Psych1001 Study Guide
Psych1001 Study Guide PSYC1001
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephen Black on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by John Holden in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Psychology 1001 Notes Red-Definition Bold- Important word or concept Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology and History of Psychology 4 Basic Perspectives in the field of Psychology Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Evolutionary Psychology- The Scientific Study of Thought and Action Psychology applies research to everyday practices and creates studies to find causes of behavior Philosophical Origins of Psychology Plato: believed true knowledge was innate; arrived at through introspection. If proper questions were asked then the answers would be known. Thought that answers were only in the mind and that the highest level of answer and intellect came from inside the mind. Aristotle: Directly examined nature and discovered that knowledge is not independent of nature. Rene Descartes: Discovered that no two philosophers agreed so he adopted his own guidelines for a “truth” quest Came up with 4 ideas 1.Avoid prejudice of ideas. 2.“Divide and conquer” problems. 3.Begin with simplest problems, end with most difficult. 4.4. Be complete and through, omit nothing. Cogito Ergo Sum (I think therefore I am) Wilhelm Wundt: Considered father of scientific psychology and established the first psychology laboratory Devised a “Thought Meter” Discovered that “thinking” took time Sought to understand consciousness by scientific means Introspection: Looking inward and reporting on one’s conscious experience Subjects reported everything that went through their minds when presented with a stimulus or task Edward Titchener: Structuralism- Exclusive focus on indexing the contents of the mind using introspection Goal was to create a periodic table of the elements of the human consciousness No two laboratories agreed William James: Functionalism- Influenced by Evolutionary Theory: Emphasized the function of psychological process in helping individuals adapt to their environment Our thoughts and actions are generated by our need to cope with our environment; The idea to run away is a ‘function” of perceiving a threat; Revolutionary: Psychology suddenly became a practical science Mary Whiton Calkins William James taught at Harvard and granted her a PhD First female PhD, she attended Harvard unofficially, as it was a male only school She enrolled in James’s psychology seminar, and all men dropped out! She focused on memoey research and invented the paired-associate memory technique; Later in her career, she focused what would now be called personality & self-psychology Humans have asked “psychological” questions since the beginning of recorded history Both evolutionary theory and the adoption of measurement practices of early physicists and astronomers gave rise to a practical disclipline that is now largely independent of its origins in philosophy WEEK 2 Red- Definition Bold- Important word or concept Sigmund Freud- Key Idea: Our behavior is deeply influenced by unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires. Many unconscious thoughts are sexual or destructuctive in nature Behaviorism- Discovered by James B. Watson and B.F Skinner Our behavior is observable, measureable, and learned. WEEK 3 Red- Definition Bold- Important Word or Concept Nature and Nurture Nature: Contributions of Genetic Inheritance Nurture: Contributions of Learning and Environment A Brief Intro to Genetics A gene maintains and transfer discrete pieces of hereditary information during the process of cell division. A popular misconception is that single genes directly code for traits expressed in our phenotype. This is only rarely true, for example with eye color, and some genetic diseases (e.g., sickle-cell anemia) Genotype- an organisms hereditary information Phenotype- The observable form of an organism, the expression of its genetic and environmental interactions. Genes participate in complex interactions that generate proteins which, in turn, affect cellular and extracellular processes that give rise to traits expressed in phenotypes Heritability Proportion of population variability in some characteristic that can be explained in terms of genetic variability Variability due to genetic differences/ Total variability in the population Epigenetics-Study of how genetics interacts with the environment Adaptive Traits William Paley(1802) Creationist account All adapted entities exhibit functional organization They entail a set of behaviors, components and processes that, when combined, allow an organism to do what it is supposed to do. Argued functional organization can’t just happen, it must be put there by design Thus, according to Paley, each species displays the work of a Creator, who gave each species just the right traits to survive in its niche Rise of Evolutionary Thinking Jean Lamarck(1744-1829) Fossil evidence indicated that later forms of animals were different from earlier forms. He proposed a theory of acquired characteristics 1. Environmental changes are responsible for structural changes in plants and animals 2. The resulting changes are passed to the plant/animals offspring e.g., If the parent’s survival depended on the development of strong muscles, the child would be born with strong muscles But he lacked evidence or a framework for understanding what would be inherited, and how. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Applied Lamarck’s theory of transmutation (later evolution) to everything—matter, life etc. Argued that all things begin as undifferentiated wholes, and become increasingly complex through the process of evolution Successful behavioral responses to environmental events are more likely to be repeated in the future Proposed that experience based associations are passed to the next generation in the form of instincts Charles Darwin (1809-1882) After a sketchy attempt at a medical degree, and on the advice of his father, Darwin entered Cambridge to be trained as clergyman He was always interested in entomology and happened on an opportunity to be a naturalist as part of a 5-year British scientific expedition aboard the Beagle (1831-1836) He was specifically hired to gather evidence to refute early evolutionary theories in favor of a creationist perspective. While collecting specimens, he noticed that “like” organisms differed from place to place, even when separated by short distances (esp. on the Galápagos islands) He became convinced that species change their character over space and time By the time he returned to England he was on the verge of seriously considering the notion of transmutation That happened once his “hunches” began to be confirmed by experts that examined his collections upon his return Darwin still need a driving principle that guided the process of transmutation Because of the materialist scientific bent of Darwin’s times, it had to look very much like a demonstrable force—a Newtonian force He realized, while reading Thomas Malthus’s Essay on the principle of population that the battle between population growth and resource limits could be an agent of change Darwin extended the already familiar notion of artificial selection used by breeders and suggested that a form of natural selection emerges from resource competition Darwin proposed that the Natural selection of adaptive characteristics from among the range of individual differences within a species is what accounts for the progressive transmutation or evolution of a species over long time periods. All other things equal, the fittest, the best adapted individuals will tend to survive and breed—survival of the fittest (Spencer’s term). Notice that fitness is really only defined here in terms of a better rate of survival and breeding, nothing else Later he made the case that humans too were products of evolution. Darwin delayed the publication of his theory for 20 years—he knew how controversial it would be. Explains numerous phenomena: Convergent evolution: fish have fins and so do aquatic mammals; flying fish, butterflies, and birds all evolved wings. Parallel evolution: Similar quill structure of old and new world porcupines Vestigial traits: Male nipples, whale pelvis and limbs Common traits with different structure, such as the bone structure in limbs, all suggest a common ancestor Explains why domestic selection works: E.g. Dog and farm animal breeding Explains mutation of form in organisms: E.g. The flu virus, the decay in the effectiveness of antibiotics, hospital superbugs Presaged genetic theory Did Darwin Get Every Detail Right? No, new details have been uncovered that Darwin failed to anticipate: Gradualism amended, circumstances have arisen that indicate the possibility for very rapid evolutionary change. E.g., the flu virus, Finch beaks Punctuated equilibrium (S. J. Gould) DNA may support multiple potential phenotypes However, no additions contradict the the essentials of the theory: Adaptation via morphological change. They only broadened its scope and its explanatory role.
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