World History II Exam 1 Study Guide
World History II Exam 1 Study Guide HIST 1020
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 428 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
World History II / Dr. Sippial / Exam 1 Study Guide Highlight = Key term Highlight = Important concept Toward a New World-View: 15th-18th centuries New Frontiers of Contact & Exchange 1492 o Christopher Columbus o Spain; Reconquista “Columbian Exchange” o Global diffusion of plants, animals, and pathogens as a result of contact between 2 distinct and heretofore separated worlds o Important goods: corn, potatoes, quinine, horse, cattle, pigs, sheep, chicken, and Xocoatl o Disease: Smallpox, Measles, Diphtheria, Influenza, Whooping cough, and Syphilis o Slavery: Africans, Middle Passage, horrible treatment, most in Brazil Smallpox o The most deadly disease of that time Cantino World Map (Lisbon, 1502) o First map in world history to depict the Americas A New Order of Knowledge Scientific Revolution o Period of questioning Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) o First to view the heavens using a telescope Francis Bacon (1561-1626) o Humans should not rely on ancient truths; use reason Isaac Newton (1642-1727) o Force of gravity governs the movements of the planets Empiricism o the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience What Little Red Riding Hood Tells Us This children’s story helps show how the world is depicted based off of the time it was written (negative view of world) Enlightenment o Question Authority o Government should rule according to reason/rationality to protect natural rights John Locke (1632-1704) o argued against the belief that human beings are born with certain ideas already in their minds Absolutism o principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in government Voltaire (1694-1778) o Ideas in conversation like John Lock and Newton and translates them for French audience; Very Satirical Challenges to Absolutism: The French Revolution Louis XIV o The Sun King o Absolutist Rule o Created the Versailles Palace Recipe for Revolution o Leadership, mass support, Intellectual Resources (Ideas), Discontentment, and opportunity Salons o Circulation of information among a selective group; almost like a book club Estates (1st, 2nd, 3rd) o Official class system of France and huge source of discontentment o First = Clergy o Second = Nobility o Third = Middle Class and Peasants Origins of the French Revolution Louis XVI (r. 1774-1793) o Married to Marie Antoinette o Entered power during horrible economic crisis Bankrupt, bad harvest, severe unemployment o Eventually flees France o Accused of corruption, abuse of power, ineptitude: found guilty and sent to guillotine January of 1793 Conflicting Ideals and the Promise of Revolution Marie Antoinette (1755-1793) o Married to Louis XVI o Eventually hung in October of 1793 Estates-General o Mainly people of the third estate who want change The Moderate Phase, 1789-1792 Oath of the Tennis Court (1789) o Louis XVI didn’t like the questions people were asking him about his rule and he cancelled the meeting o The Estates General moved the meeting here and began calling themselves National Assembly o Lay out a new mission statement for France and get around 576 signatures Storming of the Bastille (14 July 1789) o Parisians show support of National Assembly and storm this prison and Armory The Great Fear o Women march to Versailles o Peasants destroying property that reminds them of what used to be Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) o Document that shows the purpose for the new country of France Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) o A woman that is playwright and political activist who feels that there wasn’t enough written about women in the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen; she rewrites it to include women Declaration of Rights of Woman and Female Citizen (1791) o Written by Olympe de Gouges o Trying to show the grievances of women also in the document Constitution of 1791 o Created a Limited Monarchy o Limited the power of the church o Required church officials to take oath of allegiance to the State as civil servants The Radical Phase, 1792-1794 Culture of Revolution o Many symbols are used to show change French Revolution playing cards: liberty, fraternity, equality Phrygian cap: association of freedom from servitude and tyranny Calendar: Year 1 is 1792, no Christmas, day of rest every 10 days Music: New Revolutionary songs Buildings renamed Temple of Reason o Renamed from Notre Dame o Aligned with a new secular revolution “Ça Ira” (We Will Win) o Feeling: patriotic, high energy o Written to: Third Estate o Who is problem: First and Second Estates o Reminder of duty: speak up when someone is slacking or acting as a traitor The World Napoleon Made Committee of Public Safety o 12 members; task is to root out counter revolutionaries Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) o Lawyer who rose through the ranks of France o Reign of Terror o Eventually declared an outlaw because of indiscriminate use of violence; condemned 28 July 1794 Reign of Terror (1793-1794) o 10 months long o Most iconic phase of revolution o Used to root out counterrevolutionary threats o 1900 people were executed in one month and 300,000 in prison Napoleon and the Cult of Personality Directory (1795-1799) o Solution 1 o Idea of shared power o There were 5 men o Weak, inept, conflicted, and unable to solve domestic issues Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) o Solution 2 o Associated with significant military success o Symbol of French potential o Seizes power through Coup d’état o Extreme military leader who wants to expand his empire o Eventually exiled to Island of Elba (escaped) then St. Helena where he died Napoleonic (Civil) Code (1804) o A law used when creating the Modern French State o It forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified Concordat of 1801 o Agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII that sought national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics and solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France, with most of its civil status restored Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) o First painter of the Empire o He created many paintings of Napoleon that showed him as a leader of France French Invasion of Russia (1812) o Also known as the Russian Campaign o Napoleon Wanted to take Moscow to expand his empire o They were defeated because of the Russians scorching the earth to destroy shelter and food and also because of the harsh winter o Originally had 600,000 men and came back with 30,000 The Demise of the Emperor Emperor’s Demise Act (1814) o Act passed by the Senate that exiled Napoleon to the Island of Elba and eventually St. Helena Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) o Holy Alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia o Made 3 major decisions about France Redraw map back to before Napoleon’s rule Create the confederation of German States to stop France from expanding in the future Restore the French Monarchy Legacies of the French Revolution Weakened political influence of aristocracy and clergy transformed France into a modern state practical application for the ideas of the enlightenment revolutionary fervor exported combination of the French Revolution with the Industrial Revolution led to creating the European working class Egalite for All: The Haitian Revolution Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) o Constitutional monarch o Known as “the desired” Avengers of the New World: Haiti Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) o Major discontentment from the class systems o The slaves rise up and start to fight in Saint-Domingue Boukman’s Prayer (August 1791) o Meeting of 1000 slaves where a voodoo priest delivers a prayer and all of the slaves begin destroying reminders of the past and recruiting other slaves Touissant L’Ouverture (1743-1803) o Freed slave who is considered a leader during the Haitian revolution Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806) o Second hand man to Touissant L’Ouverture during the Haitian Revolution Égalité for All (movie screening)
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