DEVIANCE EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
DEVIANCE EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Sociology 3910
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 3910 at Clemson University taught by William White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Deviance in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
DEVIANCE EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE DEFINITIONS: Conflicting definitions of deviant behavior: o Any violation of social rule o Must provoke disapproval, anger or indignation o Any physical or mental disability due to devaluation by society o Positive deviance towards celebrities, saints, geniuses Positivism: deviance is positively real o Associated with the sciences o Certain characteristics make one deviant o Subjects are observable objects o Deviance is determined by forces beyond one’s control Constructionist: deviance is a social construction o Associated with the humanities, language, arts o Deviance is a label. No label=No deviance o Deeper understanding and empathy for subjects o Surface facts o Deviance is a voluntary act POSITIVIST THEORIES: Anomie-Strain Theory: (Durkheim) deviance attributed to social norms that result from society’s urging people to be ambitious, without providing them with opportunities to succeed o If social strata is not put in place, society is encouraging bad behavior o A lack of normative control causes deviance o Any person, regardless of class, tends to engage in deviance if they experience a significant gap between social aspirations and opportunities Goal-Means Gap Theory: (Merton) deviance occurs when society encourages it by pressuring one to commit a deviant act o Success is freely available to all, regardless of class, but legitimate means of achieving success is not o Society pressures people to commit deviance by encouraging high aspirations but denying success o 5 Responses to socially created pressures 1. Conformity: accepting both society approved goals and means 2. Innovation: use of illegitimate means to achieve socially accepted high success goals 3. Ritualism: abandonment of high success goals but pursue legitimate and honest work 4. Retreatism: withdrawal from goals and means of society 5. Rebellion: rejection of social expectations and support for overthrowing the system Status Frustration Theory: (Cohen) replaces success with status o School is a middle-class status system o Delinquent subculture: lower class boys who fail at the middle class status system go back to their lower-class neighborhood and set up their own competitive subculture where they can compete more fairly for high status using their own criteria of achievement (stealing, fighting, etc.) Differential Illegitimate Opportunity Theory: (Cloward and Ohlin) lower class has less opportunity for achieving success in a conforming way o Criminal subculture (stealing), conflict subculture (violent gangs), retreatist subculture (drugs) CONSTRUCTIONIST THEORIES Labeling theory: symbolic interaction o Deviance involves interaction between a deviant and conventional people o Interaction must impute each other’s actions and reactions o Causes of deviant behavior is not important, only the label is o Positive consequence for community, because they are able to see what type of behavior is deviant and should be avoided o Negative consequence for one being labeled, because regardless if this person starts out as deviant, being told he is and treated as if he is will cause him to believe he is deviant, thus committing deviant acts Phenomenological Theory: all people, whether labeling or being labeled, are highly subjective o People are active and are capable of intending and carrying out their own behavior Conflict Theory: o Social conflict: incompatible interests, needs and desires of diverse groups (business, political, racial, religious, etc.) o Cultural conflict: discrepant norms and values regarding right and wrong, such as cultural differences that are only acceptable in one culture o Law on the books: ideal of the law. Formal rules all have agreed upon and are expected to abide by o Law in action: reality of law. How legal authorities actually discharge their duty- often unjust and unfair o Organizational Imperative: nature of any organization to compel its members to perform tasks that will maximize rewards and minimize trouble for the organization Social Reality Theory: blames the unjust law on capitalism o Constructs ideology of crime based on criminal acts of the lower class o End the oppression of the powerless by the powerful Marxist Theory: deviance is caused by capitalism o Capitalism creates monopoly, which leads to corporate crime o Marginality leads to a lack of self esteem Feminist Theory: theories of deviance all about men and not about women Power Theory: power determines the type of deviance people are likely to carry out and influences the success of the deviant act o Powerful people have stronger deviant motivation, greater deviant opportunity, and weaker social controls Postmodernist Theory: questions the basic values of modernism o Eliminate preconceptions to maximize sensitivity to the subject’s experience when studying someone who has committed deviant behavior o Studied linguistic domination and conflict in social interaction THINGS TO REMEMBER: Difference between Deviance and Crime o Deviance is a violation of informal norm (society’s belief) o Crime is a violation of formal norm (the law) o All crime is deviant, but not all deviance is crime Economic strain causes deviance o Two types of strain: 1. Removal of positively valued stimuli: loss of a boyfriend/girlfriend, death of a family member/friend, moving to a new school district, school suspension 2. Presentation of negative stimuli: child abuse, criminal victimization, problems with parents/peers o BOTH lead to crime Control Theory: deviance can naturally occur from our inborn animal impulses o Deviance can occur naturally without social controls o Strong bond to society= conformity o Weak bond to society= deviance o Shaming is a form of social control Disintegrative Shaming: deviant is stigmatized and rejected by conventional society Reintegrative Shaming: (more positive) makes wrongdoers feel guilty while showing them understanding, forgiveness and respect o “People are born bad and must be controlled in order to be good” o Deterrence Doctrine: role of formal social control in deterring deviance Humans are rational and will continue to commit crime unless the cost and punishment is severe Lack of punishment encourages crime
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