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Organic Chemistry Test 1 Study Guide

by: Amanda Biddlecome

Organic Chemistry Test 1 Study Guide Chemistry 2230

Marketplace > Clemson University > Chemistry 2230 > Organic Chemistry Test 1 Study Guide
Amanda Biddlecome
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the exam that we have covered up until now. The rest of the material will be covered between Monday and Wednesday in class and I will upload those notes by Wednesd...
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Schroeder
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Biddlecome on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chemistry 2230 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Schroeder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 147 views.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Organic  Chemistry  2230   Exam  1  Study  Guide   January  20,  2016   Amanda  Biddlecome   *Disclaimer:  This  study  guide  does  not  include  the  last  portion  of  the   notes  for  what  we  will  go  over  in  class  this  week.  I  will  be  posting  a  set   of  notes  from  this  week  by  Wednesday  evening  that  will  give  the  rest  of   the  information  for  the  test.       Main  Topics:     -­‐The  Chemistry  of  Carbon     *what  does  it  share  electrons  with,  share  or  take/give?,  what  contains  it?   -­‐Lewis  Theory     *what  it  is,  Octet  Rule  and  all  of  its  special  rules   -­‐Ionic  Bonds     *what  are  they  between?   -­‐Covalent  Bonds     *what  are  they  between?,  polar,  nonpolar,  electronegativity  and  trends   -­‐Bond  Dipoles     *what  types  of  bonds?,  describe  these,  Dipole  Moments   -­‐Lewis  Structures     *valence  electron  structures,  central  atoms,  how  many  bonds  do  each     element  form?,  formal  charges   -­‐VSEPR  Theory     *what  is  it?,  repulsion,  linear  geometry,  trigonal  planar  geometry,  tetrahedral     geometry   -­‐Geometries     *linear,  trigonal  planar,  tetrahedral,  be  able  to  draw  the  structures,  know     regions  of  electron  density,  know  bond  angles,  molecular  structures  for     tetrahedral   -­‐Orbitals     *S  Orbitals,  P  Orbitals,  shapes  of  the  orbitals  and  what  groups  they  belong  to     and  their  orientation  possibilities,  sigma  bonds,  pi  bonds   -­‐Hybridization     *how  to  form  hybrid  orbitals  for:  four  single  bonds,  one  double  bone,  and  one     triple  bond  on  a  carbon   -­‐Acids  and  Bases     *common  ones,  Bronsted-­‐Lowry  model,  conjugate  acids  and  bases,  K ,  K ,   eq a   pK a   -­‐Acid  Strengths     *how  pK  relates  to  strength,  pK ,  equilibrium  reactions,  how  acid  strength   a B   relates  to  conjugate  base  strength   -­‐Organic  Acids     *R,  Carboxylic  Acid,  Alcohol,  -­‐mines,  strong  acids   -­‐Acidity  of  Hydrogen  Halides     *which  group,  atomic  size,  electronegativity,  acid  strength  determined  from     the  periodic  table,  base  strength  determined  from  the  periodic  table,  acid     strength  relating  to  electronegativity  and  atomic  size   -­‐Acidity  of  Carbon  Compounds     *bond  length,  bond  numbers’  pK  values,  electronegativiay  and  how  it  relates     to  the  number  of  bonds,  acid  strength  relating  to  electronegativity     -­‐Atomic  Radius  versus  Electronegativity     *size  and  electronegativity,  their  competition   -­‐Resonance  and  Acidity     *what  do  resonance  structures  do  for  stability   -­‐Substituent  Affects  and  Acidity     *substituents,  inductive  electron  withdrawal  and  how  it  affected  by  distance     from  the  central  carbon  atom   -­‐pH  Effects  on  Organic  Compounds     *buffers,  Henderson-­‐Hasselbalch  Equation,  neutral  compounds  and  how  it     affects  pH  and  pK  values, a multiple  acidic  sites  with  different  pK  values  and   a   how  they  react  in  solutions,  pH  of  human  body  parts   -­‐Lewis  Acids  and  Bases     *what  acids  and  bases  are   -­‐Nomenclature     *primary  carbons,  secondary  carbons,  tertiary  carbons,  butyl,  isobutyl,  sec-­‐   butyl,  tert-­‐butyl,  quaternary  carbons   -­‐Nomenclature  of  Alkanes     *Systematic  Approach  Rules:  all  6   -­‐Nomenclature  of  Cycloalkanes     *how  rings  affect  them,  general  formula,  cyclopropane,  cyclobutane,     cyclopentane,  cyclohexane  and  the  number  of  carbons  and  their  shape,  the     rules   -­‐Alkyl  Halides     *R-­‐X,  primary  halides,  secondary  halides,  tertiary  halides,  endings   -­‐Naming  Ethers     *what  they  are,  naming  using  ether  as  the  aren’t  and  using  them  as  functional     groups,  -­‐oxy  ending   -­‐Naming  Alcohols     *primary  alcohols,  secondary  alcohols,  tertiary  alcohols,  common  names,     systematic  naming,  endings,  rules,  Alcohol  is  the  most  important  substituent   -­‐Naming  Amines     *Nitrogen,  primary  amines,  secondary  amines,  tertiary  amines,  common     names,  systematic  naming               Other  Things  To  Know     *The  Octet  Rule:  Most  molecules  will  share/give/take  electrons  to  achieve  an  outer   electron  shell  with  8  electrons  in  it  to  make  it  resemble  a  stable  noble  gas.     *sp  Orbital:  A  carbon  forms  4  single  bonds   *sp  Orbital:  A  carbon  forms  1  double  bond   *sp  Orbital:  A  carbon  forms  1  triple  bond   *pK  of  Water:  14   a *pKa  of  H 0:  0 3   *Rules  for  naming  Alkanes:       1)  find  the  longest,  continuous  carbon  chain     2)  number  the  chain  so  the  substituent  gets  the  lowest  number     3)  assign  the  lowest  possible  numbers  to  all  substituents  (need  to  be     alphabetized  and  use  prefixes  but  don’t  alphabetize  prefixes)     4)  if  the  same  substituent  numbers  are  obtained  in  both  directions,  the  first     group  cited  receives  the  lower  number     5)  the  parent  chain  will  have  the  most  substituents   *Rules  for  naming  Cycloalkanes     1)  Same  general  rules  as  Alkanes     2)  no  number  is  needed  for  a  single  substituent  on  a  ring     3)  if  more  than  one  substituent,  need  to  alphabetize   *Rules  for  naming  Alkyl  Halides     1)all  previous  rules  still  apply     2)  named  as  substituted  alkanes   *Rules  for  naming  Ethers     1)  all  previous  rules  apply   *Rules  for  naming  Alcohols     1)  find  the  longest  continuous  carbon  chain  containing  the  –OH  group     2)  parent  is  numbered  to  give  the  –OH  group  the  lowest  number     3)  if  more  than  one  –OH  group,  use  prefixes     4)  if  other  substituents  are  on  the  chain,  -­‐OH  group  gets  the  lowest  number     5)  all  other  substituents  need  to  have  the  smallest  number  they  can     6)  substituents  are  listed  in  alphabetical  order                             Linear  Molecule  Example:               Trigonal  Planar  Molecule  Example:               Tetrahedral  Molecule  Example:                 S  Orbital           P  Orbital           Common  Acids  and  Bases               Alkane  Hydrocarbons       Isopropyl       Isobutyl       Sec-­‐Butyl       Tert-­‐Butyl       Cyclopropane       Cyclobutane         Cyclopentane                 Cyclohexane    


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