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BIO 103 study guide chapters 1-3

by: Allison Honerkamp

BIO 103 study guide chapters 1-3 BIO 103

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Biology > BIO 103 > BIO 103 study guide chapters 1 3
Allison Honerkamp
GPA 3.5

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Homemade study guide for chapters 1-3
Basic ideas of biology
Brent Palmer
Study Guide
Biology, Study Guide, answers
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Honerkamp on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 103 at University of Kentucky taught by Brent Palmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Basic ideas of biology in Biology at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
BIO 103 Study Guide: Chapters 1-3 Chapter 1:  Difference between a hypothesis and a theory: Hypothesis: proposed explanations for observations Theory: untested ideas based on little information  Distinguish between science, technology and pseudoscience Science: process using the scientific method Technology: uses advanced methods Pseudoscience: pretends to be science (starts with a conclusion)  Inductive and deductive reasoning: Inductive reasoning: combines series of specific observations into generalization (from these observations) Deductive reasoning: test hypothesis by making a prediction (predict an expected outcome with an “if” and “when” statement)  Linus Pauling: Linus Pauling was an American chemist. He experimented on the orientation of iron atoms by a magnetic field, through the electrolytic deposition of a layer of iron in a strong magnetic field and the determination of the orientation of the iron crystallizes by polishing and etching the deposit, and microscopic examination in the etch figures.  Describe what an experiment is Experiments are the most powerful way to test a hypothesis and are carefully regulated situations.  Explain the different variables: Independent variables can be manipulated by the scientist. They are the cause and effect on the dependent variable. Dependent variable changes depending on the independent variable. The dependent variable is what is measured and what the scientists want to see the outcome of.  What ‘bias’ is and how to prevent it Bias is the influence of people’s opinions on experimental results. ‘Bias’ can be eliminated through, blind experiments and double blind experiments.  Types of experiments: Controlled: tests effect of a single variable at a time Blind: subjects don’t know what kind of treatment they have received Double-blind: the person administering the treatments also doesn’t know until the experiment is over  What is a placebo? Placebo: harmless drug prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient  Difference between experimental and correlational data Experimental: demonstrates a cause and effect Correlational: does not imply causation, might be caused by other reasons  ‘Model organisms’ Model organisms are used to avoid unethical or impractical tests on humans (mammals, bacteria and nematodes)  Sampling error: effect of chance on experimental data  Statistical significance: most scientists accept a 5% probability of error  Biological significance: difference in treatment groups that has noticeable, not simply mathematical  Significant tests cannot tell us: If an experiment was designed and carried out properly or evaluates probability of sampling error.  Primary, secondary and anecdotal lines of evidence Primary: original research (researchers submit a paper about results) Secondary: story about original research (books, internet, etc.) Anecdotal: based on one person’s experience, not data (experience)  Parts of a scientific paper:  Title  Abstract (brief summary)  Introduction and hypothesis (review of background information)  Methods (how research was conducted)  Results (tables, graphs and written description)  Discussion (what the results mean)  Literature cited (lists of papers, books, etc.) Chapter 2:  Commodities of living organisms:  Require water  Set of biological molecules  Maintain homeostasis  Can evolve (changing over generation)  Define atoms and their elements Atoms: smallest units of an element (fundamental forms of matter) Protons: positive Neutrons: negative Electrons: Neutral  Structure and properties of water  Good solvent  Cohesive  Moderates temperature  Facilitating chemical reactions  Electronegativity: how strongly the atoms pull electrons  Hydrogen bond: weak attraction between the hydrogen atom of one water molecule and the oxygen atom of another  Define solvent, solute and solution Solvent: a liquid in which another substance is dissolved Solute: what is being dissolved Solution: the solute in the solvent  pH scale: relative amounts of hydrogen atoms and hydroxide ions  Ionic and covalent bonding: Ionic: attraction between positive and negative charged ions (strong and stables outside water, dissolves in water) Covalent: sharing a pair of electrons (strong and stable, may be single or double bonds)  Unique properties of carbon All life on Earth is based on organic chemistry, the chemistry element of carbon. Carbon makes up much of the mass of living organisms. Carbon is a building block that forms covalent bonds that are strong and stable. Carbon is polar or nonpolar depending on what is attached to it.  Four biological macromolecules  Carbohydrates: molecules of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen  Proteins: polymers of amino acids joined by peptide bonds  Lipids: hydrophobic; composed mostly of carbon and oxygen  Nucleic acid: polymers of nucleotides  Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic: small, simple, genetic material, no organelles, no nucleus and has cell walls Eukaryotic: larger (simple celled or multicellular), complex, genetic material (in nucleus), membrane bound organelles, some with cell walls  Hydrophobic: water-fearing  Hydrophilic: water-loving Chapter 3: Section 1:  Major macronutrients:  Water  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Major micronutrients:  Vitamins  Minerals  Antioxidants  Functions of water in the body:  Circulatory system  Disperse nutrients, oxygen and waste  Metabolism  Different types of carbohydrates, where they come from how they are used in the body:  Fiber  Cellulose  Essential for large intestine function  Lowers cholesterol  Reduces cancer risk  Various functions of protein:  Structural (muscle and collagen)  Enzymes (speeds up chemical reactions)  Cell membrane channels (glucose, sodium and potassium)  Transport (hemoglobin)  Hormones (insulin and growth hormone)  Protein structure: polymers of amino acids  Essential amino acids: we cannot make these ourselves, must obtain from food  Nonessential amino acids:  Fat structure: energy storage molecules and acts as cushion and insulator  Different types of fats:  Saturated: fatty acid carbons are bound to as much hydrogen as possible  Unsaturated: not bound to as much hydrogen as possible  How hydrogenated fats are produced: adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats to make it a solid  How trans fats are produced: incomplete hydrogen  Role of vitamins: required for enzymes to function  Difference between water and fat soluble vitamins:  Water: not stored and may lead to deficiencies  Fat: stored in fat and excess may lead to toxicities  Examples of mineral nutrients (water soluble):  Calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur and sodium  Free radicals: an atom with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule that has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule  Antioxidants: play a role in prevention of diseases such as cancer and may slow aging  Difference between processed and whole foods:  Processed: stripped of nutrition by processing  Whole foods: rich in complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants Section 2:  Different types of passive transport:  Diffusion: movement of molecules from area of high concentration to low concentration (no input of energy required)  Osmosis: diffusion of water across a membrane from high to low concentration  Facilitated diffusion: transport of hydrophilic and charged molecules across the membrane  Difference between passive and active transport:  Passive:  Active: uses proteins to move molecules from low to high concentration and powered by energy from ATP


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