= the degree to which one is hostile, nonconforming, impulsive, and aggressive Fivefactor theory (Costa & McCrae) THINK OCEAN: 1. Openness: degree to which one is thoughtful and rational in considering new ideas 2. Conscientiousness: degree to which one is aware of and attentive to other people, to the details of a task, or to both 3. Extraversion: degree to which one’s energy is directed inward or outward 4. Agreeableness: degree to which one gets along with others 5. Neuroticism: degree to which one is emotionally stable or unstable Behavioral genetics: field of study that examines influence of genetics & hereditary factors on personality traits Personsituation interaction: influence of the situation on the stability of traits; when in the same situation, we display similar behavior, but when the situation is different, behavior may change SocialCognitive Approach= a personality perspective that emphasizes influences of one’s thoughts and social experiences in formulating personality ● Reciprocal determinism (Bandura): constant interaction among one’s behavior, thoughts, and environment determines personality ● SelfEfficacy: the expectation that one has for success in a given situation ● Locus of control: the expectation of control we have over the outcome of an event: an internal locus means we expect some degree of personal control, whereas in external locus means we expect little personal control Humanistic Approach (Rogers & Maslow): emphasizes builtin drive toward fulfilling own potential ● Selfactualization= fulfillment of one’s natural, highest potential Carl Rogers (video) ● free choice ● congruence and incongruence ● clientcentered therapy ● unconditional positive regard= acceptance and love of another’s thoughts and feelings without expecting anything in return Contributions: ● highlights the uniqueness of human beings ● awareness of self & interactions w/ other people ● guides development of a form of therapy designed to alleviate psychological difficulties Criticisms: ● difficulty verifying basic assumptions of the approach ● naive and optimistic approach Health Psychology: relationship between behaviors and health Stress= any event or environmental stimulus that we respond to b/c we perceive it as challenging or stressful Life Events= a change in one’s life that requires readjustment (good or bad) ● Holmes & Rahe (1967): social readjustment rating scale & life change units (higher stress, more stress) Conflict=having to choose between 2 or more needs, desires, or demands ● Approachapproach= easiest to resolve (2 appealing choices) ● Avoidanceavoidance= 2 unappealing choices ● Approachavoidance= positive & negative aspects (ex. puppy) ● Multiple approachavoidance= a decision between multiple choices w/ positives and negatives (ex. picking a college) The Stress Response: first step in experiencing stress is to appraise the situation ● Primary Appraisal: our initial interpretation of an event as irrelevant, positive, or stressful ● Secondary Appraisal: evaluating what recourses you have to cope with the stressor 1. How might you cope? 2. Is the strategy/behavior successful? 3. Likelihood you can do it? ***Primary and secondary appraisal interact to produce an overall level of stress*** Alarm Reaction= sympathetic branch of the nervous system (fight or flight) General Adaption Syndrome (GAS): ● Adrenal glands secretes adrenalin and corticosteroids (heart rate and blood pressure increase) ● After stressor, parasympathetic kicks in ● IF STRESSOR CONTINUES…. Resistance stage: ● sympathetic nervous & endocrine system still activated ● less intensive than alarm reaction ● body’s resource begins to dwindle ● resources drained, no energy available Exhaustion stage: ● wear and tear on body ● heart damage & immune system less effective Coping w/ Stress: behaviors we engage in to manage stressors ● problemfocused coping= behaviors that aim to control or alter the environment that is causing stress ● emotionfocused coping= behaviors aimed at controlling the internal emotional reactions to stressors Progressive Relaxation Training: a stress management technique in which a person learns how to systematically tense and relax muscle groups in the body Social support: having close and positive relationships with others Guided imagery: a technique in which you focus on a pleasant, calming image to achieve a state of relaxation when you feel stressed Meditation: mental exercises in which people consciously focus their attention to heighten awareness and bring their mental processes under more control Personality and Health: ● Type A: personality that is aggressive, ambitious, and competitive ● Type B: personality characterized by patience, flexibility, and an easygoing manner ● Type C: personality that is cautious, serious, sensitive to criticism, and results oriented, and that suppressed negative emotions such as anger Learned helplessness: a passive response to stressors based on exposure to previously uncontrolled, negative events Hardy personality: a personality that is high in the traits of commitment, control, and challenge, that appears to be associated with strong stress resistance Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI’s): an infection that is passed from one person to another primarily through sexual contact ● examples: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, HPV, HIV/AIDS, pubic lice, scabies Healthpromoting behaviors=behaviors that decrease chance of illness, disease, or death (ex. physical activity, eating right, getting enough sleep) Mental Health Disorder: a dysfunction in thinking (cognition), emotions, and/or social behavior that impairs functioning and is not culturally expected Psychopathology: the scientific study of mental health disorders DSM= Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Anxiety= worry about a future problem Fear= immediate emotional reaction of a current, dangerous situation Effects of anxiety: 1. Physical ● feel faint ● shaky ● rapid heartbeat 2. Cognitive ● unrealistic thoughts ● out of proportion ● extreme 3. Emotional ● feeling panicked ● worry 4. Behavioral ● escape ● avoiding a situation General facts about anxiety: ● 20% of Americans over 18 diagnosed every year ● Gender: women experience anxiety more than men ● African Americans lower risk than other races ● Highly comorbid (2 or more disorders that occur at the same time) with other disorders, especially depression 5 Anxiety Disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): ● worry and difficulty controlling the worry ● physical symptoms (tension, fatigue) ● 6 months or more ● “what if?” ● begins in early childhood ● European Americans at a greater risk Panic Disorder: ● recurrent, unexpected panic attack ● fear of future attacks or change in behavior related to attack ● develops in late adolescence/early adulthood ● highly comorbid with agoraphobia ● European and Native Americans at a greater risk Agoraphobia: ● fear of being in certain situations (public transportation, open spaces, enclosed spaces, being in a crowd or outside of the home alone) ● 6 months or more Specific Phobia: ● object/situation almost always leads to immediate fear ● avoided or endured with great distress ● out of proportion to actual danger ● 6 months or more ● 5 types: situational, natural environment, bloodinjection injury, animal, or other ● age development depends based on context Social Anxiety Disorder: ● fear/anxiety of one or more social situations ● almost always produce fear ● out of proportion ● impairment ● 6 months or more ● afraid of being judged/evaluated by others 2 Types of ObsessiveCompulsive and Related Disorders: ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder: ● OCD camp video ● presence of recurrent, persistent, intrusive thoughts or images (obsessions), and repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform (compulsions) to reduce distress or prevent some event from happening ● timeconsuming and interferes with a person’s functioning Hoarding Disorder: ● persistent difficulty discarding possessions such that they accumulate and clutter living areas causing significant distress ● impairment 1 Trauma Related Disorder: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: ● after exposure to an event in which serious physical harm occurred or was threatened ● Types of events? distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, numbness ● 2:1 female to male ratio (more active amygdala/women fear more) ● African Americans have greater rates of PTSD ● impairment Causes of Anxiety: think Biopsychosocial model (biological, psychological, and sociocultural causes) Biological: ● neurotransmitters serotonin, gaba (not functioning properly) ● genetic vulnerability ● overactive amygdala (aggressions, emotions, and fears cause overreactions) Psychological: ● classical conditioning ● reinforcement ● parent behavior ● patterns of thinking (situations.objects are uncontrollable, unpredictable, dangerous) Sociocultural: ● cultural differences ● stress & support Dissociative Disorder= a mental health disorder marked by a loss of awareness of some part of one’s self or one’s surroundings that seriously interferes with the person’s ability to function Dissociative Identity= a disorder in which two or more personalities coexist within the same individual; formerly called multiple personality disorder Somatic Symptom Disorder= a mental health disorder marked by physical complaints that have no apparent physical cause Illness Anxiety Disorder= a somatic symptom disorder in which the person persistently worries over having a serious illness, without any evident physical basis; formerly called hypochondriasis Mood Disorders (10% every year): mood change is persistent and impairing Depressive & Bipolar Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder: ● either depressed mood OR loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities ● 4 or more symptoms (sleep, motor functioning, fatigue) ● at least 2 weeks ● cognitive= suicidal thoughts, guilty thoughts, trouble concentrating ● physical/behavioral= sleep, motor functioning, fatigue Persistent Depressive Disorder: ● less severe, more chronic ● DSM criteria: depressed mood PLUS two other symptoms of depression ● period of at least 2 years General facts about depression: ● 17% of people will experience depression in their lifetime ● the majority who do will experience it by early adulthood ● highest risk: 1524 years old ● women more likely than men ● African Americans and Hispanics have lower lifetime rates, but tend to be more chronic if they do ● 51% of people did not get treatment ● African Americans and Mexican Americans are less likely to receive any care (cultural?) Bipolar Disorder: ● both mania and depression ● mania= period of abnormally excessive energy and elation Cyclothymia: ● less severe, more chronic ● mild mania & moderate depression for at least 2 years ● impaired during depressive episode ● 2.6% experience in their lifetime ● men and women are equal in the prevalence of the disorder Causes of Mood Disorders: Biological: ● genetically transmitted (Bipolar highly heritable) ● Depressionserotonin transporter gene ● Serotonin and norepinephrine contribute ● stress hormones ● prefrontal cortex & limbic system abnormal functioning Psychological: ● negative life events ● learned helplessness (belief that you cannot control events around you) ● negative thinking Sociocultural: ● low socioeconomic status ● adverse neighborhoods **Why are women more at risk??** ● hormones ● more active amygdala ● ruminative coping styles (tendency to persistently focus on how one feels without attempting to do anything about one’s feelings) ● interpersonal style to silence own demands ● disadvantage in society ● traditional gender roles Psychotic Behavior= extreme reality distortion that usually involves: ● Delusions: thoughts (inaccurate beliefs, continually persist) ● Hallucinations: sensory experience in the absence of real sensory input (not really there) Schizophrenia: ● 1% of the population ● Men: develops in adolescence, early 20s; more chronic ● Women: develops 20s or early 30s ● More prevalent in African Americans & Asian Americans ● More prevalent in a low socioeconomic status Positive symptoms= extra additional experience ● active manifestations or abnormal behavior ● distortions or exaggerations of normal behaviors Disorganized speech= one’s speech lacks association between one’s ideas and the events that one is experiencing ● Loose associations: lack of connections between ideas ● Word salad: words in sentence do not have organization Disordered Behavior= inappropriate or unusual behavior such as silliness, catatonic excitement, or catatonic stupor ● Catatonia: odd or repetitive behaviors, postures, or movements Negative symptoms= absence of insufficiency of normal behavior ● Avolition: lack of initiation or persistence ● Alogia: relative absence of speech ● Anhedonia: lack of pleasure, or indifference ● Flat Affect: little expressed emotion, toneless, stare blankly (difficulty expressing the emotion, NOT lack of feeling) Delusions vs. Hallucinations? ● Delusions are gross misrepresentations of reality (delusions of grandeur or persecution) ● Hallucinations can involve all senses (most common is auditory) ● SPECT studies: neuroimaging Broca’s area (speech production) is most active in auditory hallucinations DSM Criteria for Schizophrenia (ONE must be of #1, 2, or 3) 1. Delusions 2. Hallucinations 3. Disorganized Speech 4. Catatonic Behavior 5. Negative Symptoms (at least 6 months) Causes of Schizophrenia: Genetic: ● more genetically similar to someone with it, more likely to get it ● identical twins have a 50% chance of developing schizophrenia if their twin has developed it ● not a single gene Brain: ● enlarged ventricles ● dysfunction in frontal & temporal lobes Prenatal & Developmental Factors: ● maternal stress or viruses during pregnancy ● birth complications, low birth weight Family & Environment: ● stressful living conditions ● family communication high expressed emotion Coercion Theory ● Contingency: connection between one event and another ● Child behavior and reaction of the caregiver ● Aversive, dyadic interaction patterns that occur thousands of times between parents & children Personality Disorders: a mental health disorder marked by maladaptive behavior that has been stable over a long period and across many situations Approaches to Therapy 1. Behavior** 2. Psychoanalytical 3. Humanistic 4. Cognitive** Behavior: ● techniques and methods that use learning principles to change problem behaviors ● ASSUMES: behavior is a result of the environment AND that we automatically learn adaptive & maladaptive behaviors ● Therapists use: extinction to stop the disruptive behavior AND shaping to replace desirable behaviors with undesirable behaviors Classical Conditioning Techniques for Behavior: 1. Systematic Desensitization= gradual, stepbystep process to replace fear/anxiety with an incompatible response (positive) ● effective for treating phobias ● Method: use progressive muscle relaxation, create a fear hierarchy ● exposure to fear 2. Flooding= exposed to feared object/situation for a prolonged period until anxiety subsides ● start with the most feared item ● fully experience the fear!! ● prevent escape 3. Interoceptive Exposures (sensational)= commonly used to treat panic disorder ● Method for therapy: exposure to a stressful situation with the help of the therapist, usually the therapist coaches client through the stressful situation ● teaches the client that their panic is tolerable 4. Aversion Therapy= a specific behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus in order to reduce its occurrence Operant Conditioning Techniques for Behavior: Consequences of a behavior: ● reinforced= increased behavior ● punished= decreased behavior Positive Reinforcement: give something to increase a behavior NonReinforcement and Extinction: do not reinforce the behavior, IGNORE (don’t give negative attention) Punishment: ● positive punishment: add something (spanking) to decrease behavior ● negative punishment: remove something (loss of toy or privilege) to decrease a behavior Shaping: praising small behaviors in attempt to create a bigger behavior (ex. praise child putting one toy away so that they put all of their toys away) Token Economy: coins to cash in for something later (a reward) “Time Out from Reinforcement”= not getting attention from parents/others works effectively Cognitive: ● negative/maladaptive patterns of thinking ● Albert Ellis’ RationalEmotive Theory ● Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy Ellis: ● Mental health problems stem from how people think/interpret events in their life ● Not the actual event but the interpretation ● Therapist must: identify irrational/faulty beliefs and directly confront the client about them ● Key Questions: ○ “What evidence do you have to support this belief?” ○ “What is the worst thing that can happen?” ○ “If it happened, what could you do?” Beck: ● Cognitive distortions/distorted thinking patterns ○ All or None Thinking (ex. “everyone hates me”) ○ Overgeneralizing (ex. “I didn’t get asked out in 9th grade, so I won’t get asked to prom my senior year) ○ Arbitrary Inference (ex. “My coach didn’t talk to me today, he must be mad at me”) ● Leads to depression, anxiety, and low selfesteem ● Therapist must: be less confrontational and more collaborative AND teach the client to identify negative thoughts and test the accuracy of them CognitiveBehavioral Therapy (CBT): ● effective for anxiety, chronic pain, depression, eating disorders, substance use ● NOT effective for ADHD (behavioral only) Does Psychotherapy treatment work? ● Treatment Outcome Research= compares clients who are receiving treatment vs. receiving no treatment ● Research shows: positive effects of therapy are better than no treatment at all ● it CAN alter the functioning of the brain (PET scans show that metabolic activity decreased after two months of treatment) (Brody & colleagues) ● “Dodo Bird Verdict”= no matter what treatment you use, you will get relatively equal results HOWEVER for certain disorders, certain therapies are more effective (ex. ADHD & behavioral AND phobias & behavioral) Psychopharmacology= the use of medications to treat mental illnesses Psychosurgery= a biomedical treatment approach involving neurosurgery to alleviate symptoms in someone with a mental health disorder Quizlet: https://quizlet.com/_1tq7qu
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