Evolutionary Biology Test 1 Study Guide
Evolutionary Biology Test 1 Study Guide 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adam Rodenberg on Monday February 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Sears in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Evolutionary Bio Test 1 1/12/16 Top hat, mindmeister, Evolution change in species over time HIV 1/14/16 2 world views, special creation and descent with modification How to distinguish these processes through micro and macro evolution Microevolutionary change variation across generations. (xbeak size through time) Macroevolutionary change variation across generations can lead to speciation over longer time scales The function of many genes have been lost in humans over time Stickleback same species but have different level of back armor, depends on only 2 genes, different areas have differing traits Evidence of speciation very similar animals that live in different environments but have some adaptations Speciation matters bc it helps us track human diseases Modern birds related to theropod dinosaurs Turtle shell and fused ribcage Macroevolution 1/19/16 Homology structural similarity despite difference in function Homoplasy similarity in the characters found in different species that is due to convergent evolution, parallelism, or reversal not common descent Norrell and Novacek (1992) predictions in fossil recofound in 18 out of 19 cases that the actual order of appearance of traits was highly correlated with that which was predicted. These findings are consistent with the idea of descent from common ancestors.) Exons-coding regions Introns- noncoding regions Almost universal genetic code across all organisms Everything we have today shares the same genetic code with ancestors Uniformitarianism- the assumption that processes identical to those at work today are responsible for events that occurred in the past- James Hutton Natural selection/ Darwin’s postulates (!!!!!!!!!!!! NEED TO KNOW!!!!!!!) 1 The individuals within a population differ from one another. (variation) 2 The differences are, at least in part, passed from parents to offspring. (heritable variation) 3 Some individuals are more successful at surviving and reproducing than others. 4 The successful individuals are not merely lucky; instead, they succeed because of the variant traits they have inherited and will pass to their offspring. Mayr’s Logic Theory of Natural Selection Fact 1: All species have such great potential fertility that their population size would increase exponentially if all individuals that are born would again reproduce successfully. Fact 2: Except for minor annual fluctuations and occasional major fluctuations, populations normally display stability. Fact 3: Natural resources are limited. In a stable environment they remain relatively constant. Inference 1: Since more individuals are produced than can be supported by the available resources but population size remains stable, it means that there must be a fierce struggle for existence among individuals of a population, resulting in the survival of a part, often a very small part, of the progeny of each generation. 1/21/16 Testing darwins postulates on finches in the Galapagos Testing postulate 1 there are variations within the populations in nature in finches Testing postulate 2 some of the variation btwn individuals is heritable differences in expression of BMP4 results in different sizes of beaks Testing postulate 3 Natural selection acts on individuals, consequences occur in populations Although selection acts on existing traits, new traits can evolve Sometimes natural selection has negative effects, (x females prefer to mate with male guppies with larger penises, but they swim slower and a higher predation rate) The modern synthesis Individuals vary as a result of mutation creating new alleles, and segregation and independent assortment shuffling alleles into new combinations. Individuals pass their alleles on to their offspring intact. In every generation, some individuals are more successful at surviving and reproducing than others. The individuals most successful at surviving and reproducing are those with the alleles and allelic combinations that best adapt them to their environment. 1/26/16 Arguments against evolution Some things are too complex to evolve through natural selection (vertebrate eyeball wouldn’t have been useful in more primitive pieces or parts)early organisms had much more primitive eyes, only useful for detecting light irreducible complexity removing some compnents render something nonfunctionalmany organisms have less complex versions of structures thought to be irreducible gene cooption unscientific no testable predictions violates second law of thermodynamics things become more complex no one has ever seen speciation, unproven, faithbased – evidence has been shown in experiments, Phylogenies, roots, greatest common ancestor, bifurcations/nodes leads to descendants Monophyletic groups sets of taxa that include an ancestor and all its descendants Distance matrix method of neighbor joining Bootstrapping the generation of artificial data sets by random sampling, with replacement, from the actual data set 1/28/16 Bayesian methods for phylogenies P(tree|data)= [P( data|tree)P(tree)]/[P(data)] Molecular clock when genes are copied, it occurs imperfectly 4 chapters, 50 questions, all MC, come from Q bank, main concepts, read chapters, focus on lectures but also if its in the book know it, know the examples for the concepts, questions at end of chapter, websites at end of chapter, know the quiz questions, likely in more detail, know life cycle of HIV , how HIV virus evolved, how to take that and fight it, know general cycle for HIV, people and experiments know Darwin,Wallace, peter&rosemary grant, Ernst mayr, etc the major ones, probably not names from case studies, concepts behind statistical methods of phylogenies, interpret them, but wont do the “math”, parsimonious methodknow, apo/plesio/synapomorphy difference, professor provides scantron, darwins postulates, case studies be familiar with them, know the lists of concepts from lectures, check mindmeister for lists of people, etc.,
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