Study Guide For Exam 1
Study Guide For Exam 1 101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amneris Santiago on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Old Dominion University taught by Mrs. Whitaker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Old Dominion University Sociology 201 Introduction to Sociology Dr. Ingrid P. Whitaker Exam 1 Study Guide Exam 1 is scheduled for Monday February 1. You will need a #2 pencil and a blue scantron. Scantrons are available for purchase at the bookstore. Exam 1 will cover chapter 1 of your text as well as material from lecture that corresponds to chapter 1. The following specific topics/questions will be covered on the exam. The exam format is multiple choice, short answer, and essay. 1) Understand what is meant by a sociological perspective. In particular, how sociologist explain what appear to be individual choices from a societal perspective. (We referenced the work of Durkheim here) Also, what does it mean to see Sociology in everyday life? Answer: Sociology- Study of how the individual/ individual behavior is influenced by society. The way groups in society interact, groups influence the individual. Sociologists look for general patterns in the behavior of particular people. Durkheim: suicide studying findings and analysis still had true in current research findings. Differences between those who commit suicide & those who do not is social integration. White single men are more likely to commit suicide due to the facts that they are less likely to have a close knit support system. *Social integration: Categories of people with strong social ties had low suicide rates, and more individualistic people had high suicide rates. 2) How is the sociological perspective related to marginality and social change/social crisis? People with the greatest privileges tend to see individuals as responsible for their own lives. Those at the margins of society, by contrast, are quick to see how race, class, and gender can create disadvantages. Everyone feels isolated from time to time, as if we are living on the edge. For some categories of people, however, being dan outsider-not part of the dominant category— is an everyday experience. The greater’s people social marginality, they better they are able to use the sociological perspective. Example: Depression of the 1930’s, people without jobs could not help but see general social forces at work in their particular lives. Rather than saying, “something is wrong with me; I can’t find a job,” they took a sociological approach and realized, “The economy has collapsed; there are no jobs to be found!” 3) Understand the social changes in society that are associated with the development of Sociology. What aspects of society were Marx and Durkheim interested in? Marx believed that the key to interpretive sociology lies in Verstehen, the german word for, “understanding.” It is the interpretive sociologist’s job not just to observe what people do but also to share in their world of meaning, coming to appreciate why they act as they do. Subjective thoughts and feelings, which scientists tend to dismiss because they are difficult to measure, are the focus of the interpretive sociologist’s attention. Marx helped develop the social-conflict approach, & Durkheim helped develop the structural- functional approach. Many sociologists use social-conflict theory not just to understand society but also as part of their efforts to reduce inequality. Karl Marx championed the cause of workers in what he saw as their battle against factory owners. In a well-known statement, Marx declared, “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways;the point, however, is to change it.” Social conflict: shows inequality creates conflict and causes change. Structional-functional approach: explores how social structures work together to help society operate. 4) Understand Comte’s three stages of society. Understand what is meant by positivism Positivist sociology: the study of society based on scientific observation of social behavior. Uses the logic of science and tries to establish cause and effect. It demands that researchers try to objective and is loosely linked to structural-functional theory. Positivism: a scientific approach to knowledge based on “positive” facts as opposed to mere speculation. Comte pointed out the need to keep society unified when many traditions were breaking down. 1. Theological, 2. Metaphysics, 3. Scientific. 5) Understand what a sociological theory is A theory is a statement of how and why specific facts are related. The job of a sociological theory is to explain social behavior in the real world. For example: Durkheim’s suicide research. Sociologists conduct research to test and refine their theories. In deciding which theory to use, sociologists face two basic questions: what issues should we study? and how should we connect the facts? & They use theoretical approach to guide their thinking. Theoretical approach: a basic image of society that guides thinking and research. Sociologists are use of three major theoretical approaches: the structional-functional, social-conflict, and the symbolic interaction approach. 6) Understand what a theoretical perspective is. Be able to identify/define the three major theoretical perspectives in Sociology- structural functional, conflict (including feminism and gender conflict and race conflict), and symbolic interactionism Structional-functional: a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. - This points to social structure, any relatively stable pattern of social behavior. Social structure gives our lives shape in families, the workplace, or the college classroom. The main goal of the Sociologists who use this approach, then, is to figure out “What makes society tick.” Social conflict: a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. This approach highlights how factors such as class, race, ethnicity, gender and age are linked to inequality in terms of money, power, education, and social prestige. A conflict analysis rejects the idea that social structure promotes the operation of society as a whole, focusing instead on how any social pattern benefits some people while hurting others. Gender-conflict(or feminism): the study of society that focuses on inequality between women and men. The gender conflict approach is closely linked to feminism, support of social equality for women and men. Race-conflict: the study of society that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories. Symbolic interactionism: a framework for building theory that sees society as a product of the everyday interaction of individuals. 7) Understand the difference between micro and macro level perspectives in sociology Macro-level Orientation: a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole. Micro-level Orientation: a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations. 8) Understand the definition and differences between concepts and variables. Understand what it means to operationalize a variable Concept: a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form. Sociologists use concepts to label aspects of social life, including “the family” and “the economy,” to categorize people in terms of their “gender” or “social class.” Variable: a concept whose value changes from case to case. The familiar variable “height,” for example, has a value that varies from person to person. The concept “social class,” can describe people’s social standing using the values “upper class,” “Middle class,” “working class,” or “lower class.” Operationalize of a variable: specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable. Before measuring the concept of “social class,” for example, you would have to decide exactly what you were going to measure—say, income level, years of schooling, or occupational prestige. 9) Understand what is meant by an independent and dependent variable. What is the difference between correlation and cause and effect when examining the relationship between and independent and dependent variable? Independent Variable: the variable that causes the change. Dependent: the variable that changes due to the change that was made. Cause & effect: a relationship in which change in one variable (the independent variable) causes change in another. (Dependent) Correlation: a relationship in which two(or more) variables change together. Understanding cause and effect is valuable bc it allows researchers to predict how one pattern of behavior will produce another. 10)Understand the four major methods used to conduct sociological research : Experiment, Survey, Participant Observation, Using Existing Sources The experiment allows researchers to study cause & effect between two or more variables in a controlled setting. Survey research uses questionnaires or interviews to gather subjects’ responses to a series of questions. Through participant observation, researchers join with people in a social setting for an extended period of time. Researchers use data collected by others fro existing sources to save time and money. The following Essay Questions will appear on the exam. Be prepared to answer one question on the exam. The public education system is a fundamental part of our society. Explain at least two issues a sociologist would examine if she/he were interested in studying public education from a structural-functional, conflict or symbolic interactionist perspective. (Select one perspective.) Symbolic interaction: a framework for building theory that sees society as a product of the everyday interaction of individuals. The public education system is meant to help build the young generation and help them gain knowledge, and become successful. The social norm, is that people go to school, and graduate with a high school diploma, going off to college, and finding a job in your specialty shortly after. Public education is also supposed to help make it affordable for people to have the ability to get free education before having to actually pay for higher education. The public education system is a fundamental part of our society due to the fact that it is something that everyone has to go through. It is apart of everyones life, therefore being a fundamental step in everyones self growth. Everyone has to go through it, however, not everyone goes through the same experience. Some families are fortunate enough to be able to go to schools in better off locations, and are more likely to get into more prestiges colleges. While things, might be considered “equal” they have no true justice. Yes, lower class has schools, and books, and desks. But no, they are not even remotely close to the kind of modernized equipment, nor technology that the higher up schools could afford. A sociologist is interested in explaining why suicide rates are higher in some parts of the United States and among certain populations in the United States. Using the concept of anomie, explain where you would most likely find high rates of suicide and why. Describe one population that may exhibit high rates of suicide (based on the concept of anomie). Explain why this population may have a high rate of suicide. Anomie: lack of social or ethnic standards in an individual or group White men have a higher chance of committing suicide due to the fact that they have less of a support system, whereas more ethic groups have more family around and have bigger support systems to rely on. White single men usually have less people involved in their lives, therefore are more incline to feel alone, or isolated.
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