Social Psychology, Exam 1 Study Guide
Social Psychology, Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 221
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmberNicole on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 221 at East Carolina University taught by Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Social Psychology: The scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people Theory: framework of understanding that allows us to assign meaning to facts o Scientific explanation that connects and organizes existing observations and suggests fruitful paths for future research o spread by consciences (talking to others) Scientific Method: Method of inquiry (topic of interest) o Most important concept: skepticism (different perspectives): see things for what you want, not what they might be o Worst aspect: forming a hypothesis before doing the study (biased) o Do not let objective reality around you impact you and your study Hypothesis: A researcher’s prediction about what he or she will find Self-concept: A mental representation capturing our views and beliefs about ourselves Reflected appraisal process: The process through which people come to know themselves by observing or imagining how others view them Social cognition: The process of thinking about and making sense of oneself and others Cognitive Heuristic: A mental shortcut used to make a judgment o Availability heuristic: A mental shortcut people use to estimate the likelihood of an event by the ease with which instances of that event come to mind o Representativeness heuristic: A mental shortcut people use to classify something as belonging to a certain category to the extent that it is similar to a typical case from that category Self-fulfilling prophecy: When an initially inaccurate expectation leads to actions that cause the expectation to come true Correlation: The extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another True Experiment: randomly selects participants and assigns them to a random group via random assignment o Equal groups = equal distribution Attribution theories: Theories designed to explain how people determine the causes of behavior; cause and effect behavior o Situation vs. Disposition Fundamental attribution error (Correspondent Bias): The tendency for observers to overestimate the causal influence of personality factors on behavior and to underestimate the causal role of situational influences o Actor-observer difference Self-serving bias: We take good credit for good outcomes and blame others for bad outcomes (dropping groceries) Self-esteem: Our attitude toward ourselves Social norms: A rule or expectation for appropriate social behavior Case study: An intensive examination of an individual or group Field study: The manipulation of independent variables using unknowing participants in natural settings Archival study: Examination of systematic data originally collected for other purposes (such as marriage licenses or arrest records) Naturalistic observation: Recording everyday behaviors as they unfold in their natural settings Random assignment: The practice of assigning participants to treatments so each person has an equal chance of being in any condition Socialization: The process whereby a culture teaches its members about its beliefs, customs, habits, and language Attention: The process of consciously focusing on aspects of our environment or ourselves Automaticity: The ability of a behavior or cognitive process to operate without conscious guidance once it’s put into motion Social comparison: The process through which people come to know themselves by comparing their abilities, attitudes, and beliefs with those of others Counterfactual thinking: The process of imagining alternative, “might have been” versions of actual events Motivation: The force that moves people toward desired outcomes Schema: A mental representation capturing the general characteristics of a particular class of episodes, events, or individuals Social desirability bias: The tendency for people to say what they believe is appropriate or acceptable Social learning perspective: A theoretical viewpoint that focuses on past learning experiences as determinants of a person’s social behaviors False consensus effect: The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with us Self-perception process: The process through which people come to know themselves by observing or imagining how others view them Social constructivist: We create our understanding of the world o We create knowledge by consistent o Ex: sex vs. gender Sociocultural perspective: The theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in influences from larger social groups Culture: The beliefs, customs, habits, and languages shared by the people living in a particular time and place Evolutionary Perspective: A theoretical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in the physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce Natural Selection: The process by which characteristics that help animals survive and reproduce are passed on to their offspring Adaptation: A characteristic that is well designed to help an animal survive and reproduce in a particular environment Social cognitive perspective: A theoretical viewpoint that focuses on the mental processes involved in paying attention to, interpreting, and remembering social experiences Person: Features or characteristics that individuals carry into social situations Situation: Environmental events or circumstances outside the person Descriptive Method: Procedure for measuring or recording behaviors, thoughts, and feelings in their natural state (including naturalistic observations, case studies, archival studies, surveys, and psychological tests) Experimental Method: Procedure for uncovering causal processes by systematically manipulating some aspect of a situation Observer Bias: Error introduced into measurement when an observer overemphasizes behaviors he or she expects to find and fails to notice behaviors he or she does not expect Generalizability: The extent to which the findings of a particular research study extend to other similar circumstances or cases Representative Sample: A group of respondents having characteristics that match those of the larger population the researcher wants to describe Psychological Test: Instrument for assessing a person’s abilities, cognitions, or motivations Reliability: The consistency of the score yielded by a psychological test Validity: The extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure Correlation Coefficient: A mathematical expression of the relationship between two variables Experiment: A research method in which the research sets out to systematically manipulate one source of influence while holding others constant Independent Variable: The variable manipulated by the experimenter Dependent Variable: The variable measured by the experimenter Internal Validity: The extent to which an experiment allows confident statements about cause and effect Confound: A variable that systematically changes along the independent variable, potentially leading to a mistaken conclusion about the effect of the independent variable External Validity: The extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized to other circumstances Demand Characteristic: Cue that makes participants aware of how the experimenter expects them to behave Debriefing: A discussion of procedures hypotheses, and participant reactions at the completion of the study Goal: A desired outcome; something one wishes to achieve or accomplish Motive: A high-level goal fundamental to social survival Exemplar: A mental representation of a specific episode, event, or individual Priming: The process of activating knowledge or goals, of making them ready for use Chronically Accessible: The state of being easily activated, or primed, for use Attitudes: Favorable or unfavorable evaluations of a particular person, object, event, or idea Emotions: Relatively intense feelings characterized by physiological arousal and complex cognitions Moods: Relatively long-lasting feelings that are diffuse and not directed toward particular targets Counterfactual Thinking: The process of imagining alternative, “might have been” versions of actual events Self-regulation: The process through which people select, monitor, and adjust their strategies in an attempt to reach their goals Self-presentation: The process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us Affordance: An opportunity or threat provided by a situation Descriptive Norm: A norm that defines what is commonly done in a situation Pluralistic Ignorance: The phenomenon in which people in a group misperceive the beliefs of others because everyone acts inconsistently with their beliefs Injunctive norm: A norm that describes what is commonly approved or disapproved in a situation Scripted situation: A situation in which certain events are expected to occur in a particular sequence Individualistic culture: A culture that socializes its members to think of themselves as individuals and to give priority to their personal goals Collectivistic culture: A culture that socializes its members to think of themselves in terms of their relationships and as members of the larger social group, and to prioritize the concerns of their relationship partners and groups before their own Person-situation fit: The extent to which a person and a situation are compatible Dispositional inference: The judgment that a person’s behavior has been caused by an aspect of that person’s personality Anchoring and adjustment heuristic: A mental shortcut through which people begin with a rough estimation as a starting point and then adjust this estimate to take into account unique characteristics of the present situation Downward social comparison: The process of comparing ourselves with those who are less well off Upward social comparison: The process of comparing ourselves with those who are better off Correspondent inference theory: The theory that proposes that people determine whether a behavior corresponds to an action’s internal disposition by asking whether 1) the behavior was intended 2) the behavior’s consequences were foreseeable 3) the behavior was freely chosen 4) the behavior occurred despite countervailing forces Covariation model: The theory that proposes that people determine the cause of an actor’s behavior by assessing wheter other people act in similar ways (consensus), the actor behaves similarly across time in the same situation (consistency) Discounting principle: The judgmental rule that states that as the number of possible causes for an event increases, our confidence that any particular cause is the true one should decrease Augmenting principle: The judgmental rule that states that if an event occurs despite the presence of strong opposing forces, we should give more weight to those possible causes that lead toward the event
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