Medical Microbiology 108 Exam 4 Study Guide
Medical Microbiology 108 Exam 4 Study Guide Bio 108
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Webster on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 108 at Ferris State University taught by Anne Spain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Medical Microbiology in Science at Ferris State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Medical Microbiology 108 Exam 4 Study Guide Physical Methods of Microbial Control Heat Bactericidal Damages Proteins Used for disinfection and sterilization depending on type Dry Heat Bactericidal Damages Proteins Used to Sterilize Hot water Pasteurization Bactericidal Damages Proteins Used to Disinfect Boiling Water Bactericidal Damages Proteins Used to Disinfect Steam Heat Under Pressure(Autoclave) Bactericidal Damages Proteins Used to Sterilize Cold Temp (Refrigeration & Freezing) Bacteriostatic Used to prevent spoilage and preserve food Radiation Bactericidal Damages DNA Used for Disinfection or Sterilization NonIonizing used to disinfect Ionizing used to Sterilize Filtration Decontamination Used to Sterilize liquids Chemical Methods of Microbial Control Chlorine/Chlorites Bactericidal Damages Proteins Sterilizes No, can be used as an antiseptic No, have not developed Resistance Iodine Bactericidal Damages Proteins Sterilizes Yes, Can be used as an antiseptic No, have not developed Resistance Formaldehyde Bactericidal Damages Proteins Sterilizes No, Can not be used as an antiseptic No, have not developed Resistance Hydrogen Peroxide Bactericidal Damages Proteins Sterilizes Yes, can be used as an antiseptic No, have not developed Resistance Alcohols Bactericidal Damages Proteins Disinfects Yes, can be used as an antiseptic No, have not developed Resistance Phenolic/Phenols Bactericidal Damages Proteins Disinfects Yes, can be used as an antiseptic Yes, have developed resistance Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Bactericidal Destroys phospholipid membranes Only used to disinfect No, can not be used as an antiseptic Yes, have developed resistance Acids/Bases Bactericidal Damages Proteins Disinfect No, can not be used as an antiseptic Yes, have developed resistance Heavy Metals Bactericidal or Bacteriostatic Yes, can be used as an antiseptic Osmolarity Bacteriostatic Soaps Decontamination Sanitizes Yes, can be used as an antiseptic Mode of Actions for Antimicrobials Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis Penicillin derivatives (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin) Cephalosporins Carbapenems Bacitracin Vancomycin Inhibits Protein Synthesis Aminoglycosides (Streptomycin) Tetracycline Macrolide Drugs (Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Azithromycin) Inhibit DNA Replication/Transcription Fluoroquinolones/Quinolone Drugs (Nalidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin) Rifampin Antimicrobial Susceptibility Microbe can be killed Antimicrobial Resistance Microbes can tolerate presence of Drug MRSA Skin Infection VRE Vancomycin resistant enterococci CRE Carbopenem Resistant enterobacteriaceae Where Microbes should and shouldn't be found on human body Should Skin Mouth Anus Eyes, ears, nose Vagina Upper Respiratory Tract Should Not Internal Organs/tissues Fluid associated with internal organs Newborns first acquire their first microbes from the fecal matter from the mother E. Coli 5 Steps involved in Pathogens causing and spreading diseases 1. Enter Human Body 2. Attach to Tissues 3. evade Immune Defense 4. Cause Damage 5. Exit Human Body Direct Mechanisms of Communicable Diseases Direct Contact Kissing, Sex, Sneezing, Coughing Droplets Respiratory Droplets Vectors Vector Borne diseases are transmitted by blood contact through insects (ticks, fleas, Mosquitos) Vertical transmissions Mother to fetus Indirect Mechanisms of Communicable Diseases Fomites Inanimate objects (Door knobs, remotes, computers, phones) Aerosols Airborne Particles Contaminated food or water Carry gastrointestinal Pathogens Fecal oral route of transmission 1st line of Defense Non Specific Barriers Skin Pathogens can only get through broken skin Flushing Tears, Sneezing, coughing, pooping, puking, sweating, peeing, nasal hair (Cilia lining our resp. Tract) Acidic pH Value Stomach, Vagina/Skin 2nd Line of Defense Non Specific Immune Response to Infections Inflammation 1. Injury 2. vasoconstriction blood vessels constrict/Dilate 3. Edema(Fluid accumulation) and Pus formation 4. Resolution and scar Formation Phagocytosis by neutrophils Engulf foreign bacteria during an inflammatory response Fever Elevated host body temp Can be good o Limits iron availability o inhibits bacterial growth o interfere with viral replication 3rd Line of Defense Specific Immune Responses to Infection 1. Specific targets a specific pathogen 2. AcquiredOur body forms a response 3. long lasting memory passive immunity Received it Active Immunity Formed it ourselves Natural Immunity Antibodies are produced or received naturally Artificial Immunity Antibodies are produced or received artificially Lymphatic System System of vessels and organs that serve as the sites for the development and circulation of cells Lymphatic Vessels Transport lymph Lymph Nodes Filters out foreign material carried by lymph fluid White Blood Cells Leukocytes Granulocytes Neutrophils Phagocytes Basophils Indicate Inflammation Eosinophils Indicate Inflammation Aranulocytes Monocytes Phagocytes Macrophages Dendritic Cells Dendritic Cells (Monocytes) Phagocytes that engulf pathogens and incorporates the pathogens antigens onto its own surface and presents it to the Helper T cells Helper T Cells (Lymphocyte) Becomes activated and stimulates BCell activity B Cells (Lymphocyte) Produce antibodies that directly target the pathogen Macrophages( Monocytes/Phagocytes) Engulfs/destroys antibody marked pathogens Inactivated Vaccines The Killed VaccineFlu Shot Safer Less Effective Live (attenuated) Vaccines The Live Vaccines flu vaccine Via Nasal Spray less safe more efficient b/c immune response is formed in the same way/ mimics natural immune response
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