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Turf Mgmt. Exam 2 Study Material

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by: x Notetaker

Turf Mgmt. Exam 2 Study Material PSS 2113

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About this Document

Cover Majority of exam 2
Intro. Turfgrass Mgmt
Christian Baldwin
Study Guide
Plant and Soil Sciences
50 ?




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"Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this..."
Ms. Hettie Larkin

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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by x Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSS 2113 at Mississippi State University taught by Christian Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Intro. Turfgrass Mgmt in Botany at Mississippi State University.


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-Ms. Hettie Larkin


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Date Created: 01/31/16
10 – Soil Chemistry Essential Elements: ­Plant life cycle ­ Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen ­ 17 essential element ; 3 organic Mineral Nutrients  Primary: N,P,K Secondary:Ca, Mg, S Micronutrients: consists of the group of primary and secondary  minerals. Force of transpiration: ­ transpiration­ is the process of water movement through a plant  and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and  flowers. Nutrient Availability (Soil conditions)  ­Soil pH­ Measure of hydrogen ions in the soil ­Why is soil acidity problematic for turfgrasses?  Mn, H become  available and are soluable and toxic. How increase soil pH?  Apply ammonium sulfate and elemental sulfur Why is soil alkalinity problematic for turfgrasses?  How decrease soil pH? Apply lime. ­CEC­ is the capacity of a soil for ion exchange of cations between the soil and soil solution Characteristics of soil with a high and low CEC? ­ LOW CEC: Low water holding capacity, nutrient leaching ­ HIGH CEC: Higher water holding capacity, greater capacity to  retain nutrients ­Salinity­ Na+(sodium)­ is the salt content in the soil. ­ deflocculation­ sodium has a much higher hydrated radius so  when you introduce sodium into soil it will displace calcium  breaking them apart. How to improved salted soils?  Add tile drainage or add organic  matter to improve soil porosity. 12­Soil Testing What is the goal of a soil test? The goal of soil testing is to provide information on the soil properties that are present in a given location or planting area. Provide a soil that is chemically beneficial to plant rooting and  nutrient uptake while minimizing excess nutrient that may damage  the surrounding environment Components of a soil test: Mineral, Water, Organic matter, Gases, Microorganisms. How do you take a soil sample?  from each like area take 15­20 soil  cores, don't sample more than 40 acres at a time 13­Tissue Testing Tissue testing is a process to analyze various nutrient  concentrations of plant samples collected at a specific time during  the growing season. Soil vs. Tissue testing­ NOTES Tissue testing­  Not only can plant tissue testing be used to monitor the  nutrient status of plants but it can help identify nutrient deficiencies and  imbalances.  Secondary nutrients and micronutrients that may not be routinely measured in soils... may be reliably measured in plants.   Place samples in un­lined paper bags to allow moisture to evaporate and reduce  possibility of sample decomposition.  SOIL TEST ARE NOT AS RELIABLE. Essential components of a tissue test.­ Sufficiency levels­ Factors impacting tissue testing results ­Plant nutrient concentrations are affected by plant age, plant part and sometimes by variety even in a healthy plant. These influences must be taken into consideration. And also plants contain different amounts of nutrients. 14­Seeding Turfgrass Selection Seed mixture vs. seed blend ­ Seed Mixtures contains more than one type of grass. Mixtures provide a more balanced combination of plants, each having unique strengths that offset the vulnerabilities of the others. ­ Seed Blend­ contains only one type of grass ­      seed blend­ 2 or more cultivars within a species (KBG 50%, Turf      50%) ­ Timing of establishment ­ C4­ (Mid­May­ Mid­july) ­C3­ (Sept.­ Oct.) ­Site Preparation­ Herbicide, debris removal, soil  cultivation/tilling, Rough grade, fine grading, Starter fertilizer,  actually seed, roll, H2O ­Hydroseeding­ H20, seed, shredded newspaper (mulch)  ­ADV.­ quick Disadv.­ expensive, lot H20, seed: soil contact ­“Blue­Tag”­ Is on the bag­ certified seed guaranteeing the “genetic” purity  of a variety. ­Pure Live seed: % of actual seed you are buying 16 – St. Augustinegrass Stenotaphrum secundatum) Primary uses ­lawns, gulf coast Adaptation and Limitations: ­Limitations­ low traffic, lots of thatch leading to insects and disease.  Susceptible to iron deficiencies. ­Adaptations­  shade tolerant, salt tolerant Available cultivars and establishment:  Cultivars: Floratum=S.A.D. resistance ­ Raleigh= cold tolerance ­ Palmetto=semi­dwarf Establishment: Plugging, sodding,sprigging SAD­ (St. Augustine Grass Decline) ­disease spreads via dew.  ­Overall yellowing of leaf tissue, Iron deficiency look alike 17­Fumigation, Sprig, Plug, Sod Fumigation- sterilizes the soil. (6-10 inches) Methyl Bromide Sprigging- typically a stolon/rhizome mostly stolon’s. You will lose them easier than when plugging. Plugging- planting mature turf plugs into soil Sodding- “Instant turf” 18 – Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) Bermudagrass vs. Seashore Paspalum  ­ Sea­Shore Paspalum­ often confused w/ Bermuda grass ­ salt­tolerance Bermuda not Adaptation and Limitations adaptations: ­susceptible to diseases                     ­low N­input                     ­Good quality water                      ­ increased shade tolerance                     ­ waxy/shiny leaf blade ­you can plant some cultivars on a whole golf course ­SeaSpray­ only seeded cultivar in the industry Turfgrass Fertility ­Macronutrients­ Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium  1. Nitrogen­ most frequently deficient nutrient, wont see in soil test most leaves turn yellow Role in the plant­ color. Chlorosis­ yellowing Deficiency symptoms: High Nitrogen                                       Low Nitrogen ­high density                                           ­low density ­Excessive top growth 2. Phosphorus­ second most frequently deficient(immobile in  soil)        Role in the plant­ Root Growth establishment Deficiency symptoms:                    ­ mobile in turf grass but immobile in  soil.                     Reddish/purplish of older leaves  Potassium-optimizes plant ph for proper enzyme reaction. Regulates opening and closing of stomates -Deficiency symptoms- mobile in turfgrasses and soils, interveinal  yellowing on older leaves, rolling/burning of leaf tip, immune system  of plants  Calcium- cell wall thickness and strength. -Deficiency problems- immobile in turgrasses and soils,  young leaves turn to reddish brown  Magnesium - Role in plant - Chlorophyll formation - Light-absorbing green pigment - Capture's the energy of sunlight and turns it into chemical energy - Deficiency Symptoms  mobile in turfgrasses and soils, red leaf margins and striped  chlorosis, and interveinal chlorosis - Sulfur -Role in plant- helps form important enzymes and assists in the formation of plant proteins. -Deficiency Symptoms- mobile in turfgrasses and soils,  yellowing of older leaves - Manganese -Role in plant- is not a part of Chlorophyll. Part of chloroplast formation, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and synthesis of some enzymes. -Deficiency symptoms- leaves become yellow but is less mobile in plant that magnesium they appear first on young leaves. Fertilizer Costs Analysis Problem 1 What is the cost per pound of N for a 50­lb bag of urea (46­0­0)  that costs $16.99? $16.99 x 1LB. of fert / 50lb. bag / .46 lb N = $.74 N per pound Problem 2 Two fertilizers are available for purchase at Lowe’s. Which  fertilizer is the best buy according to its price per pound of  nitrogen? Fertilizer 1: Turf Builder (48lb bag of 29­3­4, costs $27.50) $1.97 per pound N Fertilizer 2: Lowe’s Lawn (46lb bag of 29­3­4, costs $19.50) $1.46 per pound N Problem 3 Three commercial N fertilizers are available for applying N to your roughs: Fert A: 10­10­10 Fert B: 12­4­8 Fert C: 18­9­18 $155/ton $195/ton $265/ton Find the price in dollars per pound for each fertilizer and select the  best purchase. (1 ton = 2,000 lbs) Problem 4 A 50­lb bag of 22­0­22 fertilizer costs $28, whereas a 40­lb bag of  20­0­20 costs$18.99. Assuming both fertilizers meet your need,  which is the better buy based on N content? Problem 5 A ton of 20­4­10 fertilizer plus micronutrients costs $899. What is  the cost per lb N? (1 ton = 2,000 lbs) Problem 6 What is the cost per pound of N, P, K for a ton (2,000 lbs) of an  18­5­9 fertilizer that sells for $216/ton?


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