Psych 110 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psych 110 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 110 - 008
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psychology 110 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1-3 Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking 1. Reasons for using scientific method - The scientific method can help us research and learn from experiments. It helps to minimize bias or prejudice beliefs in experimentation. The scientific method provides a standardized approach to conducting experiments, limiting these preconceived notions that are very common. We can’t be 100% bias free because of our personal knowledge and beliefs about the world and science, but the scientific method helps reduce the issues that one may face. 2. Apophenia - Spontaneous perception of connections and meaningfulness of unrelated phenomena 3. Pareidolia - Imagined perception of a pattern/meaning where it doesn’t actually exist 4. Major schools of psychological thinking (e.g. behaviorism, cognitivism, psychoanalysis) - Behaviorism o Theory of learning based on behaviors and conditioning - Psychoanalysis o Underlying psychology, deals with dynamics of personality and development - Cognitivism o Focused on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention 5. Heuristics (e.g. availability heuristic, representativeness heuristic) - Definition: o Mental shortcuts that help us think efficiently - Representative Heuristic o Judging based on prototype 1 - Availability Heuristic o Estimating likelihood based on what comes to mind 6. Nature vs. Nurture Debate - The nature vs. nurture debate relates to our growth as an individual in regards to our personalities and beliefs. The debate questions if our personality traits and individualism are derived from biological patterns, or if these personality traits come from environmental factors. - Nature Example: o Passed down genes from one to another - Nurture Example: o Observation of family members 7. Principle of parsimony (i.e. Occam’s Razor) - Definition: o The principle that entities should not be multiplied needlessly; the simplest of two competing theories is to be preferred - Occam’s Razor: o Occam’s Razor helps us to “shave off” those concepts, variable, or constructs that are not really needed to explain the phenomenon Blackboard readings: - Relationships Among...and Marital Instability at Midlife o Studies have reported a significant positive association between sexual satisfaction and marital quality o Sexual satisfaction was negatively predictive of marital instability o Results of a study showed that respondents included in the analyses were likely to be more sexually satisfied and to have 2 more satisfying and stable marriages than those who were excluded from the analyses o Measures taken in study: Sexual satisfaction marital quality marital instability control variables o Results: For both husbands and wives, results showed higher levels of sexual satisfaction at one point in time predicted an increase in marital quality at the next point in time, but earlier marital quality didn’t predict greater sexual satisfaction at a later time Results showed higher levels of sexual satisfaction at one point in time consistently led to a decrease in marital instability at the next point in time, but earlier marital instability didn’t predict later lower levels of sexual satisfaction o Overall: Those who were satisfied with their sexual relations tended to be satisfied and happy with their marriages, and better marital quality, in turn, helped reduce marital instability. In contrast, little evidence suggested that marital stability affects changes in martial quality or that marital quality affects changes in sexual satisfaction. Third, the causal sequences among the three constructs and the mediating effects of marital quality hold for both husbands’ and wives’ models. It suggests that the effects of sex on marital relationships are essential, and the causal sequence whereby sexual satisfaction influences marital relationships is similar for both men and women, even though sex may have different meanings to men and women in their relationship. o - The Joy of (Just the Right Amount of) Sex 3 o Researchers established a link between sex and feeling pleased with yourself o A study was conducted to find out about this idea o 64 Adult couples, all married, heterosexual were asked how often they had sex, how enjoyable it was, and how happy they were in general o Half were told to go about their usual, the rest were told to double the frequency of their sex relations o They were told to keep up with their happiness through a given questionnaire o Those who had more sex did not end up being happier, rather it changed their mood in a negative way o Overview: Sexual frequency and happiness varies for every couple, so more sex doesn’t necessarily mean a happier couple Chapter 2: Research Methods 1. Validity (external and internal) - Internal Validity: o Occurs when a researcher controls all extraneous variables and the only variable influencing the results is the one being manipulated by researcher - External Validity: o Extent to which the results of a study can be generalized/extended to others 2. Operational definition - A description of an experimental procedure for the translation of a variable into measurement or numeric value 3. Positive vs. negative correlation - Positive Correlation is ++ or - - o ***Note: even though a curve may be two downward curves (- -), it is still considered a positive correlation 4 - Negative is + - 4. Understand the basic set up of an experimental design (e.g. independent variable vs. dependent variable) - Purpose of Experimental Research o Attempts to measure the effects of one (or several) things on another Random assignment to groups (Sometimes “Blinded”) Experimental Group(s) Control Group(s) Independent Variable Manipulated by the experimenter (Ex. Temperature in a room) Dependent Variable Variable that an experimenter measures to see if it’s affected by the manipulated variable (ex. Exam Performance) 5. Experimental vs. correlational study design - Correlational Research o Measures extent to which two things are related to one another - Correlational Research Issues o Correlations can be an illusion - Experimental Research Issues o Placebo and no-cebo effects o Experimenter Expectancy Effects - Demand Characteristics o Cues that participants can pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses 6. Random Selection - Process of gathering a representative sample for a particular study in a truly random way Chapter 3: Biological Psychology 1. Parts of the neuron (e.g. soma, axon, dendrites, etc.) and Synapses and neural communication via neurotransmitters - Neurons: 5 o Specialized nerve cell that receives, processes, and transmits info to other cells in the body - Synapses: o Region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane of an axon, dendrite, or muscle or gland cell with the appropriate receptor molecules for picking up neurotransmitters - Dendrites: o Short branched threadlike nerve cell extension that conducts impulses towards the cell body - Nucleus: o Central part of cell - Soma: o Organism body contrasts with its germ cells - Myelin Sheath: o Wrapping of myelin around certain nerve axons, serving as an electrical insulator that speeds nerve impulses - Axon Terminals: o Endings that make synaptic contacts with other nerve cells or effector cells - Axon: o Appendage of neuron that transmits impulses away from cell body - Threshold of Excitation: o Level of depolarization necessary to generate an action potential – refers to a stimulus being strong enough to trigger a reaction - Neurotransmitters: o Any of several chemical substances that transmit nerve impulses across a synapse to a postsynaptic element, as another nerve, muscle, or gland - Neuroplasticity o Capacity of the nervous system to develop new neuronal connections Photo: Neuron Diagram Source: Google Images Photo: Synapse Source: Google 6mages 2. Action potentials - Change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside/outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when stimulated, serving to transmit nerve signals 3. Lobes of the brain and their function (e.g. occipital, temporal, frontal, parietal, etc.) - Prefrontal Cortex o Thinking, planning, language - Motor Cortex o Body movement - Parietal Lobe o Touch - Temporal Lobe o Hearing, auditory info - Occipital Lobe o Eyesight - Corpus Callosum o Connects two halves/sides - Cerebral Cortex o Outermost part of the brain o “The bumpy/folded part” Photo: Brain Lobes Source: Google Images 4. Parts of the limbic system and their function (e.g. amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, etc.) - Thalamus o “Sensory relay station” between sense organs and sensory cortex 7 - Hypothalamus o Homeostasis, hormones, internal body states (regulation of hormones, hunger, temperature) - Amygdala o Fear, excitement, arousal - Hippocampus o Memory storage - Cerebellum o Movement o Balance 5. Methods of measuring brain activity (e.g. MRI, fMRI, EEG, etc.) - MRI o Magnetic Resonance Imaging o Method used for studying functions of the brain (or any living tissue) without surgery. Images are obtained by using a strong magnetic field - fMRI o Functional MRI o Brain imaging technique that detects magnetic changes in the brain’s blood flow patterns - EEG o Electroencephalogram o Recording of the electrical waves of activity that occur in the brain, and across its surface 6. Genotype vs. phenotype - Genotype o Genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or entire complex of traits o The sum total of genes transmitted from parent to offspring - Phenotype 8 o Observable constitution of an organism o Appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and environment 7. Hormones (you do not need to know the role of specific hormones - just what hormones are) - Chemical compounds secreted by endocrine glands that are important in lots of different bodily functions, including transmission of information throughout the body. 8. Somatic vs. autonomic nervous system (and within autonomic nervous system, also sympathetic vs. parasympathetic nervous system) - Somatic Nervous System o Voluntary movement o Things you do on purpose o Behavioral reflexes Ex. Pulling hand back from a fire - Autonomic Nervous System o Automatic o Sympathetic Nervous System Activates body (heartbeat raising, etc.) o Parasympathetic Nervous System Calms down (post work-out) Blackboard readings: The Evolution of Suffering - These strategies can cause us to suffer - Effort to maintain separations can cause you to feel isolated, alienated, overwhelmed - When systems within your body, mind, and relationships become unstable, your brain produces uncomfortable threat signals - Your brain colors your experiences with a feeling tone- pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral 9 - We evolved to pay great attention to unpleasant experiences – negativity bias - Our brains can simulate experiences, but it can negatively affect our emotions, setting us up to chase our pleasures that aren’t that great and may not be real - Compassion for yourself helps reduce suffering The First and Second Dart - Some physical and mental discomforts are unavoidable - When we react to a first dart with one or more of the Three Poisons of greed, hatred, and delusion – each one of which has craving at its center – we throw second darts at ourselves and others. We sometimes throw second darts as a reaction to to situations that are actually good, such as receiving a compliment - Suffering is deeply embodied. Physical reactions involving your sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) cause suffering to snowball throughout your body - Most experience chronic second-dart cascades, with numerous negative consequences for their physical and mental health - The rest-and-digest parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) calms down SNS/HPAA - Best-odds prescription for a long, good life is a baseline of mainly PNS arousal with mild SNS activation for vitality, combined with occasional SNS spikes for major opportunities - Working with the tendencies of mind to transform them, and taking refuge in the ground of being are the essential awakening path practices. - Lots of little moments of practice will gradually and truly increase your contentment, kindness, and insight 10
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