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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Sydney Thornton

Exam 1 Study Guide 1014-004

Sydney Thornton
Arkansas Tech University

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Covers chapters 1,2 and part of 3, all answers given on guide.
Intro to biological sciences
Blake Whitt
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Thornton on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1014-004 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Blake Whitt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Study Guide Exam 1  “What is the infidelity gene and what does it do to the body?” o The AVPR1a gene controls the transport of arginine vasopressin, a hormone from the blood to the brain. When in the body it increases levels of selfishness.   “What are the four features that all life shares?” o Metabolism­ all living organisms take in energy and matter. o Inheritance/Reproduction­ living organisms reproduce and each organism inherits  biological information from the parents.  o Evolution­ living organisms are related and species change over time. o Diversity­ living organisms have evolved into forms that differ from one another.   “What is evolution, and what does it allow life to accomplish?” o It is the theory that explains how all living organisms are related and how existing populations adapt to their environments allows life to continue and species to  grow stronger through change.   “What are the subatomic particles of an atom and describe each?” o Protons­ positive charge o Neutrons­ neutral charge o Electrons­ negative charge  “Define isotope?” o Two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons.   “Define Ion?” o Charged particles that come from the salty fluid in our bodies it may be negative  or positive.   “Define Mass Number?” o The total number of protons and neutrons.  “What determines how reactive an atom is?” o The number of electrons in the outermost shell  “Inside molecules where is the energy?” o Within ATP  What are the four macromolecules of life? o Proteins: meat, monomer unit: amino acids o Carbohydrates: bread, monomer unit: chains o Lipids: fat, monomer unit: glycerol o Nucleic Acids: DNA, monomer unit: nucleotides  “Enzymes?” o A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a  specific biochemical reaction. o They help us by assisting in digesting foods into our stomachs.   “What is the difference between gene and allele?” o A gene is a section of DNA which encodes a protein, and an allele is a version of  a gene that runs more specific.   “Where do new alleles come from?” o Occur when a gene mutates.  “Compare and Contrast sexual reproduction vs asexual reproduction?” o Asexual reproduction only uses one organism, and sexual reproduction requires a  male and a female organism.   “Why is sex important to life as a whole?” o Reproduction, the survival of the human race.   “Science?” o The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the  structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and  experiment.   “Critical Thinking?” o The objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgement.   “What are the steps of the scientific method?” o Make Observations o Form Hypothesis  o Develop Testable Predictions o Gather Data to Test Predictions o Develop a Conclusion  “Ignaz Semmelweis and Childbed Fever?” o The act of washing hands had not yet been discovered as a “must­do,” before a  medical procedure. It wasn’t until multiple experiments later that it was  discovered that sterilization had to be completed or the mother giving birth would  most likely die due to infection.   “Theory in Science?” o  is a well­substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on  a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and  experiment.   “What is the ‘law’ in science?” o is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some  aspects of the universe.  READ pages 46­54 for EXAM!!!  “What is cell theory?” o is a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells.  “Eukaryote v Prokaryote?” o Eukaryotic cells contain membrane­bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while  prokaryotic cells do not. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and  eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall,  and the structure of chrosomal DNA.  “Organelle?” o Any of number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.   “Nucleus?” o the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.  “Ribosomes?” o a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large  numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells.  “Mitochondria?” o an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical  processes of respiration and energy production occur.  “Cytoskeleton?” o a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many  living cells, giving them shape and coherence.  “Golgi Apparatus?’ o a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most  eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.  “Zygote?” o a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.  “How many chromosomes do you get from each parents?” o 23  “Compare and Contrast the process and outcome of Mitosis and Meiosis?” o mitosis and meiosis are both processes of cellular division and follow the same  steps: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Mitosis only  occurs in the somatic body cells and results in two daughter cells. It also replaces  old and dying cells.  Meiosis occurs in the ovaries and testes, and only with germ cells. The purpose of meiosis is to produce gametes. This division also results in 4 daughter cells as  opposed to 2 in mitosis.   “Diploid v Haploid?” o Diploid cells contain two complete sets of chromosomes. Haploid cells have half  the number of chromosomes as diploid; a haploid cell contains only one  complete set of chromosomes.  “Gastrulation?: what does each layer eventually become?” o is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the  single­layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar. A single­celled zygote will undergo multiple rounds of cleavage, or cell division, in order to produced a ball  of cells, called a blastula, with a fluid­filled cavity in its center, called a  blastocoel.  “What makes some cells become muscle while others become brain/kidney/etc?” o Living tissue is made up of cells. There are many different types of cells, but all  have the same basic structure. Tissues are layers of similar cells that perform a  specific function. The different kinds of tissues group together to form organs.  “Embryonic Development vs Fetal Development?” o E: develops within the amniotic sac, under the lining of the uterus on one side.  This stage is characterized by the formation of most internal organs and external  body structures. Most organs form begin to form about 3 weeks after fertilization,  which equals 5 weeks of pregnancy (because doctors date pregnancy from the  first day of the woman's last menstrual period, which is typically 2 weeks before  fertilization). At this time, the embryo elongates, first suggesting a human shape.  Shortly thereafter, the area that will become the brain and spinal cord (neural  tube) begins to develop. The heart and major blood vessels begin to develop  earlier—by about day 16. The heart begins to pump fluid through blood vessels  by day 20, and the first red blood cells appear the next day. Blood vessels  continue to develop in the embryo and placenta.  o F: During each normal menstrual cycle, one egg (ovum) is usually released from  one of the ovaries, about 14 days after the last menstrual period. Release of the  egg is called ovulation. The egg is swept into the funnel­shaped end of one of the  fallopian tubes. At ovulation, the mucus in the cervix becomes more fluid and  more elastic, allowing sperm to enter the uterus rapidly. Within 5 minutes, sperm  may move from the vagina, through the cervix into the uterus, and to the funnel­ shaped end of a fallopian tube—the usual site of fertilization. The cells lining the  fallopian tube facilitate fertilization.  “Effects and Causes of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?” o Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy can give birth to babies with fetal  alcohol spectrum disorders (sometimes known as FASD). FASD is the umbrella  term for a range of disorders. These disorders can be mild or severe and can cause physical and mental birth defects. FAS is a severe form of the condition. People  with FAS may have problems with their vision, hearing, memory, attention span,  and abilities to learn and communicate. While the defects vary from one person to another, the damage is often permanent. When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol,  some of that alcohol easily passes across the placenta to the fetus. The body of a  developing fetus doesn’t process alcohol the same way as an adult does. The  alcohol is more concentrated in the fetus, and can prevent enough nutrition and  oxygen from getting to the fetus’ vital organs . 


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