Management, Test One Study Guide
Management, Test One Study Guide MGMT 3202
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carson Talbert on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 3202 at East Carolina University taught by Tiffany Woodward in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Management in Business at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Test One Study Guide Managers: People that supervise employees to make sure the company’s resources are used to create profit efficiently. Management: Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling people to create efficiency in a work place. Planning: Identifying what your goals are and create a course of actions to meet those goals. Examples of questions need to be answered are… 1. What does the company do? 2. Where do you want to be in the future? 3. Who’s the company? Organizing: This is the structure of how the company is run. Also structures relationships to create efficiency. Examples: Creates, chain of command and job titles Controlling: Reviewing how well a company is doing. To see if changes need to be made to become more efficient and if not, maintaining it. Leading: Provide motivation to employees and giving clear instructions on what needs to be done. Different levels of management 1. CEO- lead important departments. 2. Top Managers- set company goals, over see how effective and efficient the company is. 3. Middle Managers- boss of the first-line manager, also over sees how resources are used and if they can be used more efficiently. 4. First-Line Managers- responsible for day-to-day supervision of employees, boss of employees and builds relationships with them. Managerial Skills 1. Conceptual- all about problem solving and making situations in the work place better. 2. Human- all about being good with people, this includes, clear communication and understanding, and leadership. 3. Technical- all about the actually knowledge and know how required to run the job. (Easiest one to learn) Effectiveness: Measures if certain actions that the company is taking are benefiting them and getting them closer to their goals. Efficiency: Measures how well a company is doing. A good manager= Efficient + Effective Restructuring: Taking a different course of action then a previous one, such as downsizing to improve efficiency and effectiveness. The downsides to this is it creates bad morale within the work place. Outsourcing: Having another company perform work that the company previously performed for a lower cost than to make it themselves. (Usually foreign companies) This creates bad morale among the employees. Empowerment: This gives employees more responsibilities and a higher knowledge and job. This improves job satisfaction and motivation with employees of the company. Challenges for Managers Today 1. Competitive advantage 2. Diversity 3. Ethical and Social Responsibility 4. Technology Competitive advantage: Perform the same line of work as another company but does it more efficiently and effectively. History of management Before the Industrial Revolution: All work places had a small amount of employees and were very skilled at creating the product. After the Industrial Revolution: Most work places used machinery to help build product and workers were not as skilled. Also there were a lot more factories with a lot more employees. Managers had to evolve to the new work environment and change the way they were used to managing. Scientific Management: This is a management method that makes the employees focus on one piece of the product and then pass it on to the next worker. By doing this the workers become more efficient in their areas, which in return increases the production rate. Helps the managers watch how the product is made in section and from that he can change the methods of how it is made if there is a better way to increase efficiency. Downsides: The employees become bored of doing the same task everyday and because of that it is hard to keep them motivated. Also there is little/no rewards for employees that do better, which in return gives the employees even less motivation to do better. Bureaucratic Theory: This is a formal structure that has a boss and workers beneath him. Having this type of structure in the work place the employees are treated fairly. With having structure it created higher-level jobs and workers all had set hours with rules to following during them. Depending on how well you do in your job there is chance for promotion, which creates more responsibility and different tasks. Downsides: With so much structure and rules it took away any creativity employees might have. Communication was lost because of the ranking of jobs. Also having different level positions, it took longer to make decision because of the time it took to get to the boss. Hawthorne Studies: These were different test taken to see if by changing something in the work place such as, brightness in lighting, would affect work efficiency. Test one Different lighting was the first test ran and results were positive meaning work efficiency increased. However, after the test was over work efficiency went back down, which was unexpected. Test two After that happened they started testing everything, space, location, temperature, etc. Again, the efficiency increased during the tests. Researches didn’t know why though all they knew was that efficiency was affected by something. Then by accident they discovered that giving the employees that attention is what was increasing it. So by this study they discovered that the attitude of a manager or boss is directly correlated to increase in efficiency. Test three They tested to see if there was a correlation between money and efficiency. They ran this by giving employees hourly wage and giving bonuses based on group outputs. This didn’t work. The employees were scared that if they did become more efficient people might start getting laid off or they might get paid less. The employees all; worked at a steady pace to make sure efficiency stayed the same. Informal Organizations: Social structure of how people work in a workplace. Organizational Behavior: behavior of people in an organization. Theory X and Y This is the theory that there are two different types of managers. Theory X: states that all managers are lazy, don’t like to do there job, and get by with doing as little work as they can. Theory Y: States the exact opposite, they love their job, and work hard at it. Personality Traits: Different personality traits are better in different types of jobs. If a company is run a certain way and it fits your personality you are likely to do well and vice versa. Personality Traits Tested the Most 1. Extraversion- someone who is outgoing and loves to be around people. a. Opposite- someone that’s to themselves. 2. Negative affectivity- someone who gets stressed out really easily, reacts to little obstacles, and typically works well under pressure. a. Opposite- a person that is kind of chilled out, and laid back. 3. Agreeableness- someone that genuinely cares about others, and likes to resolve conflict between people. a. Opposite- someone that is distrustful and doesn’t care about others problems 4. Conscientiousness- someone that is well organized and on top of things. a. Opposite- Someone that is unorganized 5. Openness to experience- someone that likes to take risks and do things differently to increase efficiency. a. Opposite- someone that doesn’t take risks and does things by the book. 6. Need for Achievement- someone that likes to be challenged in tasks/projects, when performed they do their best work. a. Opposite- someone who doesn’t like challenges or hard tasks. 7. Need for Affiliation- someone who has a need to be liked by everyone. This can be bad for managers because the position needs for hard decisions to be made. a. Opposite- someone that doesn’t care what people think and can make hard decision based on what is best for the company. 8. Need for Power- someone that strives for power and loves to be a leader. a. Opposite- someone that likes to follow and doesn’t mind being told what to do. Internal Locus of Control: this is someone that believes their actions can impact the outcome of an event or project. In return, these people are harder workers because they believe they can make a difference External Locus of Control: this is someone that blames everyone but themselves for the outcome of an event or project. In return, these people are not willing to work hard because they believe no matter what they do, it will not make a difference. Self-Esteem: This is how someone feels about themselves. A low self- esteem means someone does not think fondly of themselves and their abilities. A high self-esteem is the opposite, they think fondly of themselves and their abilities so are will to take on tasks. Terminal Values: This is a set goal that someone wants to accomplish in his life. Instrumental Values: this is kind of like morals, someone lives by there own personal beliefs Attitudes: Shows a managers opinion and look on the project at hand or job in general. Attitude towards job satisfaction and organizational commitment can affect the behavior of managers and employees. Having this makes them more likely to work hard and make the best decisions for the company. Organizational Citizenship behaviors: Going “above and beyond” at work. Examples: Someone coming in fifteen minutes early, staying fifteen minutes late, and helping others with their work. Moods and Emotions: Can affect the job at hand in positive or negative ways depending on whether it is good or bad. Emotional intelligence: this is the ability to have control of one’s emotions, which in return controls the emotions of their employees. This is a great quality to have when in a managerial role. Organizational Culture: this is the feel of the organization. If your personality meets the personality of the organization, performance increases. The culture of an organization has the ability to change, however, it takes a long time to do. Types of Culture 1. Control- love to be a leader. 2. Performance- strive for company and individual efficiency and effectiveness 3. Relationship- loves working with groups of people and social environments. Also likes to help others and is great at communication 4. Response- Quick on their feet and are very creative. Organizational Socialization: This is what a company puts together for new employees to meet and socialize with people within the company. Ceremonies and Rites: These are events that celebrate a person or company for their accomplishments. 1. Rites of Passage- this is the change in someone’s life, getting hired, promoted, or resigning. 2. Rites of integration- this is to keep employees connected with major announcements, and social events. 3. Rites of enhancement- this is so organizations can reward employees for doing a good job with things like award programs. Language: A company gets its reputation from their language. There is unspoken language and spoken language. Unspoken could be how employees dress, and what the office looks like. Spoken could be the companies mission statement, and how employees are treated.
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