Genetics Study Guide #1
Genetics Study Guide #1 Bios 206
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Sehnert on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bios 206 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Christensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biological Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chromosome theory of inheritance -inherited traits controlled by genes on chromosomes; maintains genetic continuity Alleles -alternate forms of genes Genotype -set of alleles in individual Phenotype -physical manifestation Mitosis -2 daughter cells; diploid set Meiosis -gametes are haploid Nucleotides -A with T, G with C Central dogma of molecular biology -DNA goes to RNA to protein Model organisms -easy to grow, short lifecycle, and many offspring Diploid organisms -2 copies of each gene, one from each parent Sister chromatids –DNA replication makes EXACT copies Homologs vs. Sisters –homologs are chromosome pairs. Sisters are exact copies. 4 Sisters make a homologous pair Meiosis I –reductional Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Meiosis II –equational Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II MEIOSIS RESULT = 4 HAPLOID CELLS Test-cross –to homologous recessive Monohybrid – ¾ to ¼ -- 3:1 Incomplete dominance vs. Codominance –incomplete is blend of 2 phenotypes (pink). Codominance is both phenotypes visible on same organism (red and white). Lethal allele –usually homozygous; Dominant lethal –heterozygotes will die Recessive lethal –both genes have to be same for death Epistasis –one gene masks other; how complementation happens Bombay phenotype –homozygous recessive masks other gene (blood type) Complementation –recessive mutations; only homozygous crosses Pleiotropy –single gene has multiple phenotypes Variable expressivity –same genotype but different expression (7 broken bones vs. 50) Incomplete penetrance –not all individuals with same genotype display same phenotype; number Temperature sensitive mutations –can speed up or slow down based on temp
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