I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Drake!!!
Exam one study guide:
Section 1: Vocabulary review
∙ Additive Sculpture: A sculpture made by adding on material. Such as the clay bison.
∙ Clerestory: An architectural development that lets in natural light and fresh air (think of a sun roof in a car). It was important in helping light large buildings when natural light was the main light source.
∙ Composite pose: Showing multiple points of view in one image to show more information. Think of the pharaohs, the legs face sideways and chest faces out.
∙ Crenellation: The notched tops of walls and towers, used in both decoration and defense:
∙ Cuneiform: The first phonetic writing system (a writing system where letter represent sounds). Developed by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. ∙ Henge: a circle of stones or post often surrounded by a ditch. (such as stonehenge)
∙ Hieratic scale: The more important a person in a painting or statue is depicted as larger than others.
∙ Idealized: A person is portrayed as perfect, without any flaws. Most common in statues of kings and pharaohs.
∙ Mastaba: The first kind of grave used by pharaohs. Consisted of a one story building with a chapel, and more rooms underground. Simply put, the grandfather of true pyramids. If you want to learn more check out Who is Don Wallace?
∙ Megalithic architecture: Architecture made with huge stones, such as Stonehenge.
∙ Memory image: An image created from memory instead of using a model. Often has very generic features.
∙ Naturalistic: Naturalistic perspective shows animals as they are actually observed (as close to a photo as possible). Often in profile.
∙ Relief sculpture: A sculpture that projects from a flat surface. Example: We also discuss several other topics like in economics what is Capital?
∙ Stele: A stone slab placed vertically and decorated with inscriptions or reliefs. It can be used decoratively, ceremonially, or also as a propaganda or a public proclamation (such as laws).
∙ Step pyramid: Second kind of burial homes of pharaohs between mastaba and true pyramids. Consists of both the aboveground building and a large and complex underground tunnel system below. The steps help the pharaoh’s soul rise to the sun.
∙ Subtractive sculpture: A sculpture where material is removed to make an image, like chiseling at stone or carving wood.
∙ True Pyramid: The well known triangular, smooth pyramid. The largest pyramids, like the pyramid of Giza, are this style. They represent the emblem of the sun god.
∙ Ziggurat: In ancient Mesopotamia. Similar in appearance to a step pyramid and made of mud bricks. Meant to be man made mountains, and house the gods. Often connected to a shrine. If you want to learn more check out How are the sinners punished?
∙ Paleolithic period: Means old stone. The first era of prehistory with hunters and gatherers.
∙ Neolithic period: Civilizations begin to settle in permanent locations and engage in farming. This is partially due to climate changes, with the world warming up and happened at different times in different places.
∙ Book of the dead: collection of spells and prayers, often illustrated. They are called books, but actually written on scrolls.
Section 2: Art piece review
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Woman of Willendorf.
∙ Thought to symbolize fertility and health
∙ Possibly used for communication of allegiance building
∙ Possibly sculpture made by pregnant women of themselves
∙ Should NOT be called a venus, since that name brings implications and
Woman from Brassempouy
∙ One of first carvings of a human face ∙ It is a memory image, carved from the memory of many faces by the artist
∙ It is abstracted and the features are reduced to the most basic forms.
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Wall Painting with Horses, Rhinoceroses, and Aurochs:
Chauvet Cave (32,000-30,000 BCE) ∙ The cave contains hundreds of
paintings of many exotic animals and even people.
∙ Oldest site
∙ Naturalistic painting and some
Halls of Bulls: Lascaux Cave
∙ Sealed off to general public
∙ Twisted perspective (composite pose) was used to show many perspectives at once.
∙ Cave has been painted over many of times, meaning that the act of painting was more important than the result.
∙ Bones were used to blow paint through.
Bird headed man with Bison: Lascaux Cave ∙ Very deep within cave
∙ One of the few depictions of the human form in cave paintings
∙ Most likely shows a story, which is unusual.
∙ Definitely male figure (genitalia)We also discuss several other topics like Why japanese women didn't experienced menopause?
Bison : Altamira cave
∙ Painted with red ocher
∙ A little chiseling was done to reshape rocks
∙ The paintings took advantage of the existing rock formations in the cave.
Bison: Le Ruc d’Audoubert
∙ Additive sculpture, built by adding more and more clay.
∙ Relief sculpture comes out from flat surface.
∙ High relief: comes out very far.
Carahuyuk: 7400-6200 BCE
∙ Neolithic period
∙ City in turkey
∙ Had no roads. Get to roof with later and travel the roofs for defense purposes. ∙ Houses made of mud, brick, and
mortar, built on each other up to 12
∙ Dead buried in the floor.
∙ Wall painting, basket weaving, and other art emerges.
∙ Megalithic architecture
∙ Used in rituals involving death.
∙ Made from two kinds of stone carried frm far away.
∙ Trilithons in the middle (a lintel on top of two post)
∙ Similar to and connected with
∙ Built with wood to be city of living instead of dead
∙ Connected to Stonehenge for
ceremonies to be preformed.
Stele of Naram-sim:
∙ Used hieratic scale (bigger=important) ∙ This stele is propaganda, showing the power of the king trampling his
∙ He is in composite pose, legs facing the side and torso facing out.
∙ He wears horns, a symbol of divinity and the king’s divine right to rule.
Ruins of the Anu Ziggurat and White Temple ∙ A ziggurat built on top of a temple. ∙ Made of mud bricks and did not stand the test of time well
∙ Symbolized a man made mountain
∙ Dedicated to gods. Represent everyday worshippers.
∙ General portrait of people, not a
∙ Sculpture size shows wealth of
∙ Very geometric
∙ Inscribed with names
∙ ‘Gods should be approached with attentive gaze’, hence the large eyes.
Warka head/ face of a woman
∙ Made from marble, part of a complete statue
∙ A very naturalistic figure
∙ The face is incomplete. There used to be colorful shells in the eye sockets and eyebrows, along with a wig.
Head of a Man (Akkadian Ruler)
∙ Made with lost wax casting process ∙ Hollow and made of bronze
∙ Was part of a larger statue and an idealized version of a ruler
∙ Is believed to have been defaced by invading forces.
The great Lyre with a bull’s head:
∙ Part of lavish royal tomb
∙ Most likely buried with the player who would have been sacrificed at the
∙ lapis lazuli, worth more than gold, was one fo the rich materials used
Front of the sound box:
∙ Part of the above piece
∙ Shows scenes from the epic of
Gilgamesh, the first known epic poem
Stele of Hammurabi: 1792-1750 BCE ∙ Made of diorite, a neat black rock. ∙ Many copies of this distributed around kingdom
∙ Has the 300+ laws inscribed on it. ∙ Very biased, unfair laws, by our
∙ At the top, Hammurabi and the god of justice, shamaash.
∙ This shows that the laws of the king come from the gods.
Assunasirpal II killing lions:
∙ One of the many relief sculptures in palaces.
∙ Shows the power of the king, in killing a lion (an animal associated with power and kingship).
∙ Unlike older art in Mesopotamia, this relief shows movement. A dynamic
scene with rippling muscles and the like is a new kind of art.
Lanassu (guardian figures):
∙ The two of them are so large that there are sculptures dedicated just to the feat of moving them.
∙ Each one has 5 legs, so that you can see the normal amount of legs looking from either the side or front.
∙ Mythical creature of the time, combines head of man, body of lion, wings of
eagle, and headdress of god.
Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall:
∙ Originally stood in Babylon
∙ Each of 8 gates were named after a god, with this gate dedicated to Ishtar. ∙ Decorated with animals representing gods:
o Lions for Ishtar
o Dragons for Marduk
o Bulls for Adad
Palette of Narmer: 2950 BCE (early dynastic) ∙ Earliest example of bas relief sculpture (it is carved away leaving 3d forms).
∙ Ceremonial, possibly for mixing eye makeup.
∙ Celebrates unification of Egypt by Narmer
∙ Hieratic scale, bigger=better
∙ Both upper and lower Egyptian symbols shown
∙ Gods are shown, and kings is shown as equal
Imhotep, Step Pyramid and Sham Buildings, Funerary Complex of Djoser:
∙ Monumental architecture
∙ Access to the inside was tightly
∙ Fake buildings (sham buildings) existed in the complex, possibly for spiritual
purpose, and were just walls full of
∙ The designer was Imhotep, the first recorded architect in history.
∙ The step pyramid was enlarged twice, symbolized the absolute power of the king, and an underground city of
tunnels under it.
Great pyramid of Giza:
∙ Oldest 7th wonder of the world.
∙ Represents the Emblem of the sun god ∙ A true pyramid
∙ Rigged with traps to discourage grave robbers.
∙ Had sides covered in smooth limestone and a gilded cap on top.
Model of the Giza Plateau
∙ Simply put, this shows how the setup around the pyramids used to be
∙ Each pyramid was connected to a smaller funerary temple
∙ Houses for tens of thousands of workers found near pyramids
∙ Pyramids also had valley temples on the banks of the nile
Great Sphinx, funerary complex of Khafre ∙ Largest sculpture mad from a single block of stone
∙ Sphinx represents pharaoh.
∙ Sphinx is associated with gods and the lions, making a perfect symbol for
∙ The god Horus is on the back of the statue with wings folded over the head of the king.
∙ He is dressed in the traditional style of a pharoh
∙ The statue is made of expensive
∙ Stone is used to appear eternal
∙ A very idealized form, with no flaws, and appearing almost generic.
∙ The ka (part of the spirit hanging around after death) can move between statues and the body.
∙ Intertwining flowers represent Egypt’s unification
∙ Opposite of the king statues
∙ Much lower than pharaoh, sitting on floor not throne, and no fancy clothes ∙ Non-idealized body. Represents the line of work, not the person.
∙ It is more lifelike and painted than the king statues.
Reconstruction Drawing of the Hypostyle Hall, Great Temple of Amun at Karnak:
∙ A flat roof supported by a forest of columns.
∙ Some of the columns represent upper Egypt, some lower Egypt.
∙ A clerestory lets in light and air and is a huge innovation by the Egyptians. It allows in natural lighting.
Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut:
∙ Very important for the reversal in architecture. Previously, the funerary temple was tiny and the tomb huge in old Egypt. Now, the temple is huge and the tomb is tiny in new Egypt.
Akhenaten and His Family (c. 1353-1336 BCE) ∙ A sunken relief sculpture
∙ Most likely a private painting, in the home with his family.
∙ The figures are elongated and
exaggerated, a complete contrast to earlier art styles in Egypt.
∙ The image shows a sun as representing the God Aten, when previously gods were always shown as people or
Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun
∙ This pharaoh is famous for both dying young, and being one of the only
undistrurbed graves excavated.
∙ The golden mask was on the head of the mummy.
∙ It is a return to older Egyptian art, with the idealized image of the pharaoh, and the traditional headdress and beard.
∙ The mask is decorated with many precious metals and stones.
Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun’s Sarcophagus ∙ Made of hundreds of pounds of gold. ∙ Contained within a number of other sarcophagus, like stacking dolls.
∙ An idealized image of the pharaoh ∙ The crook and flail, symbols of Osiris, were on top of the sarcophagus.
Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris
∙ One of many books of the dead (though they are scrolls, not books).
∙ Part of a new religion, where only the good have a good afterlife.
∙ The scroll is a continuous narrative, where all parts are shown at once.
Section 3: general review
Found deep in caves, very hard to reach areas
It is rare to see humans in cave paintings
Animals, spots and handprints are common in cave paintings The paintings might function either as rituals or as training for hunters
Relief sculptures come out of a flat surface, sculptures in the round are separate.
Additive sculptures have material added to create a design, subtractive have material removed, and whatever is left is the design.
Defined as the land between two rivers
The cradle of civilization
One of the first major farming civilizations.
Place where the wheel was invented
Where Sumerians invented the first system of writing, cuneiform. Devoloped the bronze lost wax process, used to make the Akkadian head of man
Polytheistic, gods were a huge part of life.
Ziggurats were built as manmade mountains, since gods live in mountains.
Each city had their own patron god.
The kings were either gods, or pretty close.
The Rosetta stone:
Previously, historians didn’t even know where to get started deciphering ancient Egyptian.
This stone had the same thing written in 3 languages, two of them being Egyptian, the other being ancient greek, which was alone.
Thus, translation was possible.
Early dynastic period:
kingship develops and unifies upper (southern) and lower (northern) Egypt.
Key Egyptian gods:
Anubis, the jackal, death.
Osiris, also death, represented as a mummy/crook and flail
Horus, the hawk, the sky
Significance of ancient Egyptian art:
Stayed nearly the same over thousands of years.
Art was not made for the purpose of art: it will usually have a clear function, such as propaganda.
Images are distilled and simplified down to show the ideal or concept rather than reality.
People are drawn geometrically with set proportions.
The soul was believed to have many parts, and the ka (most important part of the spirit) could only stay alive as long as the body was preserved, thus, mummification.
Mastaba: earliest for of tomb. Flat, one story building. Common for a long time. Contains room for diseased, chapel for prayers/offerings, and an
underground burial chamber (or multiple for families). These were built in necropolis, a city of the dead on the west bank of the nile.
Step Pyramid: Eventually replaces Mastaba. Has complex system of underground rooms, like mastaba. Though astatically similar to ziggurat, its use is very different. Step pyramid is for burial and for steps up to sun god for the king’s soul.
True Pyramid: Huge structures. With all of the wealth buried there, robbers became a threat, and traps and false passageways were added to deter and stop them. However, it is rare to find a tomb that has not been plundered.
The tomb of Hatshepsut is important, since the it was the reverse of earlier. The tomb was tiny and hidden, and the funerary temple was huge. Earlier, like the great pyramid of Giza, the tomb was huge and funerary temple small.