New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Turf Mgmt. Exam 1 Study Material

by: x Notetaker

Turf Mgmt. Exam 1 Study Material PSS 2113

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Botany > PSS 2113 > Turf Mgmt Exam 1 Study Material
x Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Guide for test 1
Intro. Turfgrass Mgmt
Christian Baldwin
Study Guide
Plant & Soil Sciences
50 ?




Popular in Intro. Turfgrass Mgmt

Popular in Botany

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by x Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSS 2113 at Mississippi State University taught by Christian Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro. Turfgrass Mgmt in Botany at Mississippi State University.


Reviews for Turf Mgmt. Exam 1 Study Material


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/31/16
Important dates ­­Invention of the mower –(1830) by­ Edwin Budding ­­Golf course pioneer – (1821­1908)­ Old Tom Morris ­­Turfgrass industry facts    Golf courses – 15,000   Sports fields – 775,000   US home lawns – 80,000,000 ­­Turfgrass Industry­ consists of many diverse groups including millions of  homeowners, athletic field managers, lawn care operators, golf course superintendents,  architects, developers and owners, landscape designers and contractors, seed and sod  producers, parks and grounds superintendents, roadside and vegetation managers and  cemetery managers ­­Why are turfgrasses so popular? –  ­ Prevents erosion ­ Improved fertilizers ­ Cultivar selection for better growth in areas ­ Improved equipment for maintenance ­­Turfgrasses vs. Turf vs. Sod? – ­ Seed vs. Sod­The most important difference between seeding and sodding is the time  necessary for developing  a mature or durable turf. Sodding is essentially transplanting a  mature turf that has been cared for by a professional. Seeding involves the same process  used in the establishment of sod and can be accomplished by a professional or the  homeowner. ­ Sod or    turf­ is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a  piece of thin material. ­ Turfgrasses ­control water and wind erosion of soil. ­­Turfgrass plant    Leaves –the texture of turfgrass is determined by the width of these ­ A grass leaf is divided into three parts: the blade, sheath, and collar region ­ Leaf sheath­ where the leaf bud emerges ­ Collar­ is located the smooth layer on the backside of the leaf where the blade  and the leaf sheath meet.       ­ Blade­ is long and narrow and grows more or less horizontally away from the main   shoot. ­ Tiller­ is a stem produced by grass plants, and refers to all shoots that grow  after the initial parent shoot grows from a seed. ­ Roots­ are fibrous, branching, and very slender. There are two types of root systems in  grasses, the primary and the secondary. ­  Stolon grow above­ground and form nodes which give rise to new plants. ­ Rhizome ­ grow below ground for a short distance, then rise to the soil surface to form  new shoots. ­ Crown ­ is very small (just a fraction of an inch long), white, and completely enclosed  by leaf sheaths. The crown is located in a protected position between the roots and shoot  near the soil surface.        Growth habits of turfgrasses : ­ 1) Stoloniferous (above) ­ 2) Rhizomateous (below) ­ 3) Bunch (vertical) ­ Golf Course Industry­  ­ 1) Greens ­ 2) Tee Box ­ 3) Fairway ­ 4) Rough ­ 5) Approach Utility turf – (MAIN FUNCTION IS TO PREVENT SOIL EROSION)A turf  sustained at a low intensity of culture for the purposes of soil stabilization, transpirational cooling, and absorption of atmospheric pollutants #2 Introduction to Turfgrasses  Potential Environmental Benefits of Turfgrasses  Turfgrass Classification:  ­    Family­ Proaceae ­    Subfamily ­    Tribe ­    Genera ­    Species ­    Subspecies ­    Variety  ­ ­‘Midnight’ Kentucky bluegrass­ is a cool­season species and  important  facultative apomictic temperate perennial grass species used for both forage and  cultivated turf. Through apomixis, this species is able to propagate diverse and  odd ploidy levels, resulting in many genetically distinct phenotypes. ­ Long winter dormancy;late spring green up ­ Very dark green ­ Good heat tolerance  ­ A wide range of diverse cultivars and accessions of Kentucky bluegrass have been previously characterized based on : 1) pedigree                                                          2) common turf performance                                                          3) morphological characteristics Turfgrass Growth and Development   Turfgrass Morphology     Ligule­ absent, hairy, short, toothed, smooth   Leaf sheath – where the leaf bud emerges   Leaf blade ­ photosynthesis   Vernation – either folded or rolled   Collar – blade + sheet meet   Auricle – wraps around stem (absent, clasping, short)   Flowering culm – elongated stem, ends veg. growth   Inflorescence­ seedhead #3 Centipedegrass ­Centipedegrass  Adaptation – is best adapted to sandy, acid soils where annual  rainfall is in excess of 40 inches(ACIDIC)(5­6 PH) (POOR PERSONS GRASS) ­Primary use­  ­ 1) cover lawns ­ 2) golf course roughs ­ 3) parks ­ 4) Reclamation areas ­ 5) ideal for commercial, low impact areas requiring less maintenance ­Establishment Methods Of  Centipedegrass ­  ­ Requires full sun or high pine shade ­ Medium shade tolerance ­ Drought Tolerant ­ Planted as seed, plugs, and not often sprigs ­ even distribution is hard cause the seed are small    ­Cultural Inputs of Centipedegrass­  ­ Minimal inputs ­Primary morphological identifiable characteristic ­ Small Ligule(little bit of hair around collar) ­ Cultivars – ‘Tifblair’ ­Centipedegrass  Decline­   ­ Spring green­up doesn’t occur 3 things lead to centipedegrass decline: ­ Nutrition­ light green color, high nitrogen ­ Thatch­winter injury ­ Water­ little as you can #4 Turfgrass Quality What is Turfgrass Quality ? – ­ Color­ (1­9 scale) 7 is “acceptable” ­ Uniformity ­ Texture­ (blade thickness) ­ Density­ shoots per square inch ­ Smoothness Stepmeter – measures the green speeds Technology­  ­ (RVI) Ratio Vegatative Index­ measures the near infrared and far red light ­ Digital Image Analysis­ box w/ light bulbs and camera in it #5 Bahiagrass   Adaptation:  ­ Can survive periods of drought ­ Low input ­ Less insects ­ Can require mowing every 5 to 7 days  ­ Takes 3­4 months to produce quality sod ­ Withstands traffic wear ­ Responds well to nitrogen making DARK GREEN COLOR  Primary use­  ­ Pastures ­ Lawns ­ Roadsides ­ Good for the south cause low insect Cultural Inputs – low input Identifiable characteristic­ “Y­shaped” seedhead #6 – Turfgrass Physiology  Z­Scheme (Light reactions) 7 ­ Soils Soils overview  Basic components of soil – Sand, silt, clay Soil properties: ­ Texture  ­   Coarse vs. Fine texture  ­   Soil Textural Triangle Structure­ ­   Which is more likely to change: soil texture or structure? ­  ­   Is sandy soil considered structure­less? yes  ­   Aggregates vs. Granular Soil Density       Aggregates­ individual particles that are held together      Granular soil density­ rounded aggregates, loose fitting ­   Bulk density­ measures soil compaction (2= compaction)1.65 good ­   Clayey soils: High or low bulk density? High ­   Factors impacting bulk density­ soil texture, organic matter content 8 – Soil Modification  Soil modification ­   Complete vs. Partial­ Complete­   ­ Golf course/sports fields  ­ 80% sand  ­ low compaction   ­ high water movement Partial ­    goal= improve soil structure ­    limited budget ­ Inorganic sources­  ­ Organic sources­ clipping, peat, manure, compost ­ Surface vs. subsurface drainage     Surface Drainage­crown= 2­3% slope, Buildings­ 1% slope  Sub­surface­ Herringbone patter 6’’ drop/100ft. ­ USGA Spec. vs California style construction ­ USGA­                            ­85% Sand                           ­15% Peat                           ­gravel then draintile                       ­Perched water table­ interface btw a fine and a course texture ­ California Style Construction­              ­ 100% Sand(cheaper) growing= difficult Native soil vs. modified soil vs. sand­based    Advantages and disadvantages #9 Zoysiagrass ­Two commonly planted species –      ­Japanese Lawngrass (zoysia japonica)­ courser texture, meyer zoysia grass     ­Manilagrass (zoysia matrella)­finer texture ­Adaptation and use –     ­golf courses= high budget     ­ homelawn= shade tolerant ­Mowing challenges – frequent, scalping ­Establishment – seed (slow germination) , Sprigs (full growing season) , Sod ­Cultural Intensity­   ­Cold tolerant   ­drought(fair­moderate)   ­High Density   ­Fertility low Identifiable characteristic   ­Rhizomes=tough   ­Right angle branching    ­Small ligule long hair 11 –Buffalograss ­Environmentally friendly turfgrass? ­ YES ­Origins and history –    ­Mexico/Canadian border   ­Native to great plains ­Primary uses – range grazing ­Cultural Inputs­    ­cold tolerant   ­drought tolerant   ­very slow grower 13 –Carpetgrass ­Primary uses –   ­stopping erosion  ­ cover crop ­Cultural Inputs – none ­How to identify­ ­ ­creeping ­ stoloniferous ­ perennial warm  ­Available cultivars -The two types of carpetgrass are broadleaf carpetgrass (Axonopus  compressus) and narrowleaf carpetgrass (A. affinis). Narrowleaf  carpetgrass is the type most often used in lawns and the seeds are readily  available.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.