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Astronomy 110 Lecture Exam I

by: Morgan Turturici

Astronomy 110 Lecture Exam I Astronomy 110

Marketplace > Gonzaga University > Science > Astronomy 110 > Astronomy 110 Lecture Exam I
Morgan Turturici
Gonzaga University

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapters 1-6 that are on Exam 1.
John Benham
Study Guide
astronomy, Science
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Turturici on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Astronomy 110 at Gonzaga University taught by John Benham in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Astronomy in Science at Gonzaga University.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Test #1 Multiple choice, short answer, matching, drawing of the moon, 1 extra credit question Chapter 1: The Scale of the Cosmos  Astronomy- definition The science of the stars and other heavenly bodies, their motion, size and position  Electromagnetic spectrum  Astrological unit- definition and metric value The average orbital distance from the Earth to the sun 1.5x10^5 km  Speed of light- definition and metric value The speed of light in a vacuum, a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics 300,000 km/sec  Light year- definition and metric value The distance that light travels in one year 9.45x10^12 km  Scientific inquiry - Observe that the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manor - Observe different phenomena and data about it 1) Hypothesis: tentative explanation of facts and data a. Several hypotheses explain phenomena b. Hypotheses must be tested c. Data must be reproducible 2) Theory: After hypothesis survives extreme scrutiny a. Well tested and widely accepted 3) Law: theory that has been refined, tested and confirmed a. Highest confidence b. Foundation of science Chapter 2: The Sky  Stars we see and their association with the Milky Way  Celestial Sphere Astronomers believed the sky was a great sphere surrounding Earth with the stark stuck on the inside like thumbtacks in a ceiling.  Brightness of Stars - This is subjective - Represented by mv - Ptolomy created the brightness scale with 1 being the brightest we can see. Anything negative is brighter than 1 and anything greater than 1 is darker.  Constellations- definition and number - The naming of different groups of stars by people of different cultures, myths and history Test #1 - A constellation defines an area of the night sky - There are 88 official constellations  Asterism- definition An informal group of stars  Precession The error of rotation (Earth’s axis wobbles) which is 1 complete rotation every 2,000 years  Naming of constellations and stars - A constellation is the naming of a group of stars by people of different cultures, myths and history - Babylonians, Egyptians and Greeks named 48 constellations - 40 new constellations have been added - All constellations are named in Latin and Greek Chapter 3: Cycles of the Sky  Sun’s orbital relationship with the Earth; Earth’s rotation and revolution -Rotation: the turning of a body on its axis -Revolution: the motion of a body around a point outside of its body Ex. The earth rotates once a day and revolves once a year around the sun. -Ecliptic: the apparent path of the sun against the background of stars If the sky were a big screen, the ecliptic would be the shadow cast by Earth’s orbit. -The earth circles the sun in 365.26 days and therefore the sun appears to circle the earth in the same period  Ecliptic plane, Celestial plane- definition and example -Ecliptic plane: the plane that extends from the 23.5 degree tilt in the Earth’s axis. The ecliptic plane is at a 23.5 degree tilt from the celestial plane. -Celestial plane: this is the plane that would extend from the equator  Understanding of the Moon’s orbital geometry to the Earth and the Sun  Solar and Lunar eclipses -Solar eclipse: when the moon is in alignment between the earth and the sun and casts a shadow upon the earth -Lunar eclipse: when the moon passes earth’s shadow  Earth’s seasons - Because Earth’s axis is at a 23.4 degree tilt, we have seasons. - Vernal equinox- March 20- Spring begins -Summer solstice- June 22- Summer begins -Autumnal equinox- September 22- Fall begins -Winter solstice- December 21-Winter begins Test #1 Chapter 4: The Original of Modern Astronomy  Geocentric universes The earth is the center of the universe and everything orbits around Earth.  Heliocentric universes The sun is the center of the universe and everything orbits around the sun.  Kepler’s three Laws of Planetary Motion 1) Orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus 2) A line drawn from a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time 3) A planets orbital period squared is proportional to its average distance from the sun  Proof of a spherical Earth (curved surface)  Know of a couple of important ideas (laws, theories, discoveries) from each of the historic Astronomers Chapter 5: Astronomical Tools  Photon- definition and creation  Radio Astronomy- examples, pros, cons Con: 1) poor resolution 2) local radio interference 3) low intensity Pros: Examples:  Interferometry Synthesizing several smaller instruments into a larger one. It essentially gives you a huge diameter for looking at images.  Remote sensing Electromagnetic spectrum high and lower than visible light. - Radio Frequency Telescope: 10^-2 to 10^4 wavelength - Parabolic dish (shape of a SAT-TV): detects cooler H2 Nebulae, radio penetrates nebulae, image distant objects - Infared - Ultra violet - X-ray - Gamma ray  Optical telescopes- different types -Refractive Lens Telescope: -Newton Reflecting Mirror Telescope (solves the chromatic aberration problem) Test #1 -Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope (SCT) -The larger the diameter, the better resolving power - Eyepieces magnify the image Chapter 6: Starlight and Atoms  Chemistry fundamentals  How photons (light) are created -Photons are a unit particle of light -They are in bundles and behave as a particle and a wave -They occur in the visible range of electromagnetic spectrum  Stellar spectrums: light emitted and absorbed by a star - continuous spectra: direct radiation - absorption spectra: some of the continuous is absorbed ***this is the chemistry of a star** - emission spectra: continuous radiation excited the chromosphere and emits its own light  Spectral classes O, B, A, F, G, K, M 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Small Stars: L-dwarf T- dwarf  Wein’s Law As temperature increases, there is an increase in emitted wavelengths The greater the temperature, the more blue that is emitted The lower the temperature, the more red that is emitted  Doppler effect Approaching light has a shift to the blue spectra Test #1 Receding light has a shift to the red spectra


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