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Exam 3 (Ch. 7-9) Study Guide

by: Katie Toepel

Exam 3 (Ch. 7-9) Study Guide Adv 319

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Advertising > Adv 319 > Exam 3 Ch 7 9 Study Guide
Katie Toepel
GPA 3.6

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A comprehensive study guide for Dr. Kevin Thomas' Psychology of Advertising class (ADV319), Exam #3! Includes definitions and overall concepts from both his in-class lecture and the textbook, and a...
Psychology of advertising
Kevin D. Thomas
Study Guide
Kevin Thomas, Psychology of Advertising, ADV319
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Toepel on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Adv 319 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Kevin D. Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Psychology of advertising in Advertising at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology of Advertising Exam #3 Study Guide Chapter 7 – The Self What is self-concept? What elements comprise self-concept?  self-concept summarizes the beliefs a person holds about his own attributes and how he evaluates the self on these qualities o some aspects of self-concept are more positive than others  dimensions: o content — facial attractiveness vs. mental aptitude o positivity — self esteem o intensity and stability — may or may not vary over time o accuracy — the degree to which one’s self-assessment corresponds to reality  self-esteem = the positivity of a person’s self-concept o low self-esteem people will expect that they will not perform very well so they will try to avoid failure, embarrassment, and rejection What is the relationship between real and ideal selves and advertising/consumption?  ads can trigger social comparison — when the person evaluates his or her appearance, ability, etc. by comparing it to the people depicted in artificial images  ideal selves = person’s conception of how he would like to be  actual selves = more realistic appraisal of the qualities we do/don’t have  marketers pitch products that are needed to facilitate role identities (because we have multiple selves) o we choose some products b/c we think they are consistent with our actual self; or buy other stop help us reach in ideal standard  ex. Proactiv is a product that is positioned as providing a remedy to low self-esteem  impression management — when we work hard to “manage” what other think of us o ex. strategically choosing clothing and other products that will show us off to others in a good light o ex. exaggerating your positive qualities on Facebook pages or dating websites  people who have large gaps between their real and ideal selves = good targets for marketing that employs fantasy appeals o fantasy = self-induced shift in consciousness - sometimes to compensate for a lack of external stimulation or to escape from the real world  many successful services and products appeal to our fantasies - transport us to exciting places  people use different products to play different roles (ex. switching perfumes)  dramaturgical perspective (for consumer behavior): views people as actors who play different roles o torn self = when roles conflict with one another  symbolic interactionism — stresses that relationships with people play a large part in determining our self o we exist in a symbolic environment o passing meaning to situations or objects What is the looking-glass self?  looking-glass self = the process of imagining others’ reactions, “taking the role of the other”  self-fulfilling prophecy — when we act the way we assume others expect us to act, thus confirming the original perceptions How does consumption relate to the levels of the extended self?  extended self = the external objects that we consider a part of us o ex. a beloved photograph, trophy, old shirt, car, pet, pair of shoes  Four Levels of Extended Self o Individual level — the belief that one’s personal possessions are part of one’s identity  “you are what you wear”  jewelry, cars, clothing, etc. o Family level — includes a consumer’s residence and its furnishings  house = symbolic body for the family  location is also a central aspect of who we are o Community Level — describing yourself in terms of the neighborhood or town from which you are from  sense of belonging is especially important for farm families o Group Level — we regard our attachments to certain social groups as a part of the self  also includes landmarks, monuments, or sports teams How does the digital self differ from other forms of self?  digital self expresses our online identities o can be dramatically modified to express an online persona o totally free of any restriction o freedom to completely alter our identities  digital identity management adds a brand new layer to the extended self  social footprint = the mark a consumer leaves after she occupies a specific digital space o ex. your Facebook status for the day  lifestream = ongoing record of your digital life across platforms o ex. registrations in virtual worlds, tweets, blog posts — all of it What are the key elements of Freudian theory? How does Freudian theory relate to advertising/consumption?  id = all about immediate gratification; animalistic; primal; “party animal” o operates according to the pleasure principle — our basic desire to maximize pleasure and avoid pain o selfish, illogical o directs psychic energy towards pleasurable acts o disregards consequences  super ego = your conscience o internalizes society’s rules o tries to prevent the id from seeking selfish gratification  ego = the mediator between the id and the superego o tries to find a balance o uses the reality principle — finding a way to gratify the id in an acceptable way  conflicts occur on an unconscious level  implications of Freud’s work: o highlights the potential importance of unconscious motives that guide our purchases o consumers won’t necessarily know their true motivation when choosing products o raises the possibility that the ego relies on symbolism in products to compromise between demands of id and prohibitions of the superego  motivational research o uses Freudian ideas to understand the deeper meanings of products and ads o relies on depth interviews with individual consumers o heavily used by Dichter in the 20th century How has Carl Jung’s work impacted marketing?  developed analytical psychology — method of psychotherapy that says the cumulative experiences of past generations shape who we are today  collective unconscious = a storehouse of memories we inherit from our ancestors o ex. being afraid of the dark because our distant ancestors had good reason to fear it  shared memories create archetypes — universally recognized ideas and behavior patterns o involve themes like birth, death, and the devil that appear frequently in myths, stories, and dreams Brand Asset Valuator Archetypes  brands try to create healthy relationships that feature archetypes (such as matriarch, Mother Earth, Queen, Warrior, Jester)  when a brand’s Shadow characteristics start to take over (such as hag, Shadow Mother, Slave, Destroyer, and Trickster), an ad agency will then take action to guide the brand back to a healthier personality o similar to the way a therapist would counsel a mentally ill person How do marketers use personal traits to better understand consumer behavior?  personality traits = the identifiable characteristics that define a person (or brand)  traits relevant to consumer behavior: o innovativeness o self-consciousness o need for recognition o frugality — frugal people deny shorter purchasing whims; favor cost-saving measures o extroversion — how socially outgoing someone is  ad messages that match how a person thinks about himself are more persuasive  personality traits are better predictors of preference than demographics (age, gender, and income) Big Five (Neo-Personality Inventory) 1. Openness to experience — the degree to which a person is open to new ways of doing things 2. Conscientiousness — level of organization and structure a person needs 3. Extroversion — how well a person tolerates stimulation from other people 4. Agreeableness — the degree to w which we defer to other people 5. Neuroticism (emotional stability) — how well a person copes with stress Myers-Briggs Type Indicator — personality test based on Carl Jung’s work; trying to find more stable traits that won’t change too much over time  Focus of attention — introversion vs. extraversion  Information processing — sensing vs. intuition  Decision-making — thinking vs. feeling  Dealing with the outer world — judging vs. perceiving problems with trait theory:  results may not be stable over time  marketers apply them to more general populations where they have questionable relevance  tests aren’t administered under appropriate conditions  researchers might adapt them to their own situations - may add or delete items, rename variables o ad hoc changes dilute validity  trait scales measure overall tendencies  shotgun approach = researchers following up on anything that looks interesting personality traits that heavily influence consumer behavior:  superstition, pro-environment, romanticism, willingness to spend money, enjoyment of shopping, need for cognition (enjoyment of thinking), need for affect (enjoyment of processing feelings), impulsiveness, need for uniqueness, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, self-consciousness, extroversion, neuroticism What is a brand personality? What is brand equity?  brand personality = the set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person  brand personality traits: o sincerity — down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, cheerful o excitement — daring, spirited, imaginative, up-to-date o competence — reliable, intelligent, successful o sophistication — upper-class, charming o ruggedness — outdoorsy, tough  anthropomorphism = the tendency to attribute human characteristics to objects or animals o assume characters or animals have human feelings o ex. Cheetos Cheetah, Keebler Elves, Michelin Man, Pillsbury Doughboy  a brand personality is a statement about the brand’s market position o when a brand personality fails, it is known as a Doppelgänger brand image  causes a strategy to backfire  young consumers have a sensitive BS detector  animism = common cultural practice where people attribute qualities to inanimate objects that make them alive  self-image congruence models: suggest that we choose products when their attributes match some aspect of the self  brand equity = the extent to which a consumer holds a strong, favorable, and unique association with a brand in memory o ex. the extent to which a person is willing to pay more for a branded version of a product than a generic brand Ideals of beauty:  exemplar of appearance  “What is beautiful is good” stereotype  favorable physical features: o attractive face o fit, youthfulness o balance and symmetry o feminine curves/hourglass body shape o "strong" male features Chapter 8 – Attitude & Persuasion What is an attitude? What assumptions are related to attitudes? What components make up an attitude structure?  Attitude: how you feel about people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues.  Qualities of attitude: direction + intensity  Assumptions: o Learned o Affective o directed to “attitude object” o lasting o related to human behavior  Attitude structure o Affect (Emotional): “I enjoy chocolate” o Cognition (Belief/Opinion): “Dark chocolate is healthy” o Behavior intention: “I intend to buy chocolate” o Behavior: “I eat dark chocolate everyday”  Functional Theory of Attitude o Utilitarian function – relates to rewards and punishments o Value-expressive function – expresses consumer’s values or self- concepts o Ego-defensive function – protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings o Knowledge function – need for order, structure, or meaning How does the hierarchies of effects theory relate to consumer behavior?  Hierarchy of effects: composed of affect, behavior, and cognition o There are 3 Hierarchies that determine consumer behavior, feelings, and actions How it relates to consumer behavior: Which comes first? Thinking, feeling, or doing? That is what the hierarchies mean and which one we choose is largely based on the situation at hand.  Standard Learning Hierarchy – CAB o Cognition  Affect  Behavior o Think, Feel, Do o Information processing; logical behavior  Low Involvement Hierarchy – CBA o Cognition  Behavior  Affect o Think, Do, Feel o Internal information search, rather than external o Brand familiarity, associations with brand name o Person acts on limited knowledge o Develop an emotional stance AFTER you buy the product  Experiential Hierarchy – ABC o Affect  Behavior  Cognition o Feel, Do, Think o Acting on impulse, emotion, feeling o Form how you think about the product AFTERwards What is persuasion? What elements impact persuasion effectiveness?  Persuasion o Involves an active attempt to change attitudes.  Elements o Reciprocity  We are more likely to give if we first receive  ex: If you want people to respond better in a survey then giving money will achieve this. o Scarcity  Items are more attractive when they aren’t available  ex: In a study people that were given one cookie to evaluate vs. people that were given more valued it higher. o Authority  We believe an authoritative source more than one that is less authoritative.  ex: Americans public opinion shifts by as much as 2% when The New York Times reports on it. o Consistency  People don’t want to contradict themselves.  ex: Students first asked people to sign a petition and then two weeks later asked for donations and received twice as much. o Liking  We agree with those who we like or admire  eg. Study shows that good-looking fundraisers raise more than those not as attractive. o Consensus  We consider what others do before deciding what we do.  eg. people are more likely to donate if they see familiar names. What is the ABC model of attitudes?  Affect: describes how a consumer “feels” about an object  Behavior: the intentions to “take action”  Cognition: What the consumer “believes” How does the Theory of Planned Behavior work? How does the Elaboration Likelihood Model work?  Two routes to persuasion o The Central Route  High involvement  Generate cognitive responses to the marketer  Standard hierarchy  Prior knowledge increases the amount of counter arguments o The Peripheral Route  Less Involvement  Use “peripheral cues” instead of the marketers arguments  Paradox of Low Involvement: if we don’t care much for a product, we may buy it simply because of it being “sexy” or endorsed by a celebrity o The same communication tool can be taken as both “central” or “peripheral” depending on its relation to the object How does Balance Theory work?  Balance Theory: How people perceive relations among two different attitude objects, and how they alter their attitudes so these remain consistent ex: “the enemy of my enemy is my friend”  Involves relations from the perceivers 3rd party, subject point of view among 3 elements called triads  Each triad involves (1) a person and his perceptions of (2) an attitude object and (3) some other person or object.  We link objects (2) and (3) objects in the following ways o Unit Relation: we think a person is connected to an attitude object (something like a belief) o Sentiment Relation: where a person expresses like/dislike towards an object o ex: a dating couple has a positive sentiment relation. Getting married is a positive unit relation. Getting a divorce severs the unit relation. Consistency Principle  consumers try to rationalize their decisions to stay consistent with their beliefs  ex. Consumers feel bad about purchasing Apple products, but will continue to do so because they are high quality OTHER INFO (extra) Types of message appeals:  Emotional vs Rational  Sex Appeals  Humor  Fear Allegory: many ads take the form of an abstract trait or concept ______________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 9 – Group and Situational Effects What pre/post contextual factors impact consumer choices? What physical and social elements of a purchase environment influence consumer choices?  Co-consumers o The number and type of people that are there o Large number of people = arousal o Interpretation of arousal depends on density vs. crowding  Too crowded? Too empty? o Types of patrons  Decor  Odor o ex: studies show that in a Las Vegas casino the odors they pump in the air will affect the amount people feed the machines.  Temperature What is timestyle?  A persons priorities determine their time style: the way they like spending their time. o ex: workaholic vs take more down time What elements determine timestyle?  Social dimension o The social dimension refers to individuals’ categorization of time either “time for me” or “time with/for others”  Temporal Oriented dimension o Depicts the relative significance individuals attach to past, present or future.  Planning oriented dimension o alludes to different time management styles varying on continuum from analytic  spontaneous.  Polychronic oriented dimension o Distinguishes from those who multitask vs. those who do one thing at a time What are the dominant forms of timestyle?  Time is a pressure cooker o These people are usually analytical in their planning other oriented and monochronic in their timestyles. They treat shopping in a methodical manner and often feel in conflict.  Time is a map o These people are usually analytical planners; they exhibit a future temporal oriented and polychronic time styles. They often engage in extensive research and comparison.  Time is a mirror o People in this group are also analytical planners and have polychronic timestyle. However they have a past temporal orientation. Due to their risk averseness in time use they tend to stay loyal to a products and services they know and trust. They prefer convenient oriented products.  Time is a river o These people are usually spontaneous in their planning orientation and have a present focus, they go on unplanned, short and frequent shopping trips.  Time is a feast o These women are analytical planners with a present temporal orientation. They view time as something they consume to pursue sensory pleasure and gratification, and for this reason they value hedonic consumption and variety seeking. What is time poverty?  People/Consumers that believe they are more pressured for time than ever before. What are the forms of “retailing as theater”?  Retail Theming is using physical and visual attractions to lure reluctant customers  ex: a wave pool in a mall o Landscape Themes: Rely on associations with images of nature, Earth, animals, and the physical body  Ex. The Rain forest cafe o Marketscape Themes: Build on associations with man made places  ex: the Venetian in Las Vegas that mocks the architecture of the Italian City, Venice  ex: Hard Rock Cafe o Cyberspace Themes: built on images of information and communication  ex: eBay instills a sense of community with its shoppers  ex: the Apple Store o Mindscape Themes: Draw on abstract ideas or concepts, introspection, and fantasy  ex. A day spa How do emotional states impact the shopping experience? (?) You are more likely to buy certain products when experiencing different emotions What are the benefits and limitations of e-commerce?  Benefits: o For consumers:  Often cheaper  More information on the product  24/7  Available everywhere  Good customer service  More options, more convenient o For marketers  World is the marketplace  Lower costs  Real time pricing  Limitations: o For consumers  Cannot touch the product  Lack of security  Shipping charges o For Marketers  Lack of security  Fierce price competition Showrooming: trying a product in store and then ordering online What is social power? What forms of social power exist?  Social Power: the ability to alter the actions of others  They are not always exclusive  Types: o Referent Power: If a person admires the quality of a person or group  ex: dress nicely, drive nice cars o Information Power: Simply knowing things others wish to know o Legitimate Power: A socially constructed indicator of power  ex: a police officer (badge), professor (PhD) o Expert Power: Specified knowledge a person has on a certain area  ex: Stephen Hawking on physics o Reward Power: A person or group with the means to provide positive reinforcement  ex: American Idol judges to vote someone into the next round o Coercive Power: Using Social or Physical intimidation  ex: bullies What types of reference groups exist? How do they influence consumer behavior?  Reference groups: an actual or imaginary individual group that significantly influences an individual’s evaluations and aspirations or behaviors o ex: smokers quitting in groups  They influence us in 3 ways o Informational  consumer seeks information from third party individual experts or groups of experts  observe what individual experts do o Utilitarian  purchases satisfy the expectations of fellow workers  influenced by those who they socially interact with o Value-Expressive  act so purchases have of a particular brand enhance what others think of him/her  act so decisions bring them closer to their ideal self  if we want to maintain contact with a particular reference group, then we need to emulate what they do to a certain degree so we can express the same values  Name Letter Effect: All things equal, we like those who share our names or name letters  Normative Influence: the reference group helps set and enforce fundamental standards  Comparative Influence: affects members decisions on other aspects of their behavior Brand Communities and Consumer Tribes:  Brand community: a group of consumers that share a set of social relationships based on usage of interest in a product o brandfests: community oriented events that companies sponsor  ex: Harley Davidson  Consumer Tribe: formed based on shared sense of emotions, moral beliefs, or styles of life. o Similar to a brand community o often short lived o tribal marketing strategy: targeting short lived ad campaigns to consumer tribes Membership versus Aspirational Reference Groups:  membership reference group: people we actually know o advertisers will use “ordinary people”  aspirational reference group: people we admire o use of a celebrity spokesperson in an advertisement  Ways to predict who will be part of your membership group o propinquity: physical distance between people  as it decreases, they more likely people are to be in a membership group o mere exposure: we like people/things if we see them more often o group cohesiveness: refers to the degree to which members of a particular group are attracted to each other and how much each values his/her membership in the group  avoidance groups: groups we do not like because of differing values. We tend to do the opposite of their behaviors. Group Shopping  deindividualization: process where individual identities are submerged within the group  direct selling: where people gather in the home of a friend o ex: Amway, Mary Kay, Avon How does social judgment theory work? Social Judgement Theory: People assimilate new information about an attitude object in light of what they already know or feel. The initial attitude acts as a frame of reference. Why do we conform?  Cultural pressure  Fear of deviance  Commitment  Group unanimity  Interpersonal influence Why do we shop?  Social experiences  Sharing of common interest  Interpersonal attraction  Instant status  Thrill of the hunt


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