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CSU / Biology / BMS 260 / What are the two types of cardiac cells?

What are the two types of cardiac cells?

What are the two types of cardiac cells?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biomedical Sciences
Professor: Russell anthony
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Biomedical Sciences
Cost: 25
Name: BMS 260 Lecture Notes: Week 2
Description: These are the lecture notes from week 2 of BMS 260.
Uploaded: 02/01/2016
17 Pages 102 Views 2 Unlocks
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BMS 260 Lecture Notes: Week #2 


What are the two types of cardiac cells?



• Gap Junction

o Ex. The heart:  

▪ Between heart cells, whichever cells are excited first trigger the  other cells as well

o Extracellular space ~2-4 nm

• Simple Diffusion 

o The movement of particles down a concentration gradient (from high  concentration to low concentration)


Why do particles move down a concentration gradient from high to low concentration?



If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated?

• Facilitated Diffusion 

o The movement of particles down a concentration gradient with a carrier  protein/system to aid and control movement  

• Active Transport 

o The movement of particles against a concentration gradient (from low  concentration to high concentration)We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between non-response bias and response bias?

• Diffusion Equilibrium


What affects the rate of diffusion?



o Diffusion: the movement of solute to reach equilibrium

o Osmosis: the movement of solvent across a membrane (or barrier)If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of encoding in communication?

• Magnitude and Direction of Diffusion

o What affects the Rate of Diffusion?

▪ Kinetic energy (temperature)

▪ Permeability of the membrane

▪ Concentration gradient

▪ Difference in electrical charge on either side of the membrane  

(polarity)

We also discuss several other topics like What are the four basic derivative rules?

What actually changes  

the concentration

Hydrophobic  (nonpolar),  

therefore polar  solutes must be  “masked” in  order to travel  through

• Carrier-mediated Transport (Facilitated diffusion)

o What affects the rate?

▪ Concentration gradient

▪ Abundance of carrier proteins

• Ex. Aquaporins (H2O), GLUTs (movement of glucose  

across the plasma membrane)

We also discuss several other topics like How do you find the minimum and maximum value of a data set?

• Active Transport

o Movement against the concentration gradient  

o Uses cellular energy in the form of ATP

o Membrane protein that serves as a pump (Na+ - P+ - ATPase)

The creation of  

a higher  

concentration  

gradient: 3 Na+ 

ions are  

pumped out  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate instantaneous rate of change?

while 2 K+ ions  

are pumped in  

(more positive  

on extracellular  

side)

• Secondary active transport

o A sodium ion moves down the concentration gradient, and then a glucose  molecule (or amino acid) with travel with them up their concentration  gradient

o Ex. How glucose is transported out of the gut (SGLT 1 and 2)

• Endocytosis  

o Phagocytosis 

▪ Engulfing microorganisms  

• Large compounds (relative to the cell)

▪ Ex. Macrophages, Kuppfer cells (modified macrophages in the  

liver, polymorphonuclear leucocytes  

o Pinocytosis

▪ “Cell drinking”

▪ Small endocytoic vesicles

▪ Non-specific uptake

o Receptor-mediated Endocytosis

▪ Provides for small amounts of endocytosis

▪ Very specific uptake

• Exocytosis

Receptors identify specific problem, etc. and  congregate inside the fluid membrane

o Ex. Vesicles generated by the Golgi apparatus

o Constituitive: 

▪ Mucus, steroid hormones

o Regulated: 

▪ Dependent on a stimulus

▪ Neurotransmitters, proteinaceous hormones

Can be stored in the cell  

for an amount of time

• Nucleus

o Responsible for:

▪ DNA replication  

▪ RNA transcription  

▪ RNA processing

• Structure of DNA and RNA

o Ribose: contains a hydroxyl group  

o Nucleotide Monophosphate: Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) o Nucleotide Diphosphate: Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)

o Nucleotide Triphosphate: Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

o Crick and Watson (1953) develops the double helix model

▪ Hydrogen bonding between bases

▪ Hydrophobic interactions between adjacent bases

▪ 3’ – 5’ phosphodiester bridge

Hydrophobic  interactions

• Transcription of DNA to mRNA

o Not an exact replica of DNA, but a transcription (because uracil replaces  thymine)

o RNA

▪ Single-stranded

▪ Ribose instead of deoxyribose

▪ Uracil instead of thymine

o DNA template is read 3’ – 5’

o RNA transcript is built 5’ – 3’

o DNA has intervening sequences or introns

• mRNA Transcription

o mRNA processing (nucleus)

▪ Splice out introns

▪ 7-methyl guanosine cap on 5’ end

▪ Adds polyadenylated tail to 3’ end

• Protein Translation

o Genes “code for” proteins

o The “triplet code” of DNA determines which amino acid will be placed in  each position of the protein  

o Genetic information to proteins

Template Strand  

Amine group (amino  

terminus), 5’ end of  

mRNA

• Rough endoplasmic reticulum

o Protein translation and processing  

o Secretory proteins

o Membrane proteins

o Membrane-bound organelles (lysosome) • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

o Calcium storage

o Steroid synthase  

o Glycogen storage

Carboxyl group  (carboxyl terminus), 3’  end of mRNA

o Signal sequence/leader peptide

On surface  

of the  

rough ER,  

translating  

proteins

o Add core N-link oligosaccharide chains  

▪ (Asparagine-X-Serine/Threonine)

▪ N-linked glycosylation

• Golgi Apparatus

o Proteins move through and are processed by the Golgi  

o Golgi will package material into membrane-bound vesicles  o Further process protein generated RER

o O-linked glycosylation

▪ (Serine or threonine)

• Lysosome

o Low pH

o Acid hydrolases (enzymes that can function in low pH levels)

▪ This degrades proteins (“garbage disposal”)

o N-linked glycoproteins

▪ Contain mannose-b-PO4-

• Mitochondria

o Generates ATP

o Contains own DNA and RNA

o Replicate (entire cell has more mitochondria)

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