CHM 232 Exam 1 study guide
CHM 232 Exam 1 study guide CHM 232
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Poland on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 232 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dave Leonard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Biological Chemistry in Chemistry at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
CHM 232 Study guide and tips▯ Re-do assignments▯ Read through notes▯ Complete practice exam▯ Make note cards for amino acids and functional groups▯ ▯ Make ﬂashcards/Understand these functional groups:▯ -Alkane▯ -Alkene▯ -Alcohol▯ -Thiol▯ -Aldehyde▯ -Ketone▯ -Carboxylic Acid▯ -Carboxylate▯ -Amide- Combination of Carboxylic Acid and Amine. Never charged.▯ -Amine▯ -Protonated Amine▯ -Ester▯ -Aromatic▯ ▯ Bond types:▯ -Covalent: Polar and non-polar, equal sharing of electrons between atoms. Strongest type of bond.▯ -Ionic: Bond between a metal and a nonmetal. Strong bond.▯ -Hydrogen: Two electronegative elements sharing a hydrogen equally. (O and N). A hydrogen bond donor is the atom that is attached to the hydrogen. An acceptor is one that binds to the hydrogen. Weak bond.▯ -Van der Waals (London Dispersion): Has a hydrophobic effect. Natural weak attraction force between two molecules. non- polar. Weakest bond. ▯ ▯ *Know how to identify which molecule is the most polar/least polar between a set of molecules. A full charge is more polar than neutral. ▯ ▯ Polar: Water soluble and hydrophilic▯ Non-Polar: Water insoluble, lipid soluble and hydrophobic, lipophilic▯ Part polar/part non-polar: Micelle forming and amphipathic. LONG chains of carbons. Water surrounds the micelle (a circular structure where the non-polar sides of the molecules face the inside away from water and the polar sides of the molecule face the outside of the circle towards water.)▯ ▯ *It is difﬁcult to move a full charge across a membrane▯ ▯ *Amides can NOT be charged▯ ▯ Acids, bases and buffers:▯ The body maintains a constant pH by utilizing buffers. Buffers are a roughly equal mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base that maintains constant pH under challenge of acid or base. Blood pH, healthy range, is between 7.35 and 7.45. Normal is 7.4. Below 7.35 is acidosis and above 7.45 is alkalosis. ▯ ▯ How do we know when a molecule is protonated or not? Henderson Hasselbach equation.▯ ▯ *pH varies, pKa does not!▯ *Know how to do a titration: Start with protonated form of molecule and ﬁnd out the pKa of each proton. Divide up the graph depending on how many protons the molecule is able to lose. In the ﬁrst section of the graph, draw a dot where the pKa of the ﬁrst molecule lost is and ﬁnish out the curve. Do this for each proton. Draw a line from 7.4 on the Y axis to see which form of the molecule is most prevalent in the blood. ▯ *Buffering range is + or - 1 from the pKa▯ *An ideal buffer is where your dot is drawn-roughly equal mixture of the two forms of the molecule. ▯ *If there is a longer line to the left of where the pH of blood falls on the graph, then it is a better buffer for an acid. If the line is longer on the right, then it is a better buffer for a base. ▯ *pKa is equal to pH when the base/acid ratio is 50/50▯ ▯ Henderson-Hasselbach:▯ pH=pKa + log (base/acid)▯ We control blood pH by breathing rate. ▯ Breathe slower= decrease pH (Choking, drowning-Acidosis)▯ *Why you breathe into a bag-forces you to breathe CO2 back in and increase blood acidity to drop pH. ▯ ▯ *When the pH is on the basic side of the pKa, it is in basic form and vice versa. ▯ ▯ pH>>pKa: ratio is >1, deprotonated▯ pH=pKa: ratio is 1:1, 50/50 protonated/deprotonated▯ pH<<pKa: ratio is <1, protonated▯ ▯ ▯ *pKa Carboxylic acid: 2-5, Amine: 8-11, Alcohol: >20▯ ▯ Amino acids combine to make proteins!▯ Zwitterion: Both positive and negative charge within the molecule. ▯ ▯ Know/be able to draw these 20 amino acids and their properties:▯ -Glycine▯ -Alanine▯ -Valine▯ -Leucine▯ -isoleucine▯ -methionine▯ -proline▯ -phenylalanine▯ -tryptophan▯ -lysine▯ -histidine▯ -arginine▯ -aspartate▯ -glutamate▯ -serine▯ -threonine▯ -cysteine▯ -tyrosine▯ -asparagine▯ -glutamine▯
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