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Study Guide for CJ100 Test 1

by: Courtney Small

Study Guide for CJ100 Test 1 CJ 100

Courtney Small

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These are the answers to the terms that is expected to be on the first test.
Intro to Criminal Justice
Douglas Klutz
Study Guide
Into, Criminal Justice, Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Small on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 442 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Week  4:  Study  Guide  for  Test  1   Monday,  February  1,  2016   10:59  AM     Bring  a  number  2  pencil  for  test  1!       Inside  information  about  the  criminal  Justice  System   Criminal  Justice:  Society's  response  to  crime.  Involves  the  three  components  of  the  CJ  system  we  will  discuss  this   semester.     Crime:  An  intentional  act  or  omission  in  violation  of  the  criminal  law,  committed  without  defense  or  justification,  and   penalized  by  the  governme nt.     Criminology:  Study  of  why  people  commit  crimes       Which  general  direction  the  crime  rate  is  going   Down.  Over  50%  reduction.         Which  country  imprisons  the  most  amount  of  people     United  States       How  much  did  crime  cost  us   $1.7-­‐$2  trillion       3  main  components  of  the  CJ  system   1.   Policing  (law  enforcement ):  Local,  State  and  Federal     a.   Each  state  has  its  own  bureau  of  investigation     b.   18,000  local,  state  law  enforcements;  15,000  federal     c.   Federalism:  Division  of  power     d.   Healthy,  created  in  the   constitution     2.   Court  system:  State  and  federal  Courts     3.   Corrections     a.   Jails  ands  prisons  only  account  for  30%   b.   Other  70%  is  dominated  by  criminal  corrects     c.   probation  and  parole;  halfway  house         Public  Safety  Expenditures     National  Debt  Clock     o   $18  .9  trillion  dollars  close  to  $19  trillion   o   Student  loan  debt-­‐  $1.3  trillion     Bank  Robberies-­‐  How  much???   o   For  stealing  $500,000  from  a  bank  10-­‐30  years       Medias  Role  in  the  CJ  system     Mass  media  greatly  influences  public   opinion;  New  Age  of  social  media  has  changed  everything     (YouTube,  Facebook,  Twitter,  etc.)       Key  Names  in  the  history  of  propaganda  and  sensatalism     …..           WHITE  COLLAR  CRIME     White  collar  crime:  full  range  of  frauds  committed  by  business  and  government   professionals;  account  for  much   more  of  crimes  than  you  would  think.     Crimes  committed  by  relatively  affluent  white -­‐collar  workers  usually  in  the  course  of  conducting  their  daily   business  activities  and  are  usually  possible  only  because  of  the  social  statuses  (particularly  occupations)  the y   occupy       Father  of  white  collar  crime   Edwin  Sutherland         Key  vocab  word  for  white  collar  crime   Occupation         What  criteria  has  to  happen  to  be  considered  a  white  collar  crime?   1.  crime  had  to  be  committed  in  course  of  ones  OCCUPATION   2.  Crime  is  committed  by  a  "person  of  respectability  and  high  social  status"       Embezzlement,  Insurance  fraud  (hard,  soft),  bankruptcy  fraud,  bribery   Embezzlement:  The  wrongful  taking  of  money  or  other  property  that  has  been  entrusted  to  a  person   as  a  part  of   his  or  her  job;  the  fraudulent  conversion  of  another's  personal  property  by  a  person  who  is  in  position  of  trust   (employee  or  agent)   Insurance  Fraud:  refers  to  any  duplicitous  act  preformed  with  the  intent  to  obtain  an  improper  payment  from  an   insurer   "Hard"  Insurance  Fraud:  Deliberate  destruction   "Soft"  Insurance  Fraud:  exaggeration   Bankruptcy  Fraud:  This  is  committed  when  a  person  or  corporation  hides  or  lies  about  assets  in  bankruptcy   proceedings.  It  also  applies  when  creditors  are  given   false  information,  or  when  illegal  pressure  is  applied  to  bankruptcy  petitioners;  concealing  assets  to  avoid  having   to  forfeit  them  or  Intentionally  filing  false  or  incomplete  forms  (petition  mills)   Bribery:  corrupt  solicitation,  acceptance,  or  transfer  of  va lue  in  exchange  for  official  action       One  Specific  Component  That  We  Must  Be  Able  to  Prove  for  Bribery     Quid  Pro  Quo;  reciprocal  relationship;  "I  scratch  your  back;  you  scratch  my  back"       Ford  pinto  case   Ford  Pinto  Case:  gas  tank  placed  6  inches  from  rear   bumper.  Japanese  compacts  were  coming  out  and  Ford   wanted  to  rush  production.  they  "normalized  the  risk"       Why  would  they  engage  in  fraudulent  thinking?     They  were  aware  of  design  flaw  and  refused  to  pay  for  redesign  and  decided  it'd  be  cheaper  to  pay  off  po ssible   law  suits.        FPC  key  vocab  word  ….  (people  tend  to  __  these  types  of  behaviors  because  they're  around  them  on  a   day  to  day  basis)   Normalize       Social  and  physical  cost  associated  to  white  collar  crime     More  significant  cost  is  the  social  cost   -­‐-­‐>     Social  cost  =very  problematic   Physical  Cost  =  injured,  killed,   company’s  try  to  cut  corners  illegally           ENRON     Was  an  American  energy,  commodities,  and  services  company  based   in  Houston,  Texas.  At  the  end  of  2001,  it  was   revealed  that  its  reported  financial  condition  was  sustained  substantially  by  an  institutionalized,  systematic,  and   creatively  planned  accounting  fraud,  known  since  as  the  Enron  scandal.       3  names  associated  with  ENRON-­‐     Kenneth  Lay,  Jeffrey  Skilling,  Andrew  Fastow       MF  global:   CEO  John  Corzine     Stood  for  'Man  Financial'   2  billion  dollars  of  client  money  was  lost;  dealt  with   commodities       • (oil,  agricultural  front)   Also  dealt  with  industrial  farms     2  months  after  people  recommended  MF  global  for  being  the  best;  the  company  declared   bankruptcy     When  dealing  with  a  financial  institution,  you  have  business  accounts  with  what  they  invest  in  and  you  have  your   client  accounts.  You're  never   supposed  to  touch  your  client  accounts.     John  Corzine  said  he  had  no  clue  where  the  money  went         Bernie  Madoff       Took  new  investors  money  and  gave  it  to  old  investors  (committed  a   Ponzi  scheme);  largest  Ponzi  scheme  to  date  -­‐ 50  bill.  Lost       Define  Ponzi  Scheme     Ponzi  Scheme :  Fraud  that  seems  legitimate,  could  be  a  cover,  takes  money  from  new  investors  and  pays  it   outdo  existing  investors       3  components  of  a  Ponzi  scheme   1.  it  seems  legitimate  comes  from  a  well  respected  and  trusted  individual   3.  they  all  eventually  end  by  going  belly  up  (collapsing  on  themselves,  bankruptcy)       LIBOR  Scandal   London  Interbank  Offer  Rate  (LIBOR) :  The  rate  at  which  large  banks  in  London  are  willing  to  lend  money  among   themselves;  manipulation  of  global  interest  rates,  no  criminal  charges                                     Bill  of  Rights-­‐  KNOW  THE  AMMENDMENTS     First  Amendment:  ("the  great  amendment")  freedom  of  religion,  freedom  of  press,  freedom  of  speech,  freedom   of  assembly  and  petition.   Second  Amendment:  Right  to  bear  arms;  each  state  can  maintain  a  militia;  right  to  keep  and  bear  arms   Third  Amendment:  Protection  against  being  forced  to  quarter  troops.   Fourth  Amendment:    Protection  against  unreasonable  searches  and  seizure;  No  warrants  without  probable  cause;   Protection  against  illegal  search   and  seizure.   Fifth  Amendment:  Protects  you  from  giving  evidence  against  yourself  via  confession.;  protection  against  self -­‐ incrimination.  (Miranda  rights);  don't  have  to  testify  against  yourself.  don't  have  to  answer  questions;  "plead  the   fifth”;  DUE  PROCESS  AT  THE  FEDERAL  LEVEL   Sixth  Amendment:  guarantees  criminal  defendants  the  right  to  a  fair  trial  and  ensures  that  they  are  brought  to   trial  soon  after  they  are  charged  (SPEEDY  TRIAL );  trials  are  held  in  public;  fair  and  impartial  jury   Seventh  Amendment:    Only  amendment  that  only  deals  with  civil  court;  right  to  a  jury  trial  in  civil  cases   Eighth  Amendment:  Prohibits  excessive  fines  and  excessive  bail,  as  well  as  cruel  and  unusual  punishment   Ninth  Amendment:  provide  flexibility  in  constitution;  just  because  a  particular  right  is  not  mentioned  doesn't   mean  it  doesn't  apply;  " unremunerated  rights"  right  to  privacy     Tenth  Amendment:  calls  for  essence  of  federalism  (division  of  power  between  state  and  federal  governments);   states  rights  not  specifically  mentioned  in  constitution   14th  Amendment:  due  process  clause  to  the  states;  guarantees  due  process  and  equal  protection;  due  process   clause;  equal  protection  clause       Schenk  v.  United  States  (1919):   Established  the  "clear  and  present  danger  test"  test.  Free  Speech   is  limited  when  it  creates  a  "clear  and  present   danger"  E.X.-­‐  Shouting  "fire!"  in  a  crowded  theater  would  cause  panic  and  consequential  harm,  therefore  it  is  not   protected  under  the  First  Amendment          Two  most  missed  questions   2  landmark  supreme  court  cases  dealing  with  the  second  amendment   McDonalds  Vs.  Chicago:  second  amendment  applies  to  individual  states  under  the  due  process  clause  of  the   fourteenth  amendment     D.C  vs.  Heller:  5-­‐4  decision-­‐-­‐  1st  supreme  court  case  that  decided  the  ownership  of  guns  fo r  self  protection:   Federal  government  is  making  a  decision:  Challenged  the  old  gun  law.  Said  that  the  second  amendment  protects   an  individual  right  to  possess  a  fire  arm  in  federal   enclaves.  Supreme  Court  decision  that  ruling  in   Heller’s  favor   protecting  the  2nd  amendment  in  owning  firearms.  Only  applied  to  the  federal         Brandenburg  vs.  Ohio:  government  can't  punish  inflammatory  speech  unless  that  speech  is  directed  to  inciting,   and  is  likely  to  incite,  imminent  lawless  action  (ex.  riot)       Brandberg  decision :     any  speech  is  considered  good,  considered  legal  under  the  first   amendment  as  long  as  it  doesn’t  evoke  eminent   behavior  (riots)       *Specific  dates  aren't  necessary  but  are  included         Habbas  Corpus:   Fundamental  safeguard  for  individual  freedom  against  an  arbitrary  government;  the  right  of  an  accused  person  to   appear  in  court  so  a  judge  can  determine  whether  he  or  she  is  being  imprisoned  lawfully       Bills  of  attainder:   Neither  state  nor  federal  government  may  pass  legislation  that  designa tes  particular  individuals  (by  name  or   description)  for  punishment  without  judicial  trial;     legislative  act  declaring  someone  guilty  of  a  crime  and  imposing  punishment  in  absence  of  a  trial;  CONSTITUTION   PROHIBITS  CONGRESS  FROM  PASSING  THESE  BILLS       Ex  post  facto  laws:   retroactive  laws  that  punish  people  for  committing  an  act  that  was  legal  when  the  act  was   committed;  Cannot   make  a  law  and  arrest  someone  after  law  is  made;  any  law  that  punishes  an  act  that  was  not  criminal  when   committed        


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