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CSU / Sociology / SOC 100 / Why do you believe and behave the way you do? why do other people beli

Why do you believe and behave the way you do? why do other people beli

Why do you believe and behave the way you do? why do other people beli


School: Colorado State University
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: John brouillette
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: sociology
Cost: 25
Name: Sociology Notes week 2
Description: These are the notes for week 2 including notes on the 2 articles he asked us to read
Uploaded: 02/01/2016
10 Pages 96 Views 1 Unlocks

Allison Slaten  

Why do you believe and behave the way you do? why do other people believe and behave differently from you? what are the consequences of the answers to those two questions?

Sociology Notes

Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method  

- Do we simply “pick” our marriage partners?  

• 77% choose partners within a 5 year age range of themselves  

• 78% choose partners around the same education level  

• 93% choose partners of the same race/ethnicity  

- Why do you believe and behave the way you do? Why do other people believe and  behave differently from you? What are the consequences of the answers to those two  questions?  

- 4 Perspectives on human life (ranked from 1-4 in order from least abstract to most  abstract)  

Do scientist believe that people’s perceptions, memory, and reasoning are infallible?

- Sociological perspective- sociology’s special point of view that sees general patterns  of society in the lives of the particular people  

- Biological (1)

- Psychological (2)

- Social Interaction (the way we interact in a certain way to achieve the same goal) (3) - Cultural (4)

- Emergence- each lower level effect the level above it, meaning that they are not  independent but that they interact with each other  

- Interpenetration- each higher level effects the levels below it  

- Autonomy- they don’t need each other always  Don't forget about the age old question of What does routine activities theory suggest to reduce crime?
If you want to learn more check out What is the composition of phosphoglycerides. what distinguishes pe, pc, ps, pi, plasmalogens, and others (e.g., platelet­activating factor and cardiolipin)?

- Global perspective- the study

Do we simply “pick” our marriage partners?

If you want to learn more check out What mood high school students are typically in during every hour they are in school?

- The Sociological Imagination  

- Putting on a set of glasses that you may not have put on before  

- “The ability to see the relationship between individual and the larger society”  - “Many of our particular problems (and our success as well) are not unique to use but  are the result of larger social trends” (page 9)  Don't forget about the age old question of How can you tell if a graph is a polynomial function?

- Personal problems are transformed into public issues (box on page 9)  • what are the factors outside of ourselves that effect our actions  

- Theoretical Approaches

Allison Slaten  

- Functionalist- a society is viewed as a stable, orderly system

- Conflict- groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of  scarce resources  

- Symbolic Interactionist- focuses on the specific interaction among people and  interpersonal communication

- Ways of knowing  

- Belief/ Faith  

- Expert/Authority  

- Tradition  

- ESP  

- Science  Don't forget about the age old question of What is difference between risk and uncertainty?

- Assumptions of science  

- All perceptions are achieved through the senses  

• scientific proof comes though the senses, not all truth does  

- People can trust their perceptions, memory, and reasoning (as reliable agencies for  acquiring facts)  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the parent graph?

• We can make mistakes but scientist take step to improve their memory and  perception  

- Question: Scientist seek ultimate truth  

• Answer: False  

- Science in Sociology  

- The study of society base on a systematic observation of social behavior  - Scientific truth is based on information  

- Question: Do scientist believe that people’s perceptions, memory, and reasoning are  infallible?  

• Answer: No  

- Criteria for a cause  

- Establish a correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable  • Just because you have a correlation doesn't mean you have a cause  - The independent variable must occur earlier than the dependent variable

Allison Slaten  

- The relationship cannot be explained away by a third variable (can we wash the  connection way with a third variable?)  

- Some Correlations  

- Playboy circulation—> rape rate is higher, alcohol consumption is higher, suicide rate  is higher  

- % of Hunter in state—> Homicide rate is higher, rape rate is higher - NFL Football players—> Homicide rate is higher  

- Spurious Correlation- A trivial or meaning less correlation  

- Summary  

- Science is just one of may was that people attempt to make sense of their words  - Sociologist use science to establish scientific truth, not ultimate truth  - we said causes and consequences of peoples beliefs and behaviors  Chapter 2: Culture  

- Culture- The ways of thinking, acting, and material objects that together form a  people’s way of life  

- Components of Culture  

- Material Culture- the physical creations that members of a society make, use, and  share

- Non material culture (symbols, language, values, norms)  

- Just being there doesn’t make it a part of our culture we have to add meaning to the  object  

- Symbol- anything that meaningful represents something else  

- Language- A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and  communicate with one another  

- Sapir -Whorf Hypothesis- language shakes the view of reality of its speakers  • “The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same  worlds with different labels attached.” - Sapir, 1929

• Learning new concepts will help you see the world differently  

• New concepts give different meaning to things

Allison Slaten  

- Values- Ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable  in a particular culture  

• Most important aspect in culture because it defines the goals of a society by  showing us what is important to them & what they value  

• Freedom, Equality, Achievement & Success, Racism and group superiority  - Norms- established rules of behavior  

• Mores- norms that may not be violated without serious consequences  • There are different levels of norms  

• Folkways- norms that may be violated without serious consequences  • Laws- Written norms  

Article 1: Values- Take Care of Myself  

• Individual achievement and success- competition is encouraged so that when one  is successful it reflects personal merit.  

• Freedom- Although we have the responsibility to others, we are free to pursue our  personal goals because individuality is favored over conformity  

• Equality- Everyone is entitled to an equal starting point or opportunity  • Racism and group superiority- In our society thought we don’t like to admit it, and  we have strong views on individualism there is a lot of judgment based on race,  gender, social class, etc.  

- Alternative Values- Take care of others  

• Group achievement and success- A successful person puts the good of the group  before his or her own needs. They succeed together which is why cooperations are  encouraged  

• Freedom- Pursuing ones personal goals and freedoms over another’s or the groups  is greedy and  

• Equality- People should have equality in areas such as condition, access to food,  shelter, and health care regardless of their talents or efforts  

• Equal Treatment of everyone- treat everyone equally regardless of race, age,  gender, ethnicity, wealth, etc.  

Article 2: Conservative VS Liberal Beliefs

Allison Slaten  

- Liberals-Believe in equality, believe that it is the duty of the government to product  civil liberties and individual human rights, believe that the government should solve all  the problems  

- Conservatives- believe in limited government control. personal responsibility (not  equality), strong national defense, and that the government should allow individuals to  pursue their own goals  

- Abortion

• Liberal- It is the women’s right to choose what happens to her body because the  fetus does not have individual rights.  

• Conservative- The fetus is a human and has individual rights. Abortion is  considered murder and tax payer money should not help women receive abortions  if they cannot afford one.  

- Affirmative Action  

• Liberal- Racism set minorities back as far as education and opportunity. We have a  duty to make up for that and an affirmative action law is necessary. As a racist  society there are still unequal opportunities for minorities compared to whites.  

• Conservative- Individuals should be admitted to schools and given opportunities  based on their skills and other abilities. Reverse- racism is not the solution to our  problem because society as a whole is not racist only certain individuals are.  Affirmative action is wrong.  

- Death penalty  

• Liberal- Death penalty is considered inhumane and “cruel and unusual”. Execution  risks killing an innocent person.  

• Conservative- The death penalty is an appropriate punishment for taking an  innocent life and is neither cruel or unusual.  

- Economy

• Liberals- The economy should be regulated by the government because they have  public interest in mind and will protect the economy from the greed of big business.  • Conservative- The economy should not be run with excessive government  regulation because it doesn't allow for competitive capitalism, and the best  opportunities. Free market provides more jobs and a higher standard of living.

Allison Slaten  

- Education

• Liberals- Public school is the best education option for students. Vouchers take  money from public schools and the government should focus on improving current  schools, increasing teacher salaries, and reducing class size.  

• Conservatives- Vouchers allow for competition and encourage schools to get better.  Parents want the right to choose where their children attend school, and allow  private schools to enroll students who can’t necessarily afford it.  

- Embryonic Stem Cell Research  

• Liberals- support embryonic stem cell research because it can help researchers  find cures for diseases as well as treatments. The embryos have no human  features therefore it is not murder. This research has been shown to be effective.  

• Conservatives- Believe that it is morally and ethically wrong to experiment with  embryonic stem cells. However, think that it is only to do research with adult and  umbilical cord stem cells. Research on the embryonic stem cells is considered  murder because it requires the embryo to be destroyed. Embryonic stem cells have  not been successfully used to help cure disease.  

- Energy

• Liberal- Believe that oil is a depleting resource and the government should explore  alternative types of energy like wind and solar. They support government control of  gas ad electric industries.  

• Conservatives- Oil is abundant and there will not be enough wind and solar energy  to provide energy. They believe that drilling should be increased and support  private ownership of gas and electric industries.  

- Euthanasia and Physician assisted suicide  

• Liberal- Euthanasia should be legalized because a person should have the right to  choose whether or not they want to end their pain and suffering if they are  terminally ill. Permitting this could reduce health care funds and allow more funds  for those who can benefit rom them.  

• Conservatives- Neither should be legalized because it is immoral and unethical to  deliberately end someones life. Many religions prohibit this stuff and these would  devalue human life.

Allison Slaten  

- Global Warning and Climate Change  

• Liberal- Global warming is caused by increased production of carbon dioxide. Laws  to reduce these emissions need to be enacted immediately in order to save our  planet.  

• Conservative- There is no proof that humans affect permanent change to the  earth’s temperature. Laws to decrease emissions will not help the environment and  will raise prices for all.  

- Gun Control  

• Liberal- The second amendment does not allow citizens to bear arms only allows  for a national guard. Individuals do not need guns for protection that is why we  have local federal government. More guns means more violence.  

• Conservatives- The second amendment allows individuals to bear arms to defend  themselves. More guns in the hands of good citizens mean less crime  - Health Care  

• Liberal- The government should provide health care to everyone regardless of their  ability to pay.  

• Conservatives- All Americans have access to health care however the government  controlling the payment of it is making health care cost higher for everyone.  Healthcare should remain privatized.  

- Homeland Security  

• Liberal- Passenger profiling is wrong and extra screening should be about more  than race and ethnicity. It is offensive to many people.  

• Conservatives- Profiling should be allowed, however there should be more that  goes into it other than race and ethnicity. There should be an intelligence that uses  other criteria that then requires passengers extra screening.  

- Immigration  

• Liberal- Support legal immigration and blanket amnesty for those who are illegal.  Believe that all immigrants (legal or not) should be allowed the sae education and  health benefits as everyone. It is unfair arrest millions of undocumented  immigrants.

Allison Slaten  

• Conservatives- Support legal immigration only. Illegal immigrants do not have the  same rights as those who are legal. The boarders should be secured by the federal  government and should enforce current immigration law.  

- Private Property  

• Liberal- The government has the right to seise even on private property to  accomplish a public end.  

• Conservatives- Believe that the government and citizens should respect private  ownership and property rights. Seizure is wrong in most cases and eminent domain  should not be used for private development.  

- Religion and Government  

• Liberal- There should be a separation between church and state. The government  should not support any religious expressions.  

• Conservatives- The first amendment only prevents the government from  establishing a national church/denomination. However, God and other symbols of  other Christian heritage should not have to be removed from federal buildings and  in schools. The government should not interfere with religion and religious freedom.  - Same Sex Marriage  

• Liberal- Support same sex marriage because marriage is the union of people who  love each other.

• Conservatives- Believe that marriage is the union of one man and one women.  Requiring citizens to recognize same sex marriage violates moral and religious  beliefs of millions.  

- Social Security  

• Liberal- Social security should be protected at all costs. Reductions in the system  will cause potential harm to those who are poor and needy and would reduce the  benefits of those who rely on the program.  

• Conservatives- The system needs revisions to make it more efficient and financially  sustainable. Would be more effective if it was privatized and allowed individuals to  manage their own savings

Allison Slaten  

- Taxes  

• Liberal- Higher taxes for the wealthy is necessary to address many financial issues.  These taxes should go to helping the poor and needy. These taxes enable the  government to create jobs and provide welfare programs for those in need.  

• Conservatives- Want lower taxes and a smaller, limited government. This will  increase the standard of living and encourage people to work, save and invest.  Money spent by the government on welfare systems encourage laziness and being  dependent on these programs.  

- United Nations (UN)  

• Liberal- The United States has a moral obligation to support the UN because they  support the greater good for the global community. They have a responsibility to  maintain international peace. United States troops should submit to the UN  command if needed.  

• Conservatives- The UN has repeatedly failed. The United States should never  subvert its national interests to those of the UN. The military should not be under  command of the UN ever. Varying opinions on whether or not the United States  should withdraw from the UN.  

- War on Terror/Terrorism  

• Liberal- Terrorism is the result of arrogant United States foreign policy. Relying on  military force to end terrorism creates hatred and leads to more violence. Captured  terrorists should be tried in civilian court.  

• Conservatives- Terrorism is one the biggest threats to the United States. Terrorists  must be stopped and destroyed. Intelligence gathering and military force is the best  way to defeat terrorist around the world. Captured terrorists should be treated as  enemy and tried in military courts.  

- Welfare

• Liberal- Support the safety net that welfare provides for the poor. This is necessary  for fairness in the American economic life.  

• Conservatives- Oppose long term welfare because there should be opportunities  for those in need to become more independent and self- reliant. This is more  effective and won’t allow them to remain dependent on the government.

Allison Slaten

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