Exam 1 Study Guide- Feminist Art History (Dr. Natalie Phillips)
Exam 1 Study Guide- Feminist Art History (Dr. Natalie Phillips) AHS 265-1
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by kmschemmel on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AHS 265-1 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Natalie Phillips in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Feminist Art History in Art at Ball State University.
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Feminist Art History: Terms People Artwork Readings WEEK 1 Wed. Jan 13 Introduction: - Defining what term feminist even mean? - The Feminist Movement o The First Wave (late 19 century): earning the right to vote o Second Wave (1960s and 1970s): about equal rights, sexual liberation o Third Wave (1990s-present): takes ideas from second wave and makes them more complex and sophisticated o Post-Feminism? Now? : Would mean an age where gender no longer matters (some think this is true but more think it is not yet true) - Feminist Art History: o Mary Garrard o Norma Broude o Their writing are very important and ground-breaking - The Feminist Approach is: o “Predicted on the idea that gender is an essential element in understanding the creation, content and evaluation of art” (gender matters when evaluating a work of art) - Feminist Approach (works of art): o 1. Feminist interpretations (of that work of art) Ex. Menkaure and Khamerenebty, 2490BC: the way the gestures between are interpreted is that the male has the power due to the hand gestures but feminist believe that the women has the power due to her hands gestures in front of the man) o “History” vs. “Herstory” Women were successful but due to the prejudice during that time they were written out of the history Sofonisba Anguissola: Michelangelo loved her work and helped teach her; but most have not heard of her due to be written out of history o Limitations on women artists Ex. Rachael Ruysch, baroque still-life artist: did still- life’s due to limitations put upon them as an artist. Therefore she was limited on how much fame she has had due to the subject they are allowed to paint, etc. o How women are represented: Women were nude, sexualized/objectified, and juxified to appreciate the female body Men were represented as subjectified and as a human rather than just an object, were dressed, etc. Linda Nochlin, Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? 1971 (reading) - Written in 1971 (second wave feminist movement) - She was an art historian teaching art history just to women. - Title: purposely provocative, takes as its premise that there are great artist, like a slap in the face but if you break it down: o Great artist: Pablo Picasso, Leonardo Da Vinci, jack Pollock, etc. hence they are all men, in addition usually white American or European men o She is saying that they are no great artist that women at all period. She determines great artist based on influence, etc. o In the filed of art history, the white western ….man does prove inadequate. (Quote) o Main points; Women throughout art history were: Education: women lack to access to it, Were denied access to art institutions Were objects of study rather than a studiers themselves Denied access to important art exhibitions Big one back then was “The Salon” a big thing back then, if you didn’t get in then you weren’t an artist Denied access to the study of the male nude The most valued was history painting (mythology and religion), then landscapes, animal paintings, portraits, and finally still life’s. This caused them to not be able to go to big patrons because of their lack of wide variety of subjects Limited to only the “minor” arts (craft vs. fine art) Ex. Textiles/tapestry, ceramics, (not as valued) Therefore pushed into the margins of art history Rare Exceptions? Some women were able to succeed They were related to or had a close relationship to some male artist, which enabled them to get education from them and teach them how to make great art o Ex. Rosa Bonheur (didn’t have close relative artist but her farther believed in a certain religion where he believed the second messiah would be a women- valued women and placed them above men- which enabled her to reach success) o It is not that the women were not capable of greatness but they were limited and restricted from achieving this greatness. WEEK 2 Where we left of from Week 1: Rare Exceptions? Some women were able to succeed They were related to or had a close relationship to some male artist, which enabled them to get education from them and teach them how to make great art o Ex. Rosa Bonheur (didn’t have close relative artist but her farther believed in a certain religion where he believed the second messiah would be a women- valued women and placed them above men- which enabled her to reach success) o It is not that the women were not capable of greatness but they were limited and restricted from achieving this greatness. Mon. no class Wed. Jan 20. Overview of group work: Feminist - Positive: o Main point is to fight for equality no matter what gender and peoples rights, o Strong and independent - Negative: o Some relate them to negative terms such as Feminazi, Feminist Bitch, sometimes thought to be lesbians o Strong and independent Overview of last weeks article about Privilege - Privilege: certain individuals, genders, or societies, etc. may have access to something that others may not have. o Ex. White privilege: Male privilege o It is important to understand and know the privilege you have and to take into consideration on how that can affect or make others feel o Saying, “check your privilege” is not an insult but rather informing you to take into consideration how it affects someone else from a different perspective other than your own. Paleolithic Period: Ancient Matriarchies - Approx. 25,000-5,000 BC - Earliest civilizations of man (cave-man era) - Matriarchy vs. Patriarchy: o We largely live in a patriarchy but in one point in human civilization that we called matriarchy, where women have the power and the authority over the culture (not an equal society). Queens, goddess, etc. and women were the most important “material” o Patriarchy is not the first major order; Matriarchy came first. o During this time, women seemed to have a privileged position (goddesses, fertility, etc.) over man, so considered a Matriarchy time - The culture was known as a NOMADS (nomadic culture) o They moved around a lot due to having to hunt/capture their food o There is no monumental art at this point in time due to having to move a lot; so the art was small art (pocket size) and in some cases they did cave paintings - Women of Willendorf (24,000 BC) o Later on they changed it to Venus of Willendorf o It is only 3.5 inches tall o She was meant as a good luck “charm” o Carved on all four sides and is made from a stone. The artist worked with the natural quality of the stone, for example the stone women’s’ belly button was due to a hole in the stone o She was known to be a fertility figure. o Fertility figure/goddess: all have common features. Emphasis on genatalia, breast, hips Deemphasized face (not important for reproduction), tiny arms Sympathetic Magic: Primitive or magical ritual using objects or actions resembling or symbolically associated with the event or person over which influence is sought. If you carry around this sculpture (Women of Willendorf) some of her over abundance of fertility will rub off on you - Woman of Laussel (25,000 BC) o She was non-portable. She was a cave carving. o She was a fertility figure: exaggerated breasts, hips and genital; lack of a face, and is carrying a crescent shaped object (“crescent moon”) with 13 marks on it- related to the 13 cycles of the moon, along with the cycles of fertility. - Cave Paintings at Lascaux, France (16,000-14,000 BC or BCE) o Very important, not just for decoration. o Fairly simple drawings, but a lot more sophisticated than first thought to be. Made with homemade brushes and earth materials. o Mostly depicted animals or objects. Payed close attention to the details of these figures. But normally did not depict any human figures. o People thought of them as a sympathetic magic: for example, the more animals the painted the bigger the “hope” for more animals to come their way for hunting. o Wounded Man and Disembowelled Bison, Lascaux Cave First example of narrative art. Depicts a man hunting a bison, with a spear that has disemboweled the bison Spear Thrower: used to give you extra length and more power to throw a spear farther and harder (thought to be the bird on a stick figure depicted in the picture) Ithyphallic figure: seems to look like a fertility figure but is rather about virility- just the exaggeration of the male genital to indicate power instead of fertility (in artwork, even though bison looks like he won, the man really won and had the power over the bison) Neolithic Period - Catal Huyuk (7000-5000 BC) o They developed agriculture, which enabled them to not have to move around as much anymore and to be able to settle down. Also, caused them to be safer due to more population and shelter. Also allowed them to create bigger art. Friday 22 o Development of agriculture was a huge development during that time for it enabled a food source that they could rely on instead of having to follow and move to the food (hunt), made life easier. o Now, instead of having to worry so much about fertility they have to worry about other humans now and their power= people wanting to take over their village, etc. o Layout of land (design) was a little irregular because it was designed to expand as the population grew. o Religion was a very important part of Catal Huyuk, each one of the “houses” had a sacred room o There are no roads in the town, they walked around on the roofs and to get into the homes they would have ladders that would take you down into home Made it harder for others to attack the city due to tall walls without any doors, would have to climb them All the homes are pushed/built together in which created a great support system throughout the city due to the walls of the homes supported one another o Shrine rooms: Female fertility figure: Bulls painted on the walls, bulls mounted on the walls, and other bull sculptures: maybe sacrificed bull to some god, etc. In room, this female figure seemed as if she was giving birth to these bulls Overabundance of these rooms: Approximately one in each home/one for each family o Matriarchy? Egalitarian Society? The goddesses all seemed to be women The burials of women: they would paint the bones of the women and dress them up- the burials were more elaborate than the males - Throned Female Figure Flanked by Lions o Seems to be the same goddess that gives birth to the bull, just like in the shrine rooms o Fertility figure o Sitting on a throne with an object between her legs (said to be giving birth to the bull) Her throne is made of these animals- hands on top of these two creatures (maybe lions)-these creatures obey and serve her o Motif of her being flanked by two ferocious animals she is taming - shows power - “Master of the Animals” o Was to show mans power over creature/nature o Usually depicts men, but they were inspired by the motif of the throned female flanked by the two ferocious animals in which she is taming o Functions like sympathetic magic: controls animals, hunting, agriculture, weather, etc. to demonstrate that they are in control of nature now Egyptian Art: Approx. 2600-1000 BC - Nancy Luomala, “Matrilineal Reinterpretations of Some Egyptian Sacred Cows” (article) o She talks about this idea of Matrilineal Descent The Egyptians actually had Matrilineal descent, which was power passed through the women; instead of todays, known as Patrilineal descent The power is passed down through the women to the man instead of the man to the women. The Egyptians practiced matrilineal descent in the Pharoahnic line. This fact has consistently been ignored and has led to misinterpretations of many Egyptian works of art. “Despite the anthropologically recognized importance of Matrilineal Descent in Egyptian culture, art historians continue to misinterpret Egyptian art and life by applying…” (Quote from text) “Feminist scholars are learning to questions the time-honored bromides provided by professors and textbooks that were carefully memorized during their education...” (Quote from text) o Traditional Title: Mycerinus and his Queen However this title is wrong because it says the king’s name and then just says queen. But, if we were really in their time it should be the queens actual name and then the kings, due to their matrilineal descent. They also had the kings name wrong. Revised Title: Menkaure and Khamerernebty o Traditional Interpretation: Standing slightly behind him and looks as if she is clinging to him (being submissive). We are interpreting this through our own eyes. However, in the article they argue that the only way Menkaure has power is because Khamerenebty gave him this power- she is presenting him. Menkaure is taking the second rule, behind Khamerenebty. She could have instead decided to keep the power for herself. “A queen’s embrace in Egyptian art should be more properly read as a gesture of …” (Quote from text) “Although the king was the visible administrator of Egypt he shows...” (Quote from text) Both figures were of the same scale, therefore they were equal in importance and power o Canon of Proportions: They used a grid system, so no matter the size of the work, the proportions would be the same o Hierarchal Scale Sometimes used this scale to represent power The taller/bigger figure was = more power over the smaller figures o The pharaoh as child of the sky-goddess o Old and middle kingdom In the article she mostly talks about these two kingdoms However, she doesn’t look to much as new kingdom art (some things changed) Instead of god Nut being important, the god Ra became very important o Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel Ramses II was a very important guy and worshipped the god Ra=sun god, instead of Nut Here the sun would shine through the little passage (door) in which then on his birthday the sun would light up the sculpture inside. Set a bunch of the sculptures that are on the outside all around, he had a very big ego Even though there was matrilineal descent, he didn’t really care for his queen, Nofetari o Ramses and his Wife Nofertari Shown in hierarchy scale Wanted to show power as pharaoh instead of through his wife Important female pharaohs and regents - King Hatshepsut o She was pharaoh, in which came with all the power that is associated with it o Thutmose II- Hatshepsut’s husband o Thutmose III- Hatshepsut’s stepson When Hatshepsut married Thutmose II (who had a son-Thutmose II) she gave him her power to be pharaoh. After, he died she had to make the decision of whether or not to keep the power of pharaoh or to pass it down to her step son who was only 6 years old at the time Hatshepsut did not want to give that kind of power to a child so she kept it for herself. Later on, Thutmose III did get the role as pharaoh but he was still upset that he was not given the power he thought was rightfully his when he was younger and he started some things due to this, including defacing some of her paintings, etc. - Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut by Senmut (architect) WEEK 3 Monday 25 o Hatshepsut did have a daughter. Senmut was very important to her and that is why he is honored as the architect and remembered. o Back in the day, it would have gardens and greenery- which is hard for it is located in the desert-shows the power she has. o The color of it blended in with the cliff-side due to the stone they used. o Temple was to show off her power and seems like she is trying to art to actively put off the naysayers. Uses the art in a very interesting way to legitimize her power and role. o The Expedition to Punt A place in Africa (south of Egypt) in which had a lot of resources. She made relief images throughout her temple showing images of her important historical moments. Usually the body types are very idealized, but in this imagery it is very differently done- her proportions are done more precise and it was more realistic. They tried to show her how she truly looked, but also incorporate resemblance of power through it. o Images of Hatshepsut References/depicts herself as a man through her art (images) but she is clearly a women. o Hatshepsut with Offering Jars Shown with traditional symbols of power. 1. Nimes headdress: usually only men wore 2. Uraeus: on top of headdress Crook and Flail: like having a staff as a king- shows phoronic power False beard: men usually wore a fake beard, and Hatshepsut adopted this symbol as a women too She used these symbols to try to keep up these traditions, and to legitimize the rain that she had o Hathor: women who is usually shown through the imagery of a cow. Hatshepsut shows herself with Hathor through a very interesting relationship (mother daughter type thing) Sometimes shown together, or just Hathor herself, or Hathor as a cow or just as a human with horns, etc. o Hathor Suckling Hatshepsut: Hathor is very large in the image (cow goddess) Some say that the god Amun is depicted under Hathors’ head (but weird, because then would depict that Hathor is better and more powerful than Ra. Hatshepsut is drinking from the goddess Hathor (the cow): 1. Receiving power directly from Hathor 2. Saying that she is the daughter of Hathor, a direct descendant of a god. o Hathor Licking the Hand of Hatshepsut Hierarchal scale: the bigger the figure is the more important/powerful you are. In this image the scale is reversed: Hathor is shown quite smaller than Hatshepsut. She is descendant of Hathor, but at the same time Hathor respects and follows Hatshepsut o Once Hatshepsut’s step son received the power of pharaoh he was still sour of her having the power of pharaoh before him, and destroyed some of the images of Hatshepsut o Deface image of Hatshepsut: The figure of Hatshepsut’s’ face was chipped away This was done to quite a few of her depictions to show that he was in power now and not her, but not all of them were defaced for this would be considered as obliterating her from existence and from the after life o Queen Nefertiti: Thought to be a Co-region. She was a queen but her husband also had power along with her o Bust of Nefertiti: Sculpture of her, from neck up. Was found in a sculptures workshop as was not completed, ex. Her eye Nefertiti’s sun court: every surface was carved with exclusively female figures She was married to a very powerful and famous pharaoh: Akhenaten (co-regents); he was very powerful for he converted them to monotheism: only sun god was worshipped rather than others along with it o Portrait of Akhenaten Amarna Period: During this period, Akhenaten and Nefertiti changed everything (revolutionary) He does not fit the idealized body figure. Thought he had Marfin’s syndrome: tend to be tall and lanky, elongated features, and sometimes larger hips, chest, etc. (womanly if a male); but then eventually every o Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Daughters After a while though, all the figures started to get the imagery of the Marfin’s syndrome imagery Changed the style of imagery- more curvy lines, etc. o Monotheism: Akhenaten changed Akhenaten had a religious vision where there are no other gods but the sun god, Amen. He changes the capital and role of power- got rid of priest, etc. because their god didn’t even exist. Changes art, and image of the pharaoh from stiff and idealized to a more playful and relatable image o Maybe to make pharaoh more assessable to them; or to try to build/expand their empire- more Egyptians to rule, etc. through the depiction of family Changes his name from being named after Amen to being named after Aton o Akhenaten “The Criminal” He was later considered the criminal and his imagery was defaced just like Hatshepsut’s, for his opposed crimes Ancient Greece 10 -1 centuries BC - Thought of as the golden age; and where Socrates and Aristotle existed - Ancient Athens o Considered Golden Age, location of Ancient Greece o Was not a golden age for women; they were not acknowledged at all, had a slue amount of restrictions on what they could/couldn’t do, etc. Were inferior during this age- quite “invisible”- due to restrictions = in home most of the time o Misogynistic culture: discriminated against women, seen as less than men o Greek domestic life: Women defined to the home, not allowed outdoors unless for very specific task Where not even allowed in certain parts of their homes Andron vs. Gynaeceum Gynaeceum was for women o For their household duties Andron was for the men o A lot more fun happened here o No women allowed in, except prostitutes Women at the Well (Lysistrata by Aristophenes) Women were allowed to go outside to get water- the one time women could interact with one another They used this to gain some amount of power here o Wanted to stop the war between Athens and Sparta and therefore they decided on a sex strike with their husbands o The Symposium (took place in the Andron) Gather around together and drink wine (watered down, so wouldn’t get drunk fast) Started out as an intellectual event, but would eventually turn into orgies’ Wednesday 27 Only guest or upper class men could attend this event Women couldn’t attend this Greek cultural event Only women whom were prostitutes were let in Along with young men= sexual reasons Hetairai: women at these events in which are there as ornaments and sexual creatures (strictly business) Had sandals that had the saying “follow me” in Greek engraved on the bottom Relationships between older men and younger men was very important in the Greek culture- way the young men were welcomed into the Greek society Then when they grew up into men, they would then get married have a relationship with a women Kottabos: a game at this event where one would flick their last drop of wine and whomever it landed on, they would be their sexual partner for that night o Greek Sculpture: Only men were visible in Greek society (public). Therefore the majority of Greek sculpture depicted men Sculptures portrayed nude male bodies whom were usually muscular = competed in Olympics in the nude o Women in Greek Mythology: Place were women were represented Some of the male gods were relatable (human first then turned into a god) For example: Herakles. They had role models that were realistic The women however, were represented in a “black and white” way They had 2 role models: o Athena: goddess of military victory and wisdom o Aphrodite: goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and external youth In result, women were depicted as either a virgin or a whore. Their role models were not realistic to the actual women qualities of Greek society. Thus, leaving women of Greek society with no grace face/ realistic role model to follow Medusa: a women figure whom was depicted as a monster, a Gorgon, and was generally described as a winged human female with a hideous face and living venomous snakes in place of her hair. The gazers on her face would then turn men whom looked at her to stone. o She was considered a monster because her gaze would turn men into stone; meaning she would kill men in order to take over the male power o This left women to be seen as monster who would/will take over male power Amazons: a member of a legendary race of female warriors o Courageous and physically powerful women o Exhibit manly vigor and therefore they were seen as a threat to Greek society (and men); and were thought to be imitating men o Thus, they were always depicted where they were being defeated: to give off one message: Behave like an Amazon and you will be overcome. Reading: Christine Mitchell Havelock, “Mourners on Greek Vases: Remarks on the Social History of Women” - She saw that the Greek society had limitations on women but wanted to explore/ discuss what they could do within these restrictions - “It is now generally…to be envied” 45 - “Compared to a man… without identity” 45 o Meaning that women were not their own person, instead they were objects/ property - “She had no autonomy…or guardian” ? 46 o Meaning that women were always given a label (wife, daughter, etc.) o They were always in terms of a relationship label to a man - Menkaure and Kham. - Hatshepsut with offering Jars o She started to contrast her to show what/how women could do more. - One important role for women in Greek Society? o They were important to the Greek Society in orders of serving as professional mourners at funerals o This was the one place in which they were accepted and wanted. o These professional mourners (women) were hired for funerals o The Greek Lament: The women would scream, tear their hair out, and cry in lament (mourning) Women were considered very good at this “job” and thus it was their assigned role in Greek society However, this role in their society started a trend Women were seen as emotional, etc. and thus also starting a stereotype for women Even though the women were seen as this, they were truly respected due to this being a important ritual in Greek culture o “Women were and are…functional meaning” 52 Meaning that these women were assigned the role of mourners in their culture but then the characteristic they had portray for the job became a stereotype towards women. - The Dipylon Amphora o Amphora holds water They would place it next to grave in the ground and put wine/water in it as an offering to the dead. The wine/water would then slowly drain into the ground. o The imagery of the vase had a very odd simplicity of a funerary scene. Various offerings (sacrificed animals), professional mourners, “casket”-depiction of dead with covering, etc. Renaissance Women (renaissance= rebirth) - Renaissance 15-16 thcentury - Things stayed pretty much the same from Ancient Greece until the Renaissance- thus why we are skipping the time periods between these two cultures. - The women in medieval period were ok and had some rights, but now they are getting suppressed again because the people of the Renaissance are using Greek society as a model and believe that women are inferior. - Thus, leading to women in the Renaissance having very few rights - Role of Women in Renaissance: o Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus o Sandro Botticelli, La Prima Vera A painting that had a very didactic message It told women what to do. In other words it showed the role of a women as a wife, and teach them their role in society, etc. Lillian Zirpolo, “Botticelli’s Primavera (additional text in book) The Medici’s: the bride The painting was to be read from right to left in order to learn the lessons to becoming a good wife. Lessons: Zephyr, Chloris, Flora Zephyr was the god of wind Chloris was a wood nymph who was a wild, untamed and unmarried woman Zephyr abducts Chloris and rapes her and then marries her. Chloris then turned into this beautiful and graceful (perfect) women = Flora o They are telling women that marriage turns you into this type of women (Flora) so as a woman you want to get married. o In the Renaissance, if a woman were to be raped they were then expected (would want) to marry the guy whom raped them, because otherwise they were considered damaged property. If they did not get married to him, their father may have to sell them for a very cheap amount and to most likely a very unfitting male for them. o Venus/springtime She teaches the women the virtues of love and beauty Her son Cupid is depicted above her head and is shown shooting at the Three Graces in which are to the left of her. o The Three Graces Lesson from them is to be graceful (young virgin): be like the Medici bride The fruit and flowers surrounding them symbolize fertility, etc. o Mercury: The Medici groom Picking fruit from a tree= fertility It was important for women to learn these lessons because if they do not get married, there is no way for them to sustain for themselves. The Gaze (reading): - Various and varied meanings of the term/phrase “Gaze” - The original term comes from Jacques Lacan o Follower of Freud o Mirror stage: when a child is with their parent and then look into a mirror and see that they are a different entity than their parents Notice themselves as a separate body/individual o The Gaze is a power: whoever holds the gaze has the power o The idea of vision/eye contact was critical o Women were often denied access to the power of “the gaze”, etc. o Gazing vs. looking/glimpsing/glancing/peeking, etc. Gazing is more powerful- engaging, deep Associated with power and meaning whereas the other terms are more associated with indecisiveness and non-confident o Power (gaze in paintings) Medusa: she flaunted this power of the gaze Was killed/resented because of this Subject vs. Object Objects: inactive (still-life) Subjects: person (portrait) Can have both: object with a guy gazing at the viewer Some subjects can be portrayed as objects too o Mostly women o Shown not facing the viewer (no gaze), no personality, shown as a sexual objet rather than a real person o Sometimes can still be objectified even though they are facing the viewer- making eye contact, by they are portrayed as flirtatious look rather than a powerful look = sexual object yet. The viewer has the power of the gaze. Artemisia Gentileschi, Self Portrait o Portrays herself as a subject rather than object o Makes direct eye contact, shows personality, etc. Friday 29 The Gaze: How is power constructed through the act of looking? How the Gaze in constructed in a painting: - 3 main types of relationships: o 1. Subject >>>>> Object Ex. Gerome, Slave Auction: We, the viewer, have the power of the gaze. The women here is an object especially due to she is being sold In the space represented here, the women is covering her eyes (denied access to vision), everyone in the crowd are lit up (are buying her- gazing at her), the women’s body is also lit up. The slaves in the background are in the shadow to where you can’t see them as well as the crowd, thus they are denied access to see as well. As the viewer, we are with the crowd, and thus have the power of gaze over the woman whom is being sold. o 2. Viewer >>>>Object Edgar Degas, The Tub As the viewer, it is as if we are “peeking” on her. (Male viewer in mind when made) Barbara Kruger. Your Gaze Hits the Side of my Face As viewer, your gaze hits the side of her face = she cannot interact with your gaze o 3. Subject > >>viewer (who becomes an object) Albrecht Durer, Self-Portrait His gaze, looking at the viewer, is really powerful and is almost pierceful. He is looking at us dead on and almost looks confrontation and arrogance. Salvador Dali, Portrait Purposefully powerful looking gaze The Mona Lisa, Leonardo He gave her the power of the gaze- not objectified - The Gaze and Knowledge o The way that you see the world is often shaped by the way that we see things and the amount of access we have to vision, etc. o Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic: The women in the painting is hiding her eyes and doesn’t want to see what they are doing The Dr. is lit up= deals with a power relationship over the students= knowledgeable Patricia Simons, “Women in Frames: The Gaze, the Eye, the Profile in Renaissance Portraiture” (reading) o “In this paper, profile portraits…. neutral images” 40 Sometimes we think of portraiture as a likeness and nothing more, but hey are composed and constructed and in some ways as didactic images- relationships between figures, about that time/age, etc. Ex. Jan Van Eyeck, self-portrait Ex. Ghirlandaio, Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni: A profile portrait Contrary to how you would see women in society- special occasion clothing- do not wear in public due to it would draw to much attention to them Was incredibly standard for women representation o They were always facing the same way, no shading on them-flattened out, not facing the viewer (no gaze), o “They are inactive objects gazing elsewhere decorously….” 44? o Male figures were represented as more approachable and powerful whereas the women were represented as an object- manikin like; her clothes and the other objects in the composition are actually almost more realistic Purpose of these profiles was not to show/represent the women but rather the property/possessions of their husband. Show of the luxury objects their husband has/given them= showing off. The portrait tells us nothing about Giovanna o “Her very existence and definition...outward appearance” 42 Only way could represent themselves was to be good wives, etc. o “A young Florentine…all other men” 44 Always defined not as her own individual person but rather in a way as in relationship with her husband. o Piero Della Francesca, Federigo de Montefeltro He was always shown on the side- he didn’t want people to see the wound on his face Was an exception of the side portrait with still showing power (Not the same as women’s representation) o Rogier Van Der Weyden, Portrait of a Lady More 3 dimensional, and shadowing/personality, yet still no eye contact Actually showing a portrait about the women rather than just shown as an object Not invited to look at her body- has an object; she actually looks like she is in thought, etc. Women Artist of the Renaissance - Sofonisba Anguissola o She represented herself very differently than other men were representing other women o She was on artist that was rediscovered o She is written about by Giorgio Vasari’s in” Vasari’s live of the artists” He is kind of fascinated by her, but with a weird not exactly positive representation. “But Sofonisba of Cremona, the daughter of Amilcare Anguissola…on her own has painted some rare and beautiful paintings.” (Giorgio Vasari) She is defined as part of her identity is with whom she is related to. o She had the nerve to ask Michelangelo for help o Sofonisba Anguissola and Michelangelo: Sent him a picture of a laughing girl Was quite impressed, but wanted to see more He asked for a painting of a weeping boy Asked for this, because this emotion tends to be harder to depict Sofonisba Anguissola, Child Bitten by a Crab o Turns his assignment into something more o Michelangelo was again impressed and teaches her some more o He was the reason why she became such a great artist- because of the male artist relationship that got her out there and to learn more o “Invenzione”: tends/is a characteristic that is applied just to men (masculine trait) Michelangelo said that Sofonisba’s Child Bitten by a Crab was Invenzione—so she had a lot of talent and was compared to the male talent o Caravaggio, Boy Bitten by a Lizard A painting influenced by Sofonisba’s painting o Sofonisba Anguissola, Game of Chess A lot of detail, clothes shows wealth but not so much to represent power. It depicts Sofonisba, her 2 “sisters”, and their servant The servant in the painting is shown with the least amount of power compared to the others The maid is looking at the youngest sister- the sister that has the least amount of power (but a step up from the servant), the youngest sister is looking at he middle sister in which is looking at the eldest sister (Sofonisba)- which gives her the most collective power and she is then looking at you, the viewer. With a very confident glance (seems to have an understanding of the power of looking) This shows the whole process of the Gaze, and how she understands the power relationship and also the viewer as part of it. o Portraiture: She became the court painter for Elizabeth of Valois in Madrid (wife of Phillip II) Helped you communicate with others- gave you status Steady source of commission An incredible and wanted job by artist Sofonisba Anguissola, Queen Elizabeth of Valois with a zibellino An example of the work she did as a court painter She also did various self portraits (known as miniatures) Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait, 1559 (miniature) Week 4 Monday Feb. 1 Couple inches tall: considered un-lady like to make massive paintings Greatly different from past portraits of women o Hers shows character and facial expression-seen as own person rather than property of a man Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait 1554 More serious look on her face, but looking up at the viewer She is holding a book with an inscription in a way so that the viewer can read it- educated symbol o “Sofonisba Anguissola, virgin, made this in 1554” o Clearly stating that she painted it. Not somebody else for her. The Virgin part of it resembles purity/virtue rather than a sexual object and it also shows her independence from man- she is not married, and she is her own person. Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait, 1555 She is always looking boldly out at the viewer She is holding her family’s shield with her family’s crest on it, with an inscription around the outside o Father’s shield, identifies self as virgin, also says she made it by her own hand via a mirror Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait, 1556 Looking out at viewer Instead of writing that she painted the portrait, she shows herself painting instead. Its not just a self portrait, she is painting an important work of art. (shows herself painting a religious artwork which were very important) Mahlstick: was used to steady your hand while painting o She depicts herself in the painting using one- to show how she is still learning, but utilizing the tools of painters Sofonisba Anguissola: Bernardini Campi Painting Sofonisba Anguissola, 1550 Bernardini Campi is her teacher It was odd that she depicted him painting her. But it resembles (story) that a peer surpasses a master. o It is like an insult to her teacher o He is also using a Mahlstick: which this depiction is a jab at him; to show that she has learned all she can from him and that it is her time to move on. Ways she represents herself as “better/more important/overpowering” over Bernardinio Campi: o He is shadowed while she is brighter- eye leads to her o He is off to the side in the composition while she is more centered/important o He is also lower in scale compared to her= she has power over him - Nanette Salomon, “ The Art Historical Canon: Sins of Omission,” 1991 (reading) o Thesis: The art historical canon is not an objective record of best artist in history, but is subjective and ideologically motivated She tries to impact how this happened o The canon: the standard of excellence o The art historical canon: the list of artist who “made it in”; one of the great artist o The Egyptian Canon: grid system to enable perfect proportions no matter what scale an individual was depicted in o Polykleitos, The Canon Doryphoros (the spear bearer) About proportions o Really when we get the Renaissance is when we get to the idea of the Canon. The idea of the artistic genius o The Artistic Genius: when figures started looking god- like. (Genius=talking about men). It gets perpetuating by Giorgio Vasari o “As canons within academic disciplines go, the art historical canon….that selection’s ideologically motivated constitution.” 344 Not just an objective on who the artist is. That determination is motivated by these kind of ideologies- and get projected all the way to today by a textbook= Art Survey Textbooks- selection of the top artist for students to learn about- “biased” But H.W. Janson’s is the most notorious Questioned why there are no woman artist in this book “The works that I have put in the book are representation of achievements of the imagination…for a claim that Mary Cassatt has changed the history of art” 347 o Choose artworks that he thought changed the history of art (didn’t believe woman did so) o He now has some references to women in his upgraded version of the book today The problem actually didn’t start with Janson, but leads back to Vasari. Wednesday Feb. 3 - Take notes on own!! Not very many left though. - ALSO need to study the artwork/people/vocab from the Renaissance section on own! (Not provided below) = finishing section on Wed. 3 . rd o But, majority of notes/information needed for the Renaissance section is above in the notes. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------ - READ THE ARTICLES!! And know the thesis/main points over them/name of the author, and title of article…some notes over the readings in the notes above. - KNOW the artworks and other information about them (in notes above) o The teacher provides the images of the artworks for you! - KNOW terminology and names of people, etc. ARTWORKS: - (Title) o Artist o Date Range/Period Ancient Matriarchies (Approx. 25,000-5,000 BC) - Woman of Willendorf o Period: Ancient Matriarchies - Woman of Laussel o Period: Ancient Matriarchies - Wounded Man and Disembowelled Bison, Lascaux Cave o Period: Ancient Matriarchies - Catal Huyuk o Ancient Matriarchies - Shrine Room from Catal Huyuk o Ancient Matriarchies - Throned Female Figure Flanked by Lions, from Catal Huyuk o Ancient Matriarchies Ancient Egypt (Approx. 2600-1000 BC) - Menkaure and Khamerernebty (orig. titled Mycerinus and His Queen) o Ancient Egypt - Ramses and his Wife Nofertari o Ancient Egypt - Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut o Senmut (architect o Ancient Egypt - The Expedition to Punt, from The Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut o Ancient Egypt - Hatshepsut with Offering Jars- from The Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut o Ancient Egypt - Hathor Suckling Hatshepsut, from The Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut o Ancient Egypt - Hathor Licking the Hand of Hatshepsut- from The Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut o Ancient Egypt - Defaced images of Hatshepsut o Ancient Egypt - Bust of Nefertiti o Ancient Egypt - Portrait of Akhenaten o Ancient Egypt - Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Daughters o Ancient Egypt Ancient Greece (10 -1 Centuries BC) - Women at the Well o Ancient Greece - Greek vase showing a Symposium o Ancient Greece - Myron, The Discus Thrower o Ancient Greece - The Dipylon Amphora o Ancient Greece - Detail of The Dipylon Amphora o Ancient Greece TERMINOLOGY: Ancient Matriarchies: Matriarchy A system of society or government ruled by a woman or women A for of social organization in which descent and relationship are reckoned through the female line Patriarchy A system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it Sympathetic Magic Primitive or magical ritual using objects or actions resembling or symbolically associated with the event or person over which influence is sought. -if you carry around this sculpture (Women of Willendorf) some of her over abundance of fertility will rub off on you ithyphallic - (especially of a statue of a deity or other carved figure) having an erect penis egalitarian society An egalitarian is a person who believes in the equality of all people, and an egalitarian society gives everyone equal rights This is a word that means something close to equality and has to do with fairness Master of the Animals (or Lord of the Animals) is a motif in ancient art showing human between and grasping two confronted animals Ancient Egypt: Matrilineal descent Is a kinship system where a descent group traces their ancestral lineages via the maternal (uterine) side of the group. This does not exactly flip patrilineal descent systems on their head, such that women are the more powerful gender, but it can. Pharaoh - a ruler in ancient Egypt Hatshepsut She was the fifth pharaoh of the 18 dynasty of Egypt. She came to the throne in 1478 BC. Officially she ruled jointly with Thutmose III who ascended to the throne as a child one year earlier. She was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty Hathor She is an Ancient Egyptian goddess who personified the principles of love, beauty, music, dance, motherhood and joy. She was one of the most important And popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt - Hatshepsut had a close “relationship” with her- where she got her power from Thutmose II th th He was the 4 Pharaoh of the 18 dynasty of Egypt. He built some minor monuments and initiated at least 2 minor campaigns but did little else during his rule and was probably strongly influenced by his wife, Hatshepsut. His reign ins generally dated from 1493 till 1479 BC due to his death. Thutmose III He was the 6 Pharaoh of the 18 dynasty. During the first 22 years of his reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, who was pharaoh. After her death and his later rise to pharaoh of the kingdom, he created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen. Ruled Egypt for almost 54 years. Nemes headdress It is the striped head cloth worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt. It covered the whole crown and back of the head and nape of the neck (sometimes also extending A little way down the back) and had two large flaps in which hung down behind the ears and in front of both shoulders. uraeus - A representation of a sacred serpent as an emblem of supreme power, worn on the headdress of ancient Egyptian deities and sovereigns. crook and flail The crook (heka) and flail (nekhakha) were originally the attributes of the Ancient Egyptian god Osiris that became insignia of pharaonic authority. The Shepard's crook stood for kingship and the flail for the fertility of the land. false beard The pharaohs often wore (and were depicted in images/sculptures) with a long, narrow and conspicuous (fake) beard. These beards were usually artificial and Didn’t function as simple style statements, but rather as evidence of high social positioning –essentially royalty. Nefertiti She was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. She and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. They were responsible for the creation of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. Akhenaten th Known before the 5 year of his reign as Amehotep IV, was a pharaoh of the 18 dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as Monotheisitc or Henotheistic. He tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later rulers without clear rights of succession from the 18 th dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as “the enemy” or “that criminal” The Aten Was not a new god but an obscure aspect of the sun god worshipped as early as the Old Kingdom. “Aten” was the traditional name for the sun-disk itself and so the name of the god is often translated as “the Aten” Amun Was one of the most powerful gods in ancient Egypt. At the height of Egyptian civilization he was called the ‘King of the Gods’ Amun. He was important throughout the history of ancient Egypt. However, when Amun was combined with the sun god Ra he was even more powerful. Marfin’s Syndrome A hereditary disorder of connective tissue, resulting in abnormally long and thin digits and also frequently in optical and cardiovascular defects Ancient Greece: Athens - Capital of Greece in east-central Greece on the plain of Attica, overlooking an arm of Mediterrean Sea. Named after its patron goddess, Athena, Athens is Greece’s largest city and its cultural, administra
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