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UT / Chemistry / CH 320 / What is nuclear magnetic resonance used for?

What is nuclear magnetic resonance used for?

What is nuclear magnetic resonance used for?

Description

School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry II
Professor: Shabbir
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: CH 320N, CH320N, Organic Chemistry II, Ochem, Dr.Shabbir, and notes
Cost: 25
Name: CH 320N Week One Notes (1/22-1/29)
Description: Chapter 13, NMR notes, and beginning of chapter 15 notes.
Uploaded: 02/01/2016
15 Pages 37 Views 4 Unlocks
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"}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kpb2kjc3xd0e-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h41utx7g5xrq-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_55n3nvqdbzqq-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_55n3nvqdbzqq-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_bbg1hin3ufrv-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_h41utx7g5xrq-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_m5yhubnontlq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kpb2kjc3xd0e-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_vxromqresypg-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b3c4ihpyhzfv-6 > 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NMR - NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (SPECTROSCOPY) Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate solubility equilibrium?

              ¹H  ¹³C  ¹⁵N ¹⁹F ³¹P = Odd mass number

  • I - spin quantum number ½
  • 2I +1 - spin states

↳ 2 (½) + 1 = 2 spin states We also discuss several other topics like Do we simply “pick” our marriage partners?

Don't forget about the age old question of How would you study the relationship between genes and crime?

  • Put in presence or magnet, then radio waves

We also discuss several other topics like What is the composition of glycosphingolipids. what distinguishes cerebrosides, sulfatides, and gangliosides?

Shielding and Deshielding

  • Electrons are charged particles that interact with the supplied magnetic field (oppose the magnetic field)

If you want to learn more check out How manipulation of one factor causes change in another factor?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of transforming?

CHEMICAL SHIFTS (PPM)

Resonance Frequency (H2) - x10⁶  = PPM

  • Operating Frequency (H2)

Tetramethyl Silane Reference Molecule (TMS)

  • Chemical Shifts are listed relative to TMS and therefore are independent or the operating frequency or NMR

  • Important Points
  • Alkenes - 5-6 ppm
  • Alkynes - 2-3 ppm

Equivalent Hydrogens

  • Hydrogens in the same chemical environment are equivalent
  • Hydrogen on the same sp3 hybridized carbon equivalent
  • Hydrogen can be related to each other by symmetry

Examples:

  • Area under the peak gives information about the number of protons
  • Deuterated solvent (deuterium is NMR silent)

↳ no peak, only see protons or the molecule

Spin-Spin Coupling:

  • Next door carbons

  • (n + 1 ) - splitting pattern
  • n equivalent H atoms will split on adjacent signal into (n +1) peak

Example:

Relative heights of peaks are predicted by the Pascal Triangle

                         

Example Problem: C4H802

Index of Hydrogen Deficiency

  • Tells you how many TT bonds

       ↳   (H reference - H molecule)  #TT bonds

                                     2    

  • H reference CnH2n+2
  • Group 6 (0, S) : don’t do anything
  • Group S (N1P): add one hydrogen =CnH2n+3
  • Halogens (X): Subtract one hydrogen + CnH2n+1

-O -H Peaks: Rapid Exchangeability

  • Explains why hydroxyl peak is usually seen asa singlet. The proton is not on the oxygen atom or an individual molecule long enough for it to be affected by adjacent proton, therefore no spin-spin coupling

Complex Splitting 

  • Splitting due to non - equivalent proton

Example:

Diamagnetic Anisotropy (Theory)

Diamagnetic Anisotropy

  •  means that shielding and deshielding depends on the orientation or the molecule with respect to the applied magnetic field
  • Alkyne proton shielded - opposes magnetic field
  • Alkene proton deshielded - reinforces magnetic field
  • Proton aromatic rings are deshielded

↳ ring current reinforces magnetic field  (ring current effect- large deshielding)

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