Popular in The West in the World
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
EXAM DATE: WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 2016. Classical Greece Athenian democracy—Assembly. o Made laws. o Decided upon taxes. o Expenditure of public funds. o War and peace. Jury system. o Most significant contributions to western society. o Male citizens over 30 years old volunteered. o Jury panels chosen by lot for each case. o Minimum 201601 people. Ostracism. o Protect democracy from overly ambitious politicians. Pericles. o Democracy. o Overwhelmingly glowing of judicial system. o Champion in democracy. Plato: The Republic. o The common man lacked wisdom; was not guided by reason but by desire. o The common man chose leaders for nonessential reasons, such as persuasive speech, good looks, wealth and family background. o Believed that the duties of the government should be performed by philosophers who would approach human problems with reason and wisdom. o In his ideal state, philosopherkings would rule, along with wellgoverned state. Archaic style of sculpture. o Influenced by Egyptianstyle statues. o Stiff. o Straight posture. o Not very detailed. Classical style of sculpture. o Has movement. o Toned and defined. o Emotional. o Idealism. o Naturalism + Realism + Idealism. Parthenon. o Dedicated to Athes goddess of Athens, war and wisdom. Socrates. o Engaged in conversations that were made significant in thinking critically. o A form of thinking that uses a question and answer format to enable people to reach conclusions y using their own reasoning. Herodotus and Thucydides. o Herodotus. Founded a ready market for his histories in Athens. o Thucydides. Followed suit, using his time to exile to write a masterfuland scathingly critical history of the war between his polis and Sparta. The Roman Empire/Christianity Roman law. o Civil law. Law of Rome and its citizens, o The law of nations. Not specific to Rome but extended to all people of the world regardless of their origins and ethnicities. o Natural law. Product not of judicial practice but of legal philosophy. Building and engineering feats. o Movement of troops. o Key use for trade. o Minimize natural barriers. o Built so that their creation would last for eternity. Bridges. Aquaducts. Housing and food for upperclass Romans. o Reclined and dined. o Inhabited town houses. o The more amount of meat signified how wealthy someone was. Banqueting, housing, food, and entertainment for lowerclass Romans. o Insulae. o Very little meat. o A lot of bread. o Cheese. o Grapes. o Wine. o Olives. “Bread and Circuses”. o Augustus distributed free grain to 200,000 people in Rome. o Occurred every month. o Free entertainment. Seneca. o “There is nothing more harmful to one’s character than attendance at some spectacle, because rises more lazily creep into your soul while you are being entertained. When I return from some spectacle, I am greedier, more aggressive and more cruel and inhuman.” Vibia Perpetua. o Her lack of loyalty to the emperor was seen as treason. o Her faith trumped her sense of authority. o Became a saint after her death. Medieval Society Medieval conception of society. o Those who fight. o Those why pray. o Those who work. Vassalage. o Ceremony in which a knight pledged his personal loyalty and military service to a nobleman. Fief. o Land containing a manor/ manors with serfs (unfree peasants). Truce of God. o Placed a ban on warfare from midafternoon on Saturday until daybreak on Monday. o The ban was later extended to Wednesday evening through Monday morning as well as the season of Advent and Lent. From Chevalerie to Chivalry. o Chivalry offered a way of legitimizing social positions attained through bravery and skill. o Redefined as: Bravery. Loyalty. Generosity. Civility. Manor. o Agricultural estates. Conditions of serfdom. o Bound to the land; they couldn’t leave the land without the Lord’s consent. o Under the jurisdiction of the Lord’s court manorial court. o The power of the Lord extended into personal matters, such as marriage. Although free to marry, a serf couldn’t marry a person outside the manor without the Lord’s permission. o The serf owed the Lord LABOR. o The serf owed the Lord feudal dues for the use of the Lord’s mill and oven, he would have to give a portion of the grain or bread to the Lord. Work and food for serfs. o 117 days out of the year. o Worked on the land wherever needed. New technologies/ harnessing people. o The heavy, wheeled plow developed in this era could cut and turn the rich soil of northern Europe far more effectively than traditional Mediterranean plows. o Merged into large, common fields farmed collectively by entire villages. Universities/University Life University of Bologna. o First university established in 1158, Italy. Universities—curriculum/method of instruction/degrees/career options. o Got to pick out the master they learned from. o All schools studied the seven liberal arts: Grammar. Rhetoric. Mathematics. Geometry. Music. Astronomy. Logic. o Received a BA after four years and pass a comprehension oral exam. o Received a MA after two more years (total of eight years) and pass a comprehensive oral exam. o Received a doctrine in law, medicine and theology after 10 more years of study. Robert de Sorbon's regulations. o Residents would adhere to a dress code. o They cannot speak too loudly when eating together. o No women in the dorm rooms. o Must return books back if borrowed in good condition; cannot take books off of campus. Student behavior/commentary about student behavior. o Good students: Lived a very simple life revolved around they school work. o Bad students: Did not pay their dues to their masters or the school. Sent their money on frivolous things. Went to church to see women. Started societies with other bad students. Learned things they should not have learned. Themes in the letters between fathers and sons. o Fathers to their sons: Sons needed to change their behavior. Study more. Stop spending time doing anything that wasn’t school work. o Sons to fathers: School is expensive. Parents need to support their children financially. Fear of excommunication if their dues are not paid for. Living expenses are high. Medieval Religion Relics. o The remains or personal effect of a saint. o Extremely valuable objects. o Contains special and cultural powers. Pilgrimage. o A journey to a place (church, cathedral, shrine or monastery) that contained relics. o Seeking assistance from a saint. Gothic architecture. o Flying buttress. o Pointed arch. o Ribbed building. o Stainedglass windows. Cathedral building. o Charted Cathedral. Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont. o “Let those who have been accustomed to wage unjust private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have begun long ago. Let those for a long time have been robbers now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians.” o “All who de by the way, whether by land or by sea or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. That I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested.” Crusades—First Crusade. o 10961099. o Adventure. o Fame, glory, riches. o Land. o Religious experience. The Consequences of the Crusades (textbook 200201). o The crusaders did not want to interfere with the caravan routes that wound through their new territories. o Westerners learned new techniques of fortification. o Muslims learned new methods of siege warfare and new respect for the uses of heave cavalry. Sample questions: 1. Pericles and Plato believed that democracy was the best form of government for Athens. a. True b. False 2. Vibia Perpetua’s account is a primary source document that provides information about a. The everyday life of an Athenian woman. b. The lifestyle of an upperclass Roman woman. c. The trial and imprisonment of a Christian martyr. d. Women’s work on a medieval manor. 3. Which of the following statements about the conditions of serfdom is false? a. Serfs were subject to their lord's court of law. b. Serfs were required to work on the lord’s land. c. Serfs had to pay feudal dues to their lord. d. None of the above.
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