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AU / History / HIST 1020 / When did the cantino world map created?

When did the cantino world map created?

When did the cantino world map created?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history and World History
Cost: 50
Name: World History II Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide gives an outline of MOST of the things to know for Exam 1.
Uploaded: 02/01/2016
7 Pages 179 Views 13 Unlocks
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World History II / Dr. Sippial / Exam 1 Study Guide


When did the cantino world map created?



Highlight = Key term Highlight = Important concept  Toward a New World-View: 15th-18th centuries

New Frontiers of Contact & Exchange 

∙ 1492

o Christopher Columbus  

o Spain; Reconquista  

∙ “Columbian Exchange”  

o Global diffusion of plants, animals, and pathogens as a result of  contact between 2 distinct and heretofore separated worlds  

o Important goods: corn, potatoes, quinine, horse, cattle, pigs, sheep,  chicken, and Xocoatl  

o Disease: Smallpox, Measles, Diphtheria, Influenza, Whooping cough,  and Syphilis  

o Slavery: Africans, Middle Passage, horrible treatment, most in Brazil ∙ Smallpox  


In what year did galileo galilei first view the heavens using a telescope?



o The most deadly disease of that time

∙ Cantino World Map (Lisbon, 1502) 

o First map in world history to depict the Americas  

A New Order of Knowledge 

∙ Scientific Revolution  

o Period of questioning  

∙ Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 

o First to view the heavens using a telescope  Don't forget about the age old question of What is additive sculpture?

∙ Francis Bacon (1561-1626) 

o Humans should not rely on ancient truths; use reason  

∙ Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 

o Force of gravity governs the movements of the planets  


Who said humans should not rely on ancient truths; use reason?



∙ Empiricism 

o the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience What Little Red Riding Hood Tells Us

∙ This children’s story helps show how the world is depicted based off of the  time it was written (negative view of world)

∙ Enlightenment 

o Question Authority  

o Government should rule according to reason/rationality to protect  natural rights  

∙ John Locke (1632-1704)  

o argued against the belief that human beings are born with certain  ideas already in their minds

∙ Absolutism  

o principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in  government

∙ Voltaire (1694-1778) 

o Ideas in conversation like John Lock and Newton and translates them  for French audience; Very Satirical

Challenges to Absolutism: The French Revolution If you want to learn more check out What is celestial equator?

∙ Louis XIV  Don't forget about the age old question of Why emotions are important?

o The Sun King

o Absolutist Rule  

o Created the Versailles Palace  

∙ Recipe for Revolution

o Leadership, mass support, Intellectual Resources (Ideas),  Don't forget about the age old question of What is a cultural dimension?

Discontentment, and opportunity  

∙ Salons  

o Circulation of information among a selective group; almost like a  book club  

∙ Estates (1st, 2nd, 3rd)  

o Official class system of France and huge source of discontentment o First = Clergy  

o Second = Nobility  If you want to learn more check out How do proteins fold?

o Third = Middle Class and Peasants

Origins of the French Revolution 

∙ Louis XVI (r. 1774-1793)

o Married to Marie Antoinette  

o Entered power during horrible economic crisis  Don't forget about the age old question of How do atoms bond?

▪ Bankrupt, bad harvest, severe unemployment

o Eventually flees France  

o Accused of corruption, abuse of power, ineptitude: found guilty and  sent to guillotine January of 1793  

Conflicting Ideals and the Promise of Revolution

∙ Marie Antoinette (1755-1793) 

o Married to Louis XVI

o Eventually hung in October of 1793  

∙ Estates-General 

o Mainly people of the third estate who want change

The Moderate Phase, 1789-1792 

∙ Oath of the Tennis Court (1789)  

o Louis XVI didn’t like the questions people were asking him about his  rule and he cancelled the meeting  

o The Estates General moved the meeting here and began calling  themselves National Assembly  

o Lay out a new mission statement for France and get around 576  signatures  

∙ Storming of the Bastille (14 July 1789)  

o Parisians show support of National Assembly and storm this prison  and Armory  

∙ The Great Fear  

o Women march to Versailles

o Peasants destroying property that reminds them of what used to be  ∙ Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)  

o Document that shows the purpose for the new country of France ∙ Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) 

o A woman that is playwright and political activist who feels that there  wasn’t enough written about women in the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen; she rewrites it to include women  

∙ Declaration of Rights of Woman and Female Citizen (1791)

o Written by Olympe de Gouges  

o Trying to show the grievances of women also in the document  ∙ Constitution of 1791  

o Created a Limited Monarchy  

o Limited the power of the church  

o Required church officials to take oath of allegiance to the State as  civil servants  

The Radical Phase, 1792-1794 

∙ Culture of Revolution  

o Many symbols are used to show change  

▪ French Revolution playing cards: liberty, fraternity, equality  ▪ Phrygian cap: association of freedom from servitude and  

tyranny  

▪ Calendar: Year 1 is 1792, no Christmas, day of rest every 10  days  

▪ Music: New Revolutionary songs  

▪ Buildings renamed  

∙ Temple of Reason  

o Renamed from Notre Dame  

o Aligned with a new secular revolution  

∙ “Ça Ira” (We Will Win) 

o Feeling: patriotic, high energy  

o Written to: Third Estate  

o Who is problem: First and Second Estates  

o Reminder of duty: speak up when someone is slacking or acting as a  traitor  

The World Napoleon Made

∙ Committee of Public Safety  

o 12 members; task is to root out counter revolutionaries  

∙ Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) 

o Lawyer who rose through the ranks of France  

o Reign of Terror

o Eventually declared an outlaw because of indiscriminate use of  violence; condemned 28 July 1794  

∙ Reign of Terror (1793-1794) 

o 10 months long

o Most iconic phase of revolution  

o Used to root out counterrevolutionary threats  

o 1900 people were executed in one month and 300,000 in prison  Napoleon and the Cult of Personality 

∙ Directory (1795-1799) 

o Solution 1  

o Idea of shared power  

o There were 5 men  

o Weak, inept, conflicted, and unable to solve domestic issues  ∙ Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)  

o Solution 2  

o Associated with significant military success  

o Symbol of French potential  

o Seizes power through Coup d’état

o Extreme military leader who wants to expand his empire  

o Eventually exiled to Island of Elba (escaped) then St. Helena where he  died  

∙ Napoleonic (Civil) Code (1804)  

o A law used when creating the Modern French State

o It forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and  specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified ∙ Concordat of 1801  

o Agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII that sought national  reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics and solidified  the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France, with  most of its civil status restored

∙ Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) 

o First painter of the Empire

o He created many paintings of Napoleon that showed him as a leader  of France

∙ French Invasion of Russia (1812) 

o Also known as the Russian Campaign  

o Napoleon Wanted to take Moscow to expand his empire  

o They were defeated because of the Russians scorching the earth to  destroy shelter and food and also because of the harsh winter  o Originally had 600,000 men and came back with 30,000  

The Demise of the Emperor 

∙ Emperor’s Demise Act (1814) 

o Act passed by the Senate that exiled Napoleon to the Island of Elba  and eventually St. Helena  

∙ Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) 

o Holy Alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia o Made 3 major decisions about France  

▪ Redraw map back to before Napoleon’s rule  

▪ Create the confederation of German States to stop France  from expanding in the future  

▪ Restore the French Monarchy  

Legacies of the French Revolution 

∙ Weakened political influence of aristocracy and clergy

∙ transformed France into a modern state

∙ practical application for the ideas of the enlightenment

∙ revolutionary fervor exported

∙ combination of the French Revolution with the Industrial Revolution led to  creating the European working class  

Egalite for All: The Haitian Revolution

∙ Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) 

o Constitutional monarch  

o Known as “the desired”

Avengers of the New World: Haiti 

∙ Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) 

o Major discontentment from the class systems

o The slaves rise up and start to fight in Saint-Domingue  

∙ Boukman’s Prayer (August 1791) 

o Meeting of 1000 slaves where a voodoo priest delivers a prayer and  all of the slaves begin destroying reminders of the past and recruiting  other slaves  

∙ Touissant L’Ouverture (1743-1803) 

o Freed slave who is considered a leader during the Haitian revolution ∙ Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806) 

o Second hand man to Touissant L’Ouverture during the Haitian Revolution  

Égalité for All (movie screening)

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