Animal Biology Zool 1604 Animal Biology
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Walker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Zool 1604 Animal Biology at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Elisa Cabrera Guzman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology in Animal Science and Zoology at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Animal Biology Test 1 Study guide Terms: Animal- a Eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular organism whose development includes blastula (sphere of cells surrounding a fluid filled cavity), it has sensory and nervous systems, its present in extra cellular matrix, has a high diversity Biological concept of species-population whose members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Genotype- consists of genes, portions of DNA whose sequence of nucleotides encodes a protein, and an allele, alternative form of each gene encodes a different version of the same protein that can determine the function of the traits or appearance of the organism Phenotype-expression of alleles, no two organisms within a species are exactly alike, they all have different phenotypes and genotypes Natural selection- favoring of one allele combination over another, preservation of favorable genetic variations leading to the preservation of successful phenotypic adaptations Darwin’s observations/inferences/main points – 1. Organisms have great potential fertility which allows the growth of the population 2. Natural populations don’t normally increase exponentially but remain a constant size 3. The natural resources are limited Types of selection: Stabilizing- favors average trait values over extreme ones Directional- favors an extreme value of a phenotype and population average shifts to it Disruptive- two extreme phenotypes are favored more than the intermediate phenotype notes.org/biology/topic_notes/33_behavioral_ecology/sites/www.course-notes.org/files/past/images/selection.gif Fitness- an organisms genetic contribution to the next generation, can be measured by the number of offspring Evolution-all the changes in a populations characteristics and diversity if its life on Earth through many years Microevolution-change in the allele frequencies over time, operates on a population level Macroevolution- large scale evolutionary changes with long term changes in allele frequency, operates at species level and higher levels of taxonic variation Mutation- permanent change in an organisms DNA sequence, occurs randomly and can introduce new alleles to a population, can have a negative effect Genetic drift-the change in the allele frequencies in a population that occurs purely by chance events, tends to eliminate alleles from a population, lucky ones survive Population bottleneck-when the size of a population is greatly reduced followed by population recovery and some alleles may change or be eliminated Founder effect- when a small group of individuals leaves its home population and establishes a new isolated settlement Multiplication of species (speciation)- formation of a new species over a geological time, occurs when members of a population can no longer successfully interbreed, requires reproductive isolation Allopatric speciation- geographical separation from original population to another population, gene flow stops, Ex- rivers, islands or mountains Adaptive radition- population inhabiting a patchy or heterogeneous environment gives rise to multiple specialized forms in a short time Extinction- total disappearance of a species Mass extinction- large numbers of a species become extinct almost at the same time Ecology- study of relationships of organisms to their environment and other organisms Tolerance to environmental factors- not too high/ not too low, medium is optimum for species success Niche- organism’s unique way of life and relationship to other biotic and abiotic factors Population- group of same species in a defined living area Population with higher genetic diversity expected to experience short term success and enhanced opportunities for evolution -Types of survivorship curves- 1. High for most until they grow old and die, large animals and humans 2. Survivorship is independent of age, old and young die equally, many animals and birds 3. Young survivorship is low, fish bugs or plants -Age structure diagram http://intranet.tdmu.edu.ua/data/kafedra/internal/distance/classes_stud/English/1course/Medical%20statistics/10.%20Graphic%20representations%20in%20statistics.files/image049.jpg -Logistic and exponential growth curves http://biowiki.ucdavis.edu/@api/deki/files/2186/Figure_45_03_01.jpg?revision=1 Density dependent factors- influence of individuals in a population varies with degree of crowding in population, effects increase as the population grows: intraspecific competition, predation, parasitism and disease Density independent factors- effects the population more or less regardless of density, mainly abiotic or catastrophic events, Ex: fires, hurricanes etc. Community- group of individuals from different species Competition- when two or more species share the same resource •Niche overlap- when the portion of resources sheared by the niches of two or more species, competition eventually gets rid of the species less able to get the resource •Competitive exclusion- strong competing species cannot coexist •Character displacement- when differences among similar species whose territories overlap geographically are more prominent where the species co-exist, the similarities are lost when the territories don’t overlap Predation- uses other live organisms, or parts of other organisms as food -Cryptic coloration- matches background or environment -Mimicry (Batesian and Müllerian)- matches other organisms to attract prey or harmful species -Aposematic coloration-toxic animals have bright colors Parasitism-species acquires resources at the expense of a living host, can produce negative effect but in general it doesn’t kill the host Mutualism- interaction that improves the fitness of both organisms Keystone species- species that are vital to the community structure, when removed the structure collapses Ecosystem- includes all populations of organisms living in a certain community plus their physical environment Producers/Autotrophs- organisms that get energy and food from outside the ecosystem, plants and algae Consumers/Heterotrophs- organisms that survive by consuming tissue. Bugs, birds or other animals Decomposers/Heterotrophs- organisms that break down dead organic material. Fungi Abiotic- without life Biotic- relating to life Food web- interconnecting food chains showing the branching pathways of organisms through which energy is transferred throughout the ecosystem Unicellular or protoplasmic organization- simple eukaryotic organisms, Protoplasmic level or organism, performance of all basic functions within confines in a single cell Cellular- simplest, cells demonstrate the division of labor, Ex: sponges Cell-tissue- cells grouped together in layers forms a tissue, group of similar cells organized to perform a common function, Ex: jellyfish Tissue-organ-contain more than one kind of tissue, more specialized functions, Ex: flatworms, parasites Organ-system-when organs work together to perform some function, most complex, Ex: frogs, crabs Symmetry- balanced proportions in shape, size of parts on opposite side of a median plane Asymmetry- no real line of symmetry Radial symmetry- any plane passing through the organism through the oral (mouth) – aboral (opposite end of the mouth) axis that divides the animal into mirror images Spherical symmetry- symmetry of circular objects Bilaterial symmetry and sagittal plane- one plane of symmetry (sagittal) divides the body into two mirrored portions Cephalization- evolutionary process in which specialization, mainly the sensory organs, become localized in the head Implications of each type of symmetry Radial- low mobility, confronts environment from all sides, less complex Bilateral- high mobility, anterior end confronts environment first, differentiation of dorsal and ventral regions Cleavage- orderly sequence of cell divisions where the zygote divides into more and more cells Zygote- a fertilized egg Blastula- early stage of embryo, consists of hallow mass of cells Gastrula- 2 layered stage with ectoderm and endoderm, ectoderm surrounds the blastocoel and endoderm surrounds the gastrocoel Diploblastic- 2 layered cell, ectoderm and endoderm Triploblastic- three layered cell, ectoderm (external layer), mesoderm (supportive, contractile and blood cells), endoderm (lines the gut) Triploblastic acoelomate- the mesoderm forms a solid mass of cells, just the gut, Ex: flatworms Triploblastic pseudocoelomate- body cavity not entirely lined with mesoderm, empty space between mesoderm and gut Triploblastic coelomate- body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm, most common Coelom and its implications- fluid filled cavity between the outer body wall and inner gut, is different from pseudocoelom which only has the outer cavity lined with the mesoderm Protostome- formation of the mouth from the embryonic blastopore, anus forms secondarily Deuterostome- blastopore becomes the anus, mouth formed second by another opening in the embryo Taxonomy-study of the principles of systematic ordering and naming organisms Binomial nomenclature: Genus species- first word of the name (genus) second word is the species Taxonomy and hierarchical categories or ranks- Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Systematics- science of taxonomy and reconstruction of phylogeny Evolutionary species concept- single lineage of ancestral-descent populations that maintain its own identity, evolutionary tendencies and fate Phylogenetic species concept- group of organisms with distinct characteristic differences but have the same ancestor Homology- the similarity of parts or organs of different organisms caused by evolutionary separation from the corresponding part or organ from a common ancestor, usually has similar embryonic origin Homoplasy- phenotypic similarities in characteristics of different species or populations, produced by evolutionary parallelism, convergence and or reversal Cladogram- diagram that shows the evolutionary history of taxa Character- attribute or feature that indicates relatedness, useful for studying variation among or within species Synapomorphy- new characteristic that has risen in a specific group since it split from its common ancestor Monophyletic group-includes a single ancestral species as well as all the descendants Polyphyletic group- a group of compromising species that arose from two or more different immediate ancestors Paraphyletic group- group that includes some but not all the members of a lineage Kingdoms- classification of an organism as either plant or animal Domains- informal taxonomic rank about the Linnean kingdom
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