New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Bella Pepe

Exam 1 Study Guide HDFS 1070

Bella Pepe

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All of the associated lectures for the first exam notes made into a clear, cohesive study guide.
Human Development Family Studies
Ronald Sabatelli
Study Guide
Comm 1000, Stephen Stifano
50 ?




Popular in Human Development Family Studies

Popular in Human Development

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bella Pepe on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Development Family Studies in Human Development at University of Connecticut.


Reviews for Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/31/16
EXAM 1­ 10/5 THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION: ● Human Communication­ The process of managing messages for the purpose of  creating a shared meaning. A transaction between at least two people, sending and  receiving messages texts messages to and from another.  ● Messages­ Can be nonverbal or verbal and intentional or unintentional.  ● Channels­ The medium through which a message is sent. Ex. the various ways in  which someone can ask someone else on a date; text, call, in person.  ­Selecting the most effective channel is a skill ● Interference­ prevents messages from being received or being understood  ­Technological interference vs. semantic interference  ● Model of Human Comm   Input­­­> Sender, then the Message is the context which goes through a channel, interference,  feedback or response. Continuous cycle   ● Intrapersonal Comm­ Within a person  ● Interpersonal Comm­ With another person (dyadic)  Styles of Communication: ­Interviewing formal and focused on a question­answer pattern  ­Small Group three or more members of a group influencing one another  ­Public one person does the majority of the talking with listening expectations ­Organizational ex. if you need help on campus there is a specific organization you can  go to in order to receive the help you need.  ­Health speaking between you and a healthcare provider  ­Mass communication is a message sent to a very large group ex. SNL  Elements of effective Comm ­Understanding ­Pleasure ­Attitude influence  ­Improved relationship  ­Action Studying Comm as a Science  ● Humanistic Approach ­Rhetoric language used as persuasion  ­Interpretivists try to understand a unique event in their own POV ­Critical Scholars focus on societal better/ equality  ● Social Scientific Approach  ­ Qualitative thoroughly and deeply observing on a small and specific aspect;  collect data that is rich in detail and description  ­Ex. In depth interviews, naturalistic observation, participant observation.  ­ Quantitative observed through patterns in communication behaviors through  numbers; uses statistical techniques and rigid testing to support/reject a hypothesis.  ● The Scientific Method­   Method:  ­Ask a question ­Formulate a hypothesis/ research question ­Refine the hypothesis/ question ­Design and conduct the observation  ­Analyze and interpret data  Guidelines: ­Empirical­ Based of concrete facts and data not theory.  ­Objective­ Not bias ­Logical­ Consistent and fair results  ­Public­ publish your findings so other people can expand  Types of Research  ● Content Analysis­ systematic analysis of the content of communication messages ­Describes frequency of behavior ­Compares behavior types/ rates across different contexts ­Issues­ Need clear definitions of behavior and results are limited ● Survey­ examines what people do, self reported, and the relationship between  variables ­Issues­ need representation sample, need high quality questions, no control over  variables, correlation doesn’t prove causation, self report doesn’t prove accuracy  ● Experiment­ The manipulation of variables with a control group and measures  the effect of the manipulated variable. Ex. placebo  ­Issues­ requires a random sample, can not generalize results, limited subject  population, need a strong procedure.  Reliability­ Consistent results, ask the same questions in order to assure reliability and make  sure the person is paying attention Validity­ Getting the truth, accuracy, and consistently.  Perception ● Interpreting sensory input based on experience  ● Selective attention­ process some stimuli and filter out other stimuli  Filters: ● Perceptual filters­ ways we look at things based on expectations, assumptions,  and experiences we've learned through life.  ● Psychological sets­ a group of expectations that shape experience by making  people especially sensitive to specific kinds of information.  Action of Perception: 1. Select­ We tend to select things according to our liking, if it repetitious, etc.  2. Organize­ Based on our own experience, we organize the information we  selected to perceive.  3. Interpret­ We make sense of the information in our own way and “make a story  of it”  ● Attribution­ assigning meaning to others behaviors. Either attributing behavior to the person’s personality type or to their environment. Ex. If someone is rude to you, you  can assume they are just a rude person or they are just having a bad day.  Types of Biases  ● Dispositional Other Bias­  ­Overuse of one's personality in explaining their behavior ● Self Serving Bias­  ­Overuse of situation attributes to oneself Impression Formation ● Impression of ourselves  ­Self Concept: ­Looking­Glass self­  we see ourselves how others see us  ­Self­ Expansion Model­ the more people we know the better we view  ourselves.  ­Social Comparison­ We judge ourselves based off of others  ­Self esteem­ Feedback  ­Self fulfilling prophecy­ Whether you think you can or can’t you are right.    ● Impression of others ­ First Impression: Primacy Effect­ We believe our first thoughts about a person  ­Physical Attractiveness­ Nature vs. Nurture  ­Expressiveness and Charisma  Stereotyping ● Generalization about a class of people, objects, or events that is widely held by a  given culture.  ­In­group vs. Out­group  Social Roles ● Different roles humans take on based on societal expectation for a specific role, school, friend, child, parent, etc.  Accuracy of Perception is Dependent on: ● Context of what you are perceiving  ● Interpersonal Sensitivity­ picking up on verbal/ nonverbal cues.  ● Perceiver self­confidence  ● Intelligence  ­Dispositional intelligence  ● Flexible expectations ● Aware of limitations in one's own perceptual ability.  Verbal Communication  ● Systems of symbols and codes used to construct and convey meaning  ­Symbols the word itself that has no meaning ­Referent you give a word meaning by referencing it to something ­There are words that are more abstract depending on cultural values such as the  word “freedom”.  ● Denotative meaning­ Dictionary meaning of the word  ● Connotative meaning­ The interpreted meaning of the word  ● Private meaning­ makes it hard for others to understand  ● Shared meaning­ Ex. the word “always” is a shared meaning  between people Sapir­WHorf Hypothesis ● language shapes how we see the world/ how we feel ­Strong Determinism language determines our thoughts ­Weak Determinism language has an impact on our thoughts  ● Abstract/ vague language­ “i’ll be home early” has different meanings for  everyone  ● Interferences  ● Dichotomies­ ex. success vs. failure, two separate things without any middle  group  ● Equivocal Language­ can be interpreted in a sexually inappropriate way  ● Euphemisms­ “Shell shock” vs. PTSD Power and Language ● Powerless Comm uses disclaimers such as “I think” instead of asserting your  opinion vs. Powerful Comm which portrays confidence and leadership, can be hurtful in  a legal situation.  Metacommunication­ Observing communication and reflecting on it, talking about how you  communicate, improve it.  Listening ● Process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to messages.  Quickly and efficiently.  Listening vs. Hearing ­Hearing is a physiological and unconscious ­Listening is an active, psychological action   Components of Listening  ● Hearing ● Understanding (barriers) ● Remembering ● Interpreting ● Evaluating­ prepare a response ● Respond  Barriers to Listening ● Physiological (loud noises) ● Psychological (internal noise) ● Conflicting Objectives  ● Poor listening habits (interrupter)  Improving Listening Skills ● Paying attention ● Find the main points ● Focus during the gaps while you aren’t speaking Aerobic Listening ● C for concentration ● A for acknowledgment ● R for respect  ● E for empathize  Nonverbal Communication ● The use of objects, actions, sounds, time, and space to convey meaning ­65% of meaning of human interaction is nonverbal. Nonverbal is more believable than verbal communication.  Vocal­ Groaning, sighing, etc. Sounds that influence our words Nonvocal­ facial expressions, body language, etc.  Purpose of nonverbal comm: ­Compliments verbal comm ­regulates verbal comm ­replaces verbal comm ­contradicts verbal comm “I’m fine”  ­Illustrates verbal comm  Method of Nonverbal Communication: ● Paralanguage­ how you say something, emphasizing certain words in a phrase  ● Objects­ What we surround ourselves with communicates something ● Proxemics­ Space, distance, and timing.  ● Orientation­ Side by side vs. sitting next to vs. face to face  ● Haptics­ The study of touch, signals of affection  ● Kinesics­ Gestures and facial expression; Can be intentional or unintentional.  ● Oculesics­ Eye contact indicates you are listening, affectionate, power, or fear ● Chronemics­ How we use time to communicate ex. how long you take to text  back.  ­Monochronic focuses on one thing at a time ­Polychronic focuses on multiple tasks at a time Emotion ● Emotion is the difference between non verbal comm and verbal comm  ­Signals of affection, attention, approach/ avoidance, dominance/ submission  ­Must be studied via observing the individual  ● Spontaneous Comm­ Biologically shared signal system and nonvoluntary  ­Involves signs but not signals ­It is always accurate ­Right brain  ● Symbolic Comm ­Socially shared system  ­Voluntary ­Uses symbols, left brain  ­Includes some nonverbal comm ­Can be true of false Types of Emotion ● Type 1­ Bodily emotion; below the surface that we don’t always pay attention to.  ● Type 2­ External expression; shows emotional states ● Type 3­ Subjective experience; our rational thinking about how we feel  Nonverbal Sending Accuracy­  How good you are at sending a facial expression Nonverbal receiving Ability­ How good you are at receiving facial expression  Pseudo Spontaneous­ faking an emotion in order to spark the emotions of others, the closest  people in our lives know when we are lying Deception ● Of Self­ repression, mentally blocking an emotion out. Coping, labeling and  justifying your feelings ● Of Others­ “Do I look fat”  Emotional Education ● Appropriately labeling your emotions and being able to appropriately express  them. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.