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Psychology 150 Unit 2 Study Guide

by: Lindsey Webster

Psychology 150 Unit 2 Study Guide Psych 150

Marketplace > Ferris State University > Psychlogy > Psych 150 > Psychology 150 Unit 2 Study Guide
Lindsey Webster
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

ALL ABOUT THE BRAIN/neurotransmitters/hormones/ etc.
Intro to Psychology
Professor Meindholt
Study Guide
Psychology, brain, Science
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Webster on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 150 at Ferris State University taught by Professor Meindholt in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Ferris State University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology 150 Unit 2 Exam Review Central Nervous system: consists of brain & spinal cord which both have nerve cells Peripheral Nervous System: Consists of the nerve cells in the soft organs in the rest of the  body  transmits information to the central nervous system  responds to messages from the central nervous to perform specific behaviors to make  bodily adjustments  2 primary components: somatic nervous system/ autonomic nervous System (hormones  and endocrine) Ex: when you touch a sharp tack  Peripheral Nervous System registers sensory signal and transmits it to the central nervous system  Central Nervous System organizes and evaluates that information & tells the peripheral  system to perform certain behaviors such as pulling your hand away. Neurons: Divisions of the nervous system that are made of smaller units, these nerve cells are  nerve cells, or neurons.  Neurons do not communicate randomly, but selectively with other neurons.    4 parts of a neuron that allow it to communicate with other neurons are, the dendrites, the cell  body, the axon, and the terminal button. Dendrites: Short branchlike extensions, detect signals from neighboring nuerons Cell Body: information received from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated The axon: Vary in length. Longest one is from the spinal chord to the big toe Terminal Button:  Knob like thing at the end of an axon. Synapse: Site where communication occurs between neurons  They communicate by sending chemicals into a tiny gap between the terminal buttons of  the sending neuron and the dendrites of receiving neurons. Neuron Membrane  semipermeable  thin covering  contributes to neural communication by regulating neurons electrical activity. Neuron begins in a resting state. During this state the inside is more negative than the outside. Action potential: Neural impulse that travels along the axon and then causes the release of  neurotransmitters into the synapse. Action Potentials:  1st step, neuron is stimulated by signals from other neurons  if the electrical charge changes enough the action potential begins  Moves down the axon and toward the terminal buttons  travels quickly because of the fatty casing called Myelin Sheath  when neurons lose the myelin sheath they lose the ability to communicate  to communicate a neuron fires an action potential, it fires or it does not. Neurotransmitters  neurons communicate chemically at the synapses  2nd step, reception, actions potentials cause a neuron to release chemicals   o neuron that send the signal is called a presynaptic o neuron that receives the signal is called a postsynaptic  Neurotransmitters carry information from the presynaptic neuron   Receptors: specialized molecules that specifically respond to certain types of  neurotransmitters Excitatory and Inhibitory Signals  3rd step, integration, the postsynaptic neuron processes incoming signals  2 types: excitatory and inhibitory  excitatory  signals excite the neuron and inhibitory signals inhibit the neurons Acetylcholine: The neurotransmitter responsible for motor control cells  Used with Botox, if too much Botox is injected if could result in an emotionless face  influences attention, memory, learning, and sleeping   o drugs that are acetylcholine antagonists can cause temp. amnesia Epinephrine: the adrenaline rush results from a release of this neurotransmitter  The rush is part of the fight or flight response  It prepares the body for dealing with threats from the environment  norepinephrine is involved in states of arousal and alertness, good for noticing what goes  on around you Serotonin: Involved with the wide range of psychological activities  important for emotional states, impulse, control, and dreaming  lack of this leads to being sad, anxious, food cravings, and aggression Dopamine: Most important function is reward and motivation   produces a desire to perform behavior  lack of this may be involved in problems with movement  Disease known with lack of this is Parkinson's  lack also leads to rigid muscles, tremors, and difficulty initiating voluntary action Endorphins:  neurotransmitters involved in reward  painkilling effects help up perform behaviors even when we are in pain  morphine alters the way we feel pain and how it is experienced Early studies of the brain  Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim proposed the theory of phrenology  o based it on the idea that different parts of the brain perform different functions  Phrenology was the practice of assessing personality traits and mental abilities by  measuring bumps on the human skull Hindbrain, Midbrain house Basic Programs for Our Survival  lower brain controls breathing, heartbeat, swallowing, and moving  o connected through spinal chord  spinal chords most important job is communication between the brain and the rest of the  body  o Carries sensory information up to the brain and carries motor skills from the brain to the body parts o tissue types: gray matter (cell bodies of neurons) and white matter (axons and  myelin sheaths) Hindbrain: At the base of the skull, the spinal chord thickens and becomes more complex (the  brainstem)  controls swallowing, breathing, heart rate etc. hard hit could cause death  Cerebellum: Large extension that is connected to the back of the brain stem  o Essential for proper motor function o Most obvious role in motor function is motor memory (made if possible to ride  bike effortlessly) o Cognitive processes such as making plans, remembering events, using language,  and emotion Midbrain: Located at the top of the brain stem  consists structures that involve movement of the eyes and the body  critical for the productions of dopamine (motivates behavior and controls motor function) Forebrain Thalamus: Receives almost all incoming sensory information, organizes it, and relays it to the  cortex.  When sleeping, the thalamus shuts out some smells to help the person stay asleep. Hypothalamus: Receives input from almost everywhere in the body and the brain and it sends  its influence to almost everywhere.  affects functions of internal organs  regulates body temp, sleeping and waking, blood pressure, behaviors such as eating,  drinking and sex Hippocampus: Formation of new memories   Help us know how we remember the arrangements of both places and objects in space Amygdala: Vital role in learning to associate things in the world with emotional response (fear)  evaluating facial expressions Basal Ganglia: Planning and producing movement Cerebral Cortex of the Forebrain The outer layer of the forebrain is called the cerebral cortex 4 lobes: Occipital Lobe: Back portion of the head. These lobes are devoted to vision Parietal Lobe: Devoted to touch Temporal Lobe: hold the primary auditory cortex Frontal Lobe: essential for planning and movement Prefrontal Cortex  occupies 30% of the brain  critical for rational thought  provides our sense of self and to empathize with others or feel guilty Somatic Nervous System: Transmits signals to and from the central nervous system through  nerves  specialized receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints send sensory info to the spinal chord  this process controls movement  example­ using a pen and using different pressures and muscles Autonomic Nervous System: Automatically regulates the bodys internal environment  maintains internal organs  Nerves in this system carry signals from the glands internal organs to the central nervous  system  2 divisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic  o both control he activity of organs and glands The Endocrine System: Communication network that influences thoughts and actions   uses chemicals called hormones to communicate  Brain communicates with the endocrine system to release hormones that prepare the  organism to deal with those threats  Hormones: chemical substances released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands  o includes pineal gland, adrenal glands, thyroid glands, pituitary glands, and the  testes and ovaries Hormones, sexual development, and behavior  testes and ovaries­ sexual glands Hormones and physical growth  Growth hormone prompts bone, cartilage, and muscle tissue to grow or help after injury Genes  We inherit genes we will possess for the rest of our lives  genes control many physical characteristics, such as sex and eye color  o also influence our predisposition to diseases, personality, intelligence, and  athleticism  Your genetic makeup is called your genotype  Your physical and psychological characteristics are called your phenotype  o These genes can change  The study of how genes and environment interact to influence psychological factors is  know as Behavioral Genetics  Monozygotic Twins: identical­ when the zygote divides into 2  Dizygotic Twin: Fraternal ­ when 2 separately fertilized eggs develop into the mothers  womb  Brain plasticity is what allows us to learn  Neurons that fire together, wire together  Males generally have larger brains than females 9% larger


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