ANTH 100 Exam #1 Study Guide
ANTH 100 Exam #1 Study Guide ANTH 10000
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 320 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Anthropology Exam #1 Study Guide Professor Richard Blanton 02/01/2016 Definitions: Biological (physical) The study of humans as biological anthropology organisms, dealing with the emergence and evolution of humans and with contemporary biological variations among human populations. Primatology The study of primates. Human paleontology The study of the emergence of humans and their later physical evolution. Also called paleoanthropology. Osteology The study of bones. Human variation The study of how and why contemporary human populations vary biologically. Cultural anthropology The study of cultural variation and universals in the past and present. Paleoanthropology The study of the formation and the (human culture prior to development of the specific symbolic communication) characteristics of humans. Anthropological Traces the origin, growth and archaeology development of culture in the past. By past is meant the period before history when man had not acquired efficiencies of written language in order to record the story of his life. Linguistics The scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics. Ethnology (also called The study of how and why recent cultural anthropology or cultures differ and are similar. ethnography) Applied anthropology The branch of anthropology that (practice anthropology) concerns itself with applying anthropological knowledge to achieve practical goals, usually in the service of an agency outside the traditional academic setting. Arboreal adaptation It refers to the tree-living primates. All primates are structured principally to provide support, but the “feet” in most primates can also grasp things. Omnivorous diet (diverse diet) Eating all kinds of food, including insects and small animals, as well as fruits, seeds, leaves and roots. Prehensility Being adapted to grasping objects. Unlike, for example, cats, primates can grasp and hold objects in their hands. Opposable thumbs The thumb that can touch the tips of all other fingers. Finger nails (with few exceptions) Primates, with few exceptions, have broad and flat, not claw-like, fingernails. Stereoscopic (depth) vision The eyes are directed forward rather than sideways, as in other animals – a trait that allows them to focus on an object with both eyes at once. Most primates also have color vision. Emphasis on visual communication in Primates are have behaviors social interactions similar to humans. They develop socially among the groups of primates. Social interactions are important for primates to develop normally and not reject other individuals in the group. Primates are also types of animals that pass knowledge to younger generations which is an essential feature in animal’s social development. The Primate Grades Prosimians: (example, Lemur): Hominoids: (apes, living examples: quadrupedal locomotion and vertical clinging and leaping; few gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, bonobo, vocalizations; long snout inhibits and chimpanzee): suspensory vocal and facial communication; locomotion (brachiation) and highly developed olfactory relatively upright terrestrial walking communication system postures such as knuckle walking; tool use requiring temporal displacement (‘mental time travel”); up to 70 Anthropoids: (Old World monkeys): communicative elements; more Quadrupedal locomotion, reduced snout; cultural transmission of knowledge; highly developed forms of Theory of up to 30 facial and vocal communicative elements; color vision; increase in facial Mind abilities in some species. musculature, facial expressions, and social gaze. Terrestrially-adapted species such as baboons live in large groups; males are large and dangerous for group defense (sexual dimorphism). Theory of Mind: It is generally defined as the specific cognitive ability to make inferences about mental states - beliefs, willings, drives, etc. - of ourselves and of others. Such ability allows us to understand that metal states could be the cause of behaviors of the others and that therefore such behaviors can be predicted. ToM “mind reading” depends in part on shared attention, including analysis of gaze, analysis of facial expression and body position and movement. ToM is associated with well-developed sense of the differences between the thinking of self and others in adult humans and some apes. This ability allows for an understanding that others have thoughts including, possibly, false beliefs (for example, children age 4 or younger have difficulty understanding that another person might not know something they know, or might have different beliefs). ToM also makes deception possible. Hominids: Includes the Australopithecines and genus Homo: this is a large and diverse category but overall there is a tendency toward generalized teeth, arch-shaped jaw, bipedality (associated with central location of the forametn magnum and curavtive of the spinte); gradual loss of foot- grasping; also porbable: carrying, throwing, and food sharing Early genus Homo (aka Homo habilis): larger cranial capacity Genus Australopithecus: (encephalization)(±600-800 (bipedal, but the an ape-like cc, larger than Austr., and brain of ± 400-500 cc); found more reduction of face, teeth in Africa only, with a probablr and jaws than Austr.); the Savanna (terrestrial) adaptaion earliset evidence of brain cerebral asymmetry; changes in the female pelvis More on early genus Homo: Technical Intelligence as indicated by an increased complexity and efficiency of chipped-stone tools since roughly 3 MYA (e.g., the “production-step index” and length of cutting edge per volume of core material). Olduvai Gorge, or Oldupai Gorge, in Tanzania (Eastern Africa) is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world; it has proven invaluable in furthering understanding of early human evolution. The Oldowan, sometimes spelled Olduwan, is the archaeological term used to refer to the earliest stone tool archaeological industry in prehistory. Oldowan tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic period, 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient hominins across much of Africa, South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. This technological industry was followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean industry. Hypothesizes: African Savanna Hypothesis - is the proposal that the major divergence between the hominins and other great apes was driven by hominins moving out of the forests and onto the grasslands. Percussion flaking – individuals with more “technical intelligence” are better tool makers: o learning (and teaching) production steps o geology of core materials o economics (how to maximize cutting edge obtained from valuable core materials) Brain cerebral asymmetry, and handedness hypothesis – chip stone tool making requires coordination of highly distinct brain functions (brain bilateralism and handedness: refers to the brain hemisphere usage). In genus homo, brain asymmetries are evident in fossil remains of crania by 1.8 to 2 MYA Home base theory in relation to: bipedalism and carrying, growth in brain size (and its costs), changes in female pelvis, period of infant food sharing, continuous female sexuality; bi-parenting (including possible pair- bonding) -“expensive tissue” hypothesis (associated with dietary changes, tool use, cooking of food; and reduced gut physiology and digestive energy costs; loss of muscle mass by comparison with other primates) Later genus Homo: Homo erectus: - 1.8 MYA to 400, 000 YA - cranial capacity 900-1,000 cc; the skull is generally long, low and thickly walled with a flat frontal area and prominent browridges; brain is larger than in Austr. but smaller than in modern humans - had relativelysmall teeth, similar to moder men - face was "prognathic" - forward thrusting, in the upper and lower jaw - post cranial sceleton is modern - cranial form is bun shaped - earliest large game hunting confirmed - probable cooking of food (expensive food tissue hypothesis) - Acheulean tool assemble - fire use and clothing (as early as 1.5 MYA) - adaptive radiation to Eurasia, including temp. climates sucj as northern China The evolution of Homo erectus: - the brain continued to expand (up to 1, 400 cc) - the face, teeth, and jaws continued to shrink, taking on an almost modern form - an increasing use and variety of tools may have led to a further developmentof the brain - probable eating and cooking meat, which led to further reduction in the teeth and jaws - apparent reduction of social demorphism Neandertals: - can live in very cold climates - Middle Paleolithic ('Mousterian")tool assemblages - possible burial of dead and funerary ritual evidence for symbolic communicationand human cultural intelligence - some interbreeding with early Homo sapiens sapiens Origins and Adaptive Radiation of Homo sapiens sapiens: - out of Africa after 100, 00 YA; adaptive radiation to Eurasia, Australia, New World and Pacific Islands - "cultural intelligence" includes modes of symbolic communicationsuch as items of personal adornment ochre; adhesives; pressure-flaked blade technologyred Theories: Single-Origin Theory – According to this theory, Neanderthals did not evolve into humans, but rather became extinct after 30, 000 YA because they were replaced by the modern humans. Single-origin theorists think that originally small population of H. sapiens sapiens had some biological or cultural advantage, or both, that allowed them to spread and replace Neanderthals. Multiregional Theory – This theory says that Homo erectus populations in various parts of the Old World gradually evolved into anatomically modern-looking humans. Intermediate Theories – Single-origin and multiregional theories are not the only possible interpretations of available fossil record. There is also an intermediate interpretation that there may have been some replacement of one population by another, some local continuous evolution, and some interbreeding between early modern humans who spread out of Africa, and populations encountered in North Africa, Europe and Asia. Timeline: 40, 000 YA 50, 000 YA like00 100, 000 YA 150, 000 YA -0, 000 200, 000 YA in some areas years YA , possibly as late as 42,iens inrica by 400, 000 YA and Denisovans) 500, 000 YA Homo sapiesome areas.sapiens rchaic rchaic -00, 000) A A Nea500, 000 to 150, 000 YA later in 800, 000 YA 900, 000 YA lasting up to +/ HomMYA – 90, 000 YA)on (1.7 Homo erectus (1.8 MYA in Africa 1 MYA Australopithecines Homo habilis (just after 3 MYA to 1 MYA) to 1.5 MYA, Africa only) 10 MYA Earliest indications of possible early hominid (bipedal) ancestors that split from ancestors of chimpanzees and gorillas (6 to 7 MYA) 15 MYA 25 MYA Earliest hominids (24 MYA) 35 MYA 45 MYA Earliest anthropoids, Africa, Asia, New World 55 MYA Earliest primates 65 MYA
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