PSYC Exam 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1 and 2 ONLY)
PSYC Exam 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1 and 2 ONLY) Psyc 1000-04
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by HaleyG on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Haley!!!
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1, 2, and 6 Chapter 1 Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes Hindsight bias: the inclination to perceive a past event as predictable, despite no objective basis for predicting it Armchair psychology: unscientific psychology (based on speculation, observation, and anecdotal evidence instead of truth and fact; results may be incorrect) Wilhelm Wundt: opened the first psychology lab in 1879 How has psychology has shifted between the study of cognition and the study of behavior? Psychology focused on the study of cognitive processes until the 1920's, when focus shifted to studying behavior (there were complaints that cognitive processes could not be studied objectively. The Cognitive Revolution shifted focus back to cognitive psychology in the 1960's, when critics said psychology has to do with more than just behavior ("behaviorism backlash"). What is the difference between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists? Clinical psychologists go to graduate school and have a PHD in psychology while psychiatrists go to medical school, and therefore have a doctorate and can prescribe medication Cognitive psychologists: mental processes Biological psychologists: influences of biology on psychological processes Developmental psychologists: how people change over lifespan Personality psychologists: differences between individuals Social psychologists: interpersonal influences Industrial/organizational psychologists: apply psychological principles to work setting Biopsychosocial approach: theory that behavioral and mental phenomena arise from interaction of biological, psychological, and social influences What is the nature or nurture debate? What is meant by nature and nurture? What is wrong with this debate? How does environment influence genes? What do genes do? Nature (genetics) versus Nurture (how one is raised; environment): the biopsychosocial approach says that nature and nurture are inseparable and interact. Genes code for proteins, can be modified by the environment, and do not necessarily determine behavior. Aspects of critical thinking: question others and yourself; examine how terms are defined; look for potential biases or hidden agendas; verify evidence; watch out for generalizations and simplifications; consider alternative interpretations of evidence; be cautious of reports in the media; don't allow personal examples to influence you more than hard data Ethnocentrism: the belief that one's culture is the norm Why should you be cautious when it comes to scientific reports in the media? Journalism and popular media is not necessarily scientifically sound. Single studies are not definitive, and exceptions to a rule don't necessarily disprove the rule. Theory: an explanation of a phenomenon that summarizes research findings (must be testable) Hypothesis: a research question or prediction Methods of testing hypothesis/gathering data: case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys, and correlational research What are case studies? In what circumstances are they performed? What is a major shortcoming of case study research? Case studies are indepth analyses of one or a few individuals. They may not apply to others, do not prove anything, and are for specific or unique circumstances. Naturalistic observation: observing individuals in their natural setting without interference Surveys: questionnaires and interviews Sampling: process of selecting participants Representative sample: random sample where every member of a population has an equal opportunity to take part; large and random samples are more likely to be representative Volunteer bias: people who choose to be part of a survey may have stronger ideas about the survey topic than others Influence of wording in survey research: wording may change survey responses Correlational analysis: attempt to find a linear relationship between two variables Positive correlation: direct relationship, variables increase and decrease together Negative correlation, inverse relationship, one variable increases while the other decreases How does a correlation coefficient (r) indicate the strength and direction of a relationship between variables? The correlation coefficient ranges from 1 to +1. The more positive a correlation is, the closer it will be to +1, and negative correlations are closer to 1. Stronger correlations are closer to the absolute value of 1. “Correlation does not imply causation”: just because two variables are strongly correlated does not mean that one results in the other. What method allows one to assess causeandeffect relationships between variables? Experimental method Intervening/third variables: unmeasured variables that may be responsible for a correlation Independent variable: the variable that is manipulated Dependent variable: the variable that is measured Control group: the group that is not manipulated, and acts as a baseline for the experiment Experimental group: the group in which the independent variable is manipulated Operational definitions: precise definitions, important because results may differ depending on how variables are defined and measured Confounding variables: uncontrolled factors that may influence the dependent variable; may confuse interpretation of results Random assignment: probabilistic equivalence between groups in terms of backgrounds and experiences; reduces the impact of some confounding variables Placebo effect: when treatment has an effect due to expectations Double blind design: both subjects and experimenters are unaware which subjects are in experimental versus control groups What information does a test of statistical significance provide? What is the typical cutoff point at which results are deemed statistically significant in psychology? Statistically significant tests are a way to eliminate randomness as an explanation for results. The cutoff point at which results are deemed significant is p ≤ 0.5 (means that the results would occur 5% or less of the time, making the results probably not random) Why aren’t statistically significant results necessarily practically significant? Statistically significant results may not be meaningful or important What publication bias exists among scientific journals and why is it a problem? Statistically significant results are more likely to be published, skewing the selection of published works (not a representative sample of experiments) Chapter 2 Biological psychology: the study of how biological factors influence behavior and thinking What are the major functions of the nervous system? Input (information the nervous system receives), Processing (analyses input), Output (responds to input) What two general types of cells make up the nervous system? What are the general functions of these cells? Glia and neurons make up the nervous system. Glia support, guide growth, as well as provide nutrition to neurons, while neurons receive, process, and transmit information Structures of a neuron: Dendrites: receive information from other neurons Cell body/soma: control center Axon: fivers that send action potentials away from the cell body Myelin sheath: insulation for axons Terminal buttons: contain neurotransmitters, located at the end of axons Synapse/synaptic cleft: gap between neurons Receptors: bind to neurotransmitters How does information typically flow through a neuron and between neurons? Action potentials travel down an axon to the synapse. The terminal button stimulates the release of neurotransmitters, which cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the receiving neuron. This causes the atoms to excite or inhibit a new action potential. Excess transmitters are absorbed (reuptake), drift away, or are broken down by enzymes. Action potentials: electrical signals that cause the release of neurotransmitters Postsynaptic potentials: electrical charges that occur when neurotransmitter binds to receptors on postsynaptic neuron; excitatory and inhibitory potentials can cause new action potentials Reuptake: absorption of neurotransmitters by presynaptic nerves Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that carry messages between neurons Acetylcholine Acetylcholine (ACh): memory Norepinephrine (Ne): attention, mood Serotonin (5HT): mood, sensory perception Dopamine (DA): reward/pleasure, movement GABA: inhibitory Glutamate (Glu): excitatory Endorphins: pain relief Hormones: chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream *Know various divisions, subdivisions, and structures of the nervous system and their functions What constitutes the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system? What are the divisions and subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system? What are the functions of these divisions/subdivisions? The central nervous system is made up of the spinal cord and the brain. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the somatic division and the autonomic division. The somatic division carries messages from the senses to the CNS, then to skeletal muscles. It is responsible for conscious sensation and voluntary movement. The autonomic division carries messages between the CNS and internal organs, and is made up of the sympathetic system (activates body) and the parasympathetic system (calms the body). Spinal cord: column of neurons that facilitates communication between the brain and PNS Three divisions of the brain: forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain Ventricles: fluidfilled spaces in the brain Cerebrospinal fluid: surrounds brain and spinal cord What are some ways that the brains of more cognitively complex species such as humans tend to differ from the brains of less complex species? Cognitively complex species have larger forebrains and prefrontal cortexes Brainstem: hindbrain and midbrain Medulla: responsible for heartbeat, breathing Reticular formation: responsible for consciousness Forebrain Cerebral hemispheres: left and right hemispheres, each hemisphere controls opposite half of body Corpus callosum: connects hemispheres Thalamus: sensory relay station Limbic system: controls memory and emotion Hypothalamus: autonomic, pituitary, and endocrine control; responsible for motivated behaviors and maintenance functions Hippocampus: responsible for memory Amygdala: generates proper emotional response to stimuli Basal ganglia: controls motor functions Cerebral cortex: outer surface of brain Sulci: grooves on cerebral cortex Gyri: bumps on cerebral cortex What is the relationship between the size of a species’ cortex and genetic control of behavior? The cerebral cortex in cognitively complex species is much larger with more folds and surface area, which allows for mental processing and thinking Lobes of the brain: Frontal: primary motor cortex, controls voluntary movement Parietal: primary somatosensory cortex, receives sensory information from skin Temporal: primary auditory cortex Occipital: primary visual cortex Contralateral control/input: left hemisphere controls right side of body and vice versa Association cortex: involved in higher level function, can process more complex things Prefrontal cortex: association area responsible for thinking, planning, and emotions Phineas Gage: discovered functions of prefrontal cortex Aphasia: Problems understanding/producing language, results from damage to language association areas Broca's aphasia: damaged ability to express oneself fluently (spoken and written), slow but meaningful speech Wernicke's aphasia: difficult with language comprehension, nonsensical speech Where are the language association areas that we covered? Left frontal and left temporal lobes Lateralization: one hemisphere controls a function more than the other does What has happened to splitbrain patients? What are the effects of the operation? What are they able to do and not do during the special testing procedures we covered in class? Splitbrain patients have had their corpus collosum severed to control epilepsy. The result is brain hemispheres acting semiindependently and sometimes an alien/renegade left hand. A patient that sees the word HEART will report that they saw the word ART but will point to HE with their left hand when asked to point to what they saw. Plasticity: ability of the brain to change as the result of and experience How do environment and experience affect the brain? How does the brain compensate/recover when injured? Experience and environment shape the brain, and plasticity allows the reorganization of neurons after damage has occurred. Other neurons can take on the function of neurons that have died. Hemispherectomy: procedure to remove half a brain performed on children with severe epilepsy and aren't responding to medication, outcomes include partial paralysis of the opposite side of the body
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