PYSC 201 Exam 1 Study Guide
PYSC 201 Exam 1 Study Guide PYSC 201
U of L
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sunni Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PYSC 201 at University of Louisville taught by Ross in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Pyschology in Psychlogy at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
EXAM #1 REVIEW GUIDE Chapter 1 Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychologists explore relationship between mental activity and the brain Connection between mind & body Wilhelm Wundt Founding father of psychology Published book Principle of Physiological Psychology 1874 First psychology lab in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany *birthdate of psychology* Edward Titchner Student of Wundt Structuralism – early school of psychology (way of thinking) that emphasized study of basic structures of conscious experiences First major school of thought Used Introspection – technique where subjects would view an item then describe it in basic terms trying to create a description of their conscious experienced of the item 3 Critiques/criticisms – explanations as to why structuralism died with Titchner 1. Introspection was unreliable 2. Introspection could not be used on children or animals 3. Introspection was not applicable to complex topics like learning, mental disorders, personality, etc. William James American psychologist Influenced by Charles Darwin Wrote Principles of Psychology Functionalism – early school of psychology that emphasized studying the purpose or function of behavior & our mental processes How we adapt to our environments Opposed structuralism His students: G. Stanley Hall – 1 PhD in psychology in US (1878); 1 lab in US (1883); founded American Psychological Association (APA) in 1892 Mary Whiton Calkins – Harvard refused to grant her PhD because she was a woman Margaret Floy Washburn – Titchners 1 PhD student at Cornell; published The Animal Mind (1908); First woman to receive a PhD in psychology Francis C. Sumner – 1 African American to receive PhD in psychology in US (1920) 1 Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis –theory that emphasizes the role of unconscious in determining personality and behavior Study of unconscious – his main focus Believed we go glimpses into unconscious with dreams, memory blocks, slips of the tongue Loved cocaine John B. Watson Established behaviorism in 1913: behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable behaviors only Wanted to discover the fundamental principles of learning Other behaviorists: Ivan Pavlov & BF Skinner Carl Rogers Founder of humanistic psychology: emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction (being in charge of your own life) Other humanist: Abraham Maslow Perspectives in Psychology o Biological perspective Neuroscience Studying the physical bases of human & animal behavior o Psychodynamic perspective Influenced by Freud Unconscious, early life experiences & relationships are important o Behavioral perspective Focus on observable behaviors & how learning occurs o Humanistic perspective Motivation for personal growth, development of relationships & the importance of choice o Positive Psychology Perspective Study of positive emotions, traits & what causes them o Cognitive Perspective How people process & remember information, language, problems & thoughts o Cross-cultural Perspective Studies cultural influences on behavior – ex. Crying baby o Evolutionary Perspective Influenced by Charles Darwin How evolutionary process can explain psychological processes & phenomena Specialty Areas in Psychology (all things psychologists identify as) Biological psychology – uses neuroscience to look at relationship between psychological processes and the body’s physical systems (mind & body connection) 2 Clinical psychology – evaluate & diagnose psychological disorders; look at causes, diagnosis, treatment & prevention of them Cognitive psychology – looks at mental processes like thinking, learning, language, memory Counseling psychology – helps people deal with problems (relationship, work, education, etc.) Educational psychology – studies how people learn and ways to help people learn Experimental psychology – do research on sensory & perception, emotions, motivations, etc. (broad category) Developmental psychology – studies changes over the lifespan from birth to death Forensic psychology – uses psychology to inform on legal issues like assessment, treatment, jury selection, eyewitness testimony Health psychology – looks at relationship between physical and psychological health and how to prevent/treat mental illness Industrial/organizational psychology – looks at issues in the workplace like productivity, leadership, group behavior, etc. Personality psychology – studies personality and how everyone is unique Rehabilitation psychology – using psychology to help people with chronic or disabling health conditions Social psychology – looks at effect of environment (other people) on your behavior Sports psychology – uses psychology to increase athletic motivation & performance Differences between a psychologist & a psychiatrist Psychiatrist – has Medical Degree (M.D.); looks at physical effects of mental disorders (shaking, hallucinations, lethargy) and uses physical treatments (drugs, shock-therapy, surgery) Psychologist – uses therapies to treat or manage mental disorders and to work on changing maladaptive (undesired) behaviors 4 goals of psychology: describe, explain, predict and control/influence Scientific Method Assumptions: events are lawful; events are explainable; researchers need to be open-minded; researchers need to have a healthy sense of skepticism; researchers need to be cautious Based on empirical evidence 4 steps of scientific method: 1. Form a hypothesis Includes variables Should have an operational definition for each variable 2. Design the study – methodology 2 types: descriptive & experimental (best method) Descriptive methods: naturalistic observation, surveys, case studies, correlational studies 3. Analyze data 3 Use statistics Statistical significance – not likely to have occurred by chance 4. Report findings Include all details of study so that it can be replicated Psychologists build theories from research findings of many studies Must be careful of pseudoscience – not based on empirical evidence Descriptive Methods naturalistic observation – watching & observing subjects case studies – in-depth investigation of 1 individual or a very small number of people within a social unit surveys – need a representative sample acquired through random selection correlational study – examine the relationship between 2 or more variables Correlations DO NOT prove causation Correlation coefficient: between -1.0 and 1.0, can be positive or negative Positive correlation – the 2 factors vary in the same direction Negative correlation – the 2 factors vary in different directions Experimental Method Independent variable & dependent variable Control for extraneous variables Experimental group – given the independent variable Control group – given a placebo in place of the independent variable Groups assigned by random assignment Double-blind technique – both the subjects AND the researchers are unaware what group they are assigned to, which increases reliability Ethics 5 key points in APA ethical principles: 1. Informed consent & voluntary provision – must be given 2. Students as research participants – if research participation is required for a class, an alternative must be given 3. The use of deception – must meet 2 criteria 4. All information must be confidential 5. Subjects must be provided with information about the study & access to results if wanted Chapter 6 Memory 3 fundamental processes: 1. Encoding – transforming information into a form that can be retained in memory system 2. Storage – retaining information so it can be recalled later 4 3. Retrieval – recovering stored information so we can consciously be aware of it Stage Model of Memory Sensory Memory Short-Term (Working) Memory Long-Term Memory 1. Sensory memory – a lot of environmental information held for a brief period (0.25 to 3 seconds); large capacity George Sperling (1960) – experiment on sensory memory; found that our visual sensory memory can hold a great deal of information but only for about 0.5 seconds. 2 types of sensory memory: 1. Visual sensory memory – also known as iconic memory; brief memory of image; 0.25 to 0.50 second duration in memory 2. Auditory sensory memory – also known as echoic memory; brief memory of sound; 3 to 4 seconds duration in memory Information in the sensory memory overlaps so we perceive our environment as continuous rather than a series of images. Information is transferred from sensory memory to short-term memory by paying attention 2. Short-term memory – also called the working memory; information stored for up to 20 seconds; information is actively processed in short-term memory (information must be here for us to consciously think about it); information that is encoded in short-term memory gets transferred to long-term memory Working memory – the active, conscious manipulation of temporarily stored information Capacity of short-term memory is 7+/-2 items (between 5-9 items); short-term memory has a limited number of “mental slots” for information Chunking – grouping related items together as a single item to remember them; increases the amount of information you can hold in your short-term memory Many automatically chunk information to remember it Maintenance rehearsal – repetition of information on order for it to remain in the short- term memory beyond the usual 20 second duration Information not actively rehearsed is rapidly lost Lost information can be due to decay (information fades away overtime) or interference (from new or competing information) Elaborate rehearsal – focusing on the meaning of information to encode & transfer it to long-term memory More effective than maintenance rehearsal 5 Do more than just repeat the information, you elaborate on what it is, make connections to it; use the self-reference effect by relating the information to yourself You can also use visual imagery – picturing the information helps encoding Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory – 3 components: 1. Phonological Loop – for verbal information (ex: lists of numbers) 2. Visuospatial Sketchpad – for spatial/visual information (ex: layout of your house) 3. Central Executive – controls attention, integrates information & manages the other 2 components 3. Long-term memory – long-term storage of information (potentially forever); if we want to remember something or think about it, that information moves from the long- term memory to the short-term memory 3 categories of information in long-term memory: 1. Procedural memory – memories of different skills, operations, actions ~ how to do things 2. Episodic memory – memories of specific events; autobiographical memory – events specific of your own life 3. Semantic memory – general knowledge ~ facts, names, definitions, concepts, ideas; like trivia you have learned 2 subsystems of long-term memory: Explicit memory (declarative memory) – memory with awareness; information that is consciously remembered; what you are thinking about o Includes episodic and semantic categories of memory Implicit memory (non-declarative memory) – memory without awareness; information that is not consciously remembered but still impact your knowledge or behavior (ex: typing on a keyboard, knowing the days of the week, blinking) o Includes procedural memory Information in long-term memory is clustered & associated Clustering – organizing information into related groups during recall Semantic Network Model When a concept is “activated” (thought about), it can activate other associated areas in the memory associations can activate other concepts in the long-term memory Retrieval The process of accessing stored information Use retrieval cues to retrieve stored memories Retrieval cues – a clue, prompt or hunt that helps to trigger the recall of a stored memory Retrieval cue failure – the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate/missing retrieval cues 6 Tip-of-the-Tongue Experience – inability to get out a bit of information you are certain you know (when you can’t recall something you are 100% sure you know); information feels just out of reach; typically occur about once per week; can usually remember information later Recall – producing information without use of retrieval cues Cued recall – remembering information in response to a retrieval cue Recognition – identifying the correct information from several different choices (ex: multiple-choice test) Serial Position Effect The tendency to remember information more easily from the beginning and the end of a list rather than the middle o Primacy Effect – tendency to recall first items on a list o Recency Effect – tendency to recall final items on a list (most recently heard/read) Encoding Specificity Principle Also known as the context effect When the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding (try to replicate the same environment you learned something so you can remember it) The environmental cues in a particular context can become encoded as part of the unique memories you form while in that context Mood congruence – a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood (if you are sad, you are more likely to remember more sad memories versus happy ones) Flashbulb Memories – the recall of very specific details or images surrounding a significant, rare or vivid event; we are more confident in our ability to remember these things accurately; they are actually no more accurate than our “normal” memories Elizabeth Loftus Research on false memories & eye-witness testimony The Misinformation Effect (1974) Participants watched a video of car accident, wrote a description of what they saw & then answered a series of questions about it; they were asked “how fast the car was going when they ‘contacted’ each other; speed estimates varied based on the word subbed for contacted (bumped, collided, smashed); the more severe the word, the higher the speed estimate. A week later, they were asked questions about the car accident again – they were asked if they saw any broken glass. Although there was none in the video, those participants who were exposed to the more severe words the first time around were more likely to report seeing broken glass. ~new information (the word 7 smashed) distorted the reconstruction of the memory (remembering broken glass). This is known as the misinformation effect. Source Confusion – when the true source of the memory is forgotten or when a memory is attributed to the wrong source False Memory – a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually happen Schemas – mental representations; organized clusters of knowledge and information about particular topics (topics can be objects, settings, concepts, etc.); useful in organizing & forming new memories; their existence allow you to easily integrate new experiences into your knowledge base Schema distortion – false or distorted memories caused by the tendency to fill in missing memory details with information that is consistent with existing knowledge about the topic Script – a type of schema that involves the typical sequence of actions and behaviors at a common event (like going to class at UofL) Psychology Professor’s Office (1981) Students mistakenly remembered objects being in the psychology professor’s office they were briefly waiting in that were not actually there but were consistent with their schema (mental representation) of a professor’s office. They remembered seeing file cabinets, a telephone, books, etc. that were not actually there but were things you would expect to see in a professor’s office ~ schemas can contribution memory distortions; also, items that are inconsistent with your schema of something stand out (ex: if there were balloons in the professor’s office). Remembering Being Lost in the Mall (1995) Participants created false memories of being lost in the mall when they were children (and being confident that it did happen to them) though the event definitely did not happen to them. They imagined the past as different from what it actually was and then that changed the way they remembered it. Imagination Inflation – vividly imagining an event increases confidence that the event actually occurred in childhood ~ what happened in the “remembering being lost in the mall” experiment. False Familiarity- increased feelings of familiarity due to repeatedly imagining an event Suggestion – hypnosis, guided imagery, or other highly suggestive techniques that can inadvertently or intentionally create vivid false memories 8
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