Philosophy Chapter 3 January 25th, 2016
Deductive arguments – purpose is to create a conclusion that follows truth premises
Inductive arguments – purpose is to argue but doesn’t necessarily prove the conclusion is true.
∙ Often generalizations
∙ Have to evaluate them
Ways to Tell Arguments Apart
Signs that differ deductive and inductive:
1. indicator words If you want to learn more check out Who acquired land in the famous louisiana purchase?
2. look at what the argument is trying to achieve
3. structure of the argument (Does the premise follow the conclusion? How does the conclusion interact?)
Common Deductive Forms
Modus Tollens - “if…then…therefore”
∙ conditional deductive argument
Affirming the Consequent:
o “If Riley practices, he will win the game. He will win the game, therefore he is going to practice.”
Denying the Antecedent:
o “If Riley practices, he will win the game. He isn’t going to practice, therefore he won’t win the game.”
∙ if a is not the case of b, then b is not the case of a. Hypothetical Syllogism – “if…if…therefore”
∙ Something IS accurate IF something else is accurate ∙ if a, then b. If b, then c. Therefore if a, then c. We also discuss several other topics like What does pasteur's experiment demonstrate?
Categorical Syllogism: has one or more clear-cut statements
Philosophy Chapter 4 February 1, 2016
***On a test make sure you can identify an argument form (lists will be provided so you don’t have to memorize) We also discuss several other topics like Who was the first woman executed in connecticut for being perceived as a witch?
∙ Understand validity
∙ Statements are true or false
Deductive arguments are valid or invalid (good or bad) Examples:
All crows are birds, all birds are animals, therefore all crows are animals. – good, valid deductive
All crows are birds, all birds are animals, therefore all animals are crows. – poor, invalid deductive
The weatherman said it was going to snow today with a 90% chance. Therefore, it will snow today. – inductive (counter argument = it isn’t a 100% chance and weather predictions aren’t always accurate) We also discuss several other topics like In the study of human species, what does holism mean?
∙ Good, valid, premises should support that the conclusion is true
***Not all valid arguments are true in reality. Be sure that you are looking at the structure of the argument and whether the premise supports the conclusion, not that the whole argument is in reality factual. We also discuss several other topics like In which ways is reality considered when it comes to perception process?
If you want to learn more check out What do you call the study of all aspects of environment?
∙ If your premise is false, no one will believe your conclusion is true
“Sound” deductive – true premise and it’s valid
∙ These are the arguments we want to make
∙ The only argument that can’t be valid is when the conclusion is false while the premises are true.
***The only arguments that CAN NOT be VALID are statements with TRUE PREMISES followed by a FALSE CONCLUSION!
∙ All types of argument combinations can be invalid ∙ Be as imaginative with possible counterattacks, because then you’re more likely to get the answer right
Modus Tollens are always valid argument forms
TEST IS WEDNESDAY THE 10TH, I WILL UPLOAD AN ADITIONAL STUDY GUIDE. SO BE ON THE LOOKOUT